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Full text of "Title 24, Part 2, Vol. 2, 2010 California Building Code"



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California Cbcle of ReguldtiQiis 
Title 24, Part 2, \tolume 2 of 2 

California Building Standards Commission; : 
Based on the 2009 International Building God^® ■ 
2010 California Historical Building Codev Title 24, Pa^^ 
2010 California Existi% Building CbdeJTitle 24, R^t 




\: 







INTERNATIONAL-- 
CODE COUNCIL' 






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/'. . '.A \ 



Xi> 



,^ : : : Effective Date: January IJ, 2011 
(For Errata ariySupplemfents, see History. Note: Afiipendix) 



2010 California Existing Building Code 
California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Part 10 



First Printing: June 2010 



ISBN 978-1-58001-974-3 



Copyright © 2010 

Held by 

California Building Standards Commission 

2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130 

Sacramento, CA 95833-2936 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2010 California Existing Building Code contains substantial copyrighted material from the 2009 
International Existing Building Code, which is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council, Inc. Without advance 
written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in any form or by 
any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example and not limitation, photo- 
copying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy material ^^^^^diiM^^ 
fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFi^r 
(422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Existing Building Code" 
are trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



PREFACE 

This document is Part 2 of 12 parts of the official triennial compilation and publication of the adoptions, amendments 
and repeal of administrative regulations to California Code of Regulations, Title 24, also referred to as the California 
Building Standards Code. This Part is known as the California Building Code. 

The California Building Standards Code is published in its entirety every three years by order of the California legisla- 
ture, with supplements published in intervening years. The California legislature delegated authority to various state 
agencies, boards, commissions and departments to create building regulations to implement the State's statutes. These 
building regulations or standards, have the same force of law, and take effect 1 80 days after their publication unless oth- 
erwise stipulated. The California Building Standards Code applies to occupancies in the State of California as anno- 
tated. 

A city, county or city and county may establish more restrictive building standards reasonably necessary because of 
local climatic, geological or topographical conditions. Findings of the local condition(s) and the adopted local building 
standard(s) must be filed with the California Building Standards Commission to become effective and may not be effec- 
tive sooner than the effective date of this edition of California Building Standards Code. Local building standards that 
were adopted and applicable to previous editions of the California Building Standards Code do not apply to this edition 
without appropriate adoption and the required filing. 

Should you find publication (e.g., typographical) errors or inconsistencies in this code or wish to offer conmients 
toward improving its format, please address your comments to: 

California Building Standards Commission 

2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130 

Sacramento, CA 95833-2936 

Phone: (916) 263-0916 
Fax: (916) 263-0959 

Web Page: www.bsc.ca.gov 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The 2010 California Building Standards Code (Code) was developed through the outstanding collaborative efforts of the Depart- 
ment of Housing and Community Development, the Division of State Architect, the Office of the State Fire Marshal, the Office of 
Statewide Health Planning and Development, the California Energy Commission, and the Building Standards Commission (Com- 
mission). 

This collaborative effort included the assistance of the Conimission's Code Advisory Committees and many other volunteers that 
worked tirelessly to assist the Commission in the production of this Code. 

Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger 

Members of the Building Standards Commission 

Acting Secretary Tom Sheehy - Chair 

Isam Hasenin - Vice-Chair Christina Jamison 

James Barthman Stephen Jensen 

Craig Dailey Michael Paravagna 

Susan Dowty Richard Sawhill 

Tony Hoffman Steven Winkel 

David Walls - Executive Director 
Thomas Morrison - Deputy Executive Director 

For questions on California state agency amendments; please refer to the contact list on the following page. 
2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE III 



California Code of Regulations, Title 24 

California Agency Information Contact List 



California Energy Commission 

Energy Hotline (800) 772-3300 

or (916) 654-5106 
Building Efficiency Standards 
Appliance Efficiency Standards 
Compliance Manual/Forms 

California State Lands Commission 

Marine Oil Terminals (562) 499-6317 

California State Library 

Resources and Information (916) 654-0261 

Government Publication Section (916) 654-0069 

Corrections Standards Authority 

Local Adult Jail Standards (916) 324-1914 

LocalJuvenile Facility Standards (916) 324-1914 

Department of Consumer Affairs — Acupuncture Board 

Office Standards (916) 445-3021 

Department of Consumer Affairs — Board of Pharmacy 

Pharmacy Standards (916) 574-7900 

Department of Consumer Affairs — Bureau of Bartering 
and Cosmetolog y 

Barber and Beauty Shop and (916) 574-7570 

College Standards (800) 952-5210 

Department of Consumer Affairs — Bureau of Home 
Furnishings and Thermal Insulation 

Insulation Testing Standards (916) 574-2041 

Department of Consumer Affairs — Structural Pest 
Control Board 

Structural Standards (800) 737-8188 

(916) 561-8708 

Department of Consumer Affairs — Veterinary 
Medical Board 

Veterinary Hospital Standards (916) 263-2610 

Department of Food and Agriculture 

Meat & Poultry Packing Plant Standards . . . (916) 654-1447 
Dairy Standards (916) 654-1447 



Department of Public Health 

Organized Camps Standards (916) 449-5661 

Public Swimming Pools Standards (916) 449-5693 

Asbestos Standards (510) 620-2874 

Department of Housing and Community Development 

Residential — Hotels, Motels, Apartments 

Single-Family Dwellings (916) 445-9471 

Permanent Structures in Mobilehome 

and Special Occupancy Parks (916) 445-9471 

Factory-Built Housing, Manufactured 

Housing and Commercial Modular (916) 445-3338 

Mobilehomes — Permits & Inspections 

Northern Region (916) 255-2501 

Southern Region (951) 782-4420 

Employee Housing Standards (916) 445-9471 

Department of Water Resources 

Gray Water Installations Standards (916) 651-9667 

Division of the State Architect — Access Compliance 

Access Compliance Standards (916) 445-8100 

Division of the State Architect — Structural Safety 

Public Schools Standards (916) 445-8100 

Essential Services Building Standards (916) 445-8100 

Community College Standards (916) 445-8100 

Division of the State Architect — State Historical 
Building Safety Board 

Alternative Building Standards (916) 445-8100 

Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development 

Hospital Standards (916) 440-8409 

Skilled Nursing Facility Standards (916) 440-8409 

Clinic Standards (916) 440-8409 

Permits (916) 440-8409 

Office of the State Fire Marshal 

Code Development and Analysis (916) 445-8200 

Fire Safety Standards (916) 445-8200 

Fireplace Standards (916) 445-8200 

Day-Care Centers Standards (916) 445-8200 

Exit Standards (916) 445-8200 



IV 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



Distilling the code review process down to a methodical, sequential list of considerations is generally problematic. In many cases, 
related provisions from various chapters of the code must be considered simultaneously, or reconsidered later in the process to 
arrive at the correct classification or determination. Any number of acceptable alternatives may exist for construction of the building 
and its specific features. Each choice provided by the code must be evaluated for its specific impact on other aspects of the build- 
ing's analysis. With a basic understanding of the interrelationship of the various chapters, the practiced code user will make an initial 
assessment of the building as a first step of the code review process. The following outUne may be helpful as a guide for the effective 
use of the IBC, with the understanding that final resolution of each step is often dependant on subsequent steps. 

The following process begins with a brief discussion of the key administrative areas of the code. The process addressing techni- 
cal provisions is divided into two distinct areas of analysis, the nonstructural provisions of the IBC and the structural provisions. 
Although reference is not made to all provisions set forth in the IBC, the process is intended to be representative of an approach to 
using the IBC in an effective manner. 

Administrative Provisions 

Prior to any analysis based on the technical provisions of the IBC, it is important that the fundamental administrative aspects of the 
code be reviewed. It is critical that the basis of technical decisions be consistent with the approach established in IBC Chapter 1, 
including: 

• Scope of the IBC 

• Intent of the IBC 

• Applicability of the IBC 

• Duties and powers of the building official 

• Alternate materials, designs and methods of construction 

Nonstructural Provisions 

1. Classify the building for occupancy and construction type. The first step in analyzing a building for code compliance is its 
proper classification based on anticipated use(s) and construction features. 

Identify the distinct and varied uses of the building. The uses that will occur within the building must be identified, evaluated and 
classified into one or more of the distinct occupancy classifications estabhshed in the IBC. Some buildings will be classified as sin- 
gle-occupancy, where there is only one applicable occupancy classification. Others will be considered as mixed-occupancy due to 
the presence of two or more uses that are classified into different occupancy groups. 

Sec. 302.1 Classify the building into one or more occupancy groups. Although there are 10 general occupancy groups, 
many of the groups are subdivided into sub-groups to allow for a more exacting analysis of the building under consideration. 

Sec. 303 Group A 



Sec. 304 


Group B 


Sec. 305 


Group E 


Sec. 306 


Group F 


Sec. 307 


Group H 


Sec. 308 


Group I 


Sec. 309 


Group M 


Sec. 310 


Group R 


Sec. 311 


Group S 


Sec. 312 


Group U 



Identify the building's type of construction based on the materials of construction and degree of fire-resistance for the 
building's major elements. The primary structural frame, exterior walls, interior walls, floor construction and roof construc- 
tion, as applicable, must be evaluated in regard to their degree of fire-resistance and materials of construction in order to classify 
the building based upon type of construction. 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE v 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



Sec. 602.1 Classify the building into a single type of construction. Five general types of construction have been established 
and further subdivided into nine specific construction types. The classification of construction type is based on a combination of 
the degree of fire-resistance and the type of materials of the key building elements. 

Sec. 602 Type of construction based on materials of construction 

Table 601 Type of construction based on fire rating of the building elements 

Sec. 603 Combustible materials in Type I and II buildings 

Sec. 1505 Verify classification of roof covering. Roof coverings are typically required to provide protection against moderate 
or light fire exposures from the exterior. Their minimum required classification is based upon the type of construction of the 
building. 

2. Determine if the building is to be fully sprinklered. Many of the code provisions vary based upon the presence of an automatic 
sprinkler system throughout, or in specific portions of, the building. 

Sec. 903.2 Determine if the building requires a fire sprinkler system. Many of the mandates for the installation of a sprin- 
kler system are based upon the occupancy or occupancies that occur within the building. The provisions will often require some 
degree of occupant load and fire area determination. Other conditions may also trigger a required sprinkler installation, such as 
building height or the lack of exterior openings. Table 903.2.13 should also be consulted. 

If a sprinkler system is not required, review for potential code modifications if a sprinkler system is installed. There are a 
significant number of benefits provided by the code if a sprinkler system is installed. An initial analysis of the building will typi- 
cally allow for an early determination of the value of such sprinkler benefits, including: 

Sec. 504.2 Story and height increase (reduced type of construction) 

Sec. 506.3 Allowable area increase (reduced type of construction) 

Sec. 507.3 Unlimited area building (reduced type of construction) 

Sec. 1018.1 Elimination of corridor fire-resistance rating 

3. Locate the building on the site. The location of the building(s) on the lot is fundamental to the degree of fire exposure to and 
from adjoining buildings and lots. In addition, the building's location influences the amount of fire department access that can be 
provided from the exterior of the building. 

Sec. 503.1.2 Determine the number of buUdings on the site. Where two or more buildings are located on the same lot, they can 
be evaluated as a single building or multiple buildings. The type of construction requirements may differ based upon which of 
the two methods is utilized. 

Sec. 602.1 Determine minimum required fire rating of exterior v^alls. The fire separation distance is the measurement used 
in evaluating the necessary fire rating for exterior walls. It is measured from the building to the lot line, to the center line of a pub- 
lic way, or to an imaginary assumed line between two buildings on the same lot. Projections and parapets, if applicable, are also 
regulated. 

Sec. 704.8 Determine exterior opening protection requirements. Openings in exterior walls are regulated by the fire separa- 
tion distance and the rating of the exterior wall in which they are located. 

Sec. 506.2 Determine frontage increase for allowable area purposes. Utilized primarily for fire department access, open 
space adjacent to a building's perimeter provides for an increase in the allowable area. 

4. Verify building's construction type by determining the allowable building size. The permitted types of construction are pri- 
marily based upon the occupancy classifications involved, the building's height and the building's floor area. Other conditions may 
also affect the appropriate construction types, including the building's location on the lot and the intended materials of construction. 
In buildings with mixed-occupancy conditions, the methods of addressing the relationship between the multiple occupancies indi- 
rectly affect construction type. 

Sec. 202 and 502 Calculate actual height of building in both *feet' and 'stories above grade plane'. The code specifically 
describes the method for assigning a building height, measure both in the number of feet and the number of stories above grade 
plane. The actual height must be compared with the allowable height to determine if the building's type of construction is accept- 
able. 

Sec. 504 Determine allowable height permitted for 'feet' and 'stories' 

Sec. 505 Determine if mezzanine provisions are applicable 

Sec. 504.3 Determine if any rooftop structures are in compliance 

Sec. 502 Calculate actual floor area of each story of building. The building area is typically the entire floor area that occurs 
within the surrounding exterior walls. The building area for each individual story must be calculated, as well as for the building 
as a whole. 

vi 2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 

Sec. 507 Determine if building qualifies as an unlimited area building 

Sec. 506 Determine allowable area permitted for each story and building as a whole if: 

Sec. 506 Single-occupancy building 

Sec. 508.2 Multi-occupancy w/accessory occupancies 

Sec. 508.3 Multi-occupancy building w/nonseparated occupancies 

Sec. 508.4 Multi-occupancy building w/separated occupancies 

Sec. 706. 1 Use of fire walls 

Sec. 509 Determine if special provisions are to be applied for height and/or area. The general requirements for allowable 
height and area may be modified under limited conditions, typically where a parking garage is located in a building with other 
occupancies. 

5. Identify extent of any special detailed occupancy requirements. Special types of buildings, special uses that occur within 
buildings, and special elements of a building are further regulated through specific requirements found in Chapter 4. Since these 
provisions are specific in nature, they apply in lieu of the general requirements found elsewhere in the code. 

Chapter 4. Determine special detailed requirements based on occupancy. A number of the special provisions are applicable to 
a specific occupancy or group of similar occupancies. 

Sec. 402 Covered mall buildings 

Sec. 403 High-rise buildings 

Sec. 404 Atriums 

Sec. 405 Underground buildings 

Sec. 406 Motor- vehicle-related occupancies 

Sec. 407 Group 1-2 occupancies 

Sec. 408 Group 1-3 occupancies 

Sec. 411 Special amusement buildings 

Sec. 412 Aircraft-related occupancies 

Sec. 415 Group H occupancies 

Sec. 419 Live/work units 

Sec. 420 Groups I- 1 , R- 1 , R-2 and R-3 

Sec. 422 Ambulatory health care facilities 

Table 508.2.5 Determine if building contains any incidental accessory occupancies. The uses identified in Table 508.5.2 are 
considered as a portion of the occupancy in which they are located, but special conditions required that they be addressed in a 
more specific manner. 

Sec, 508.2.5 Provide fire separation and/or fire-extinguishing system 

6.1dentify and evaluate fire and smoke protective elements. Where fire-resistance-rated construction and/or smoke protection is 
mandated by other provisions of the code, the provisions of Chapter 7 identify the appropriate methods for gaining compliance. 

Chapter 7. Verify compliance w/details of fire and smoke resistance. The various elements of fire-resistance-rated and 
smoke-resistant construction are detailed, including walls, horizontal assemblies, shaft enclosures, including openings such as 
doors and windows, as well as the penetration of such elements by conduit, ducts, piping and other items. 



Sec. 704 


Structural members 


Sec. 707 


Fire barriers 


Sec. 709 


Fire partitions 


Sec. 710 


Smoke barriers 


Sec. 711 


Smoke partitions 


Sec. 712 


Horizontal assemblies 


Sec. 708 


Shaft enclosures 


Sec. 713 


Penetrations 


Sec. 714 


Joint systems 


Sec. 715 


Opening protectives 


Sec. 716 


Ducts and air transfer openings 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



7. Identify additional fire protection systems that may be required. In addition to automatic sprinkler systems, there are several 
other types of fire protection systems that may be required in a building. 

Sec. 907.2. Determine compliance with fire alarm provisions. Fire alarm systems are typically mandated based upon the 
occupancy classification and the number of occupants. 

Sec. 905.3. Determine if standpipe system is required. A standpipe system is required in buildings once a specified height is 
reached to provide for a more effective means of fighting a fire within the building. 

Sec. 905.4.6. Verify location of standpipe hose connections. 

8. Identify and evaluate materials utilized as interior floor, wall and ceiling finishes. Finish materials within the building are 
primarily regulated for flame spread and smoke development characteristics. 

Sec. 803.9. Verify compliance of wall and ceiling finishes. Interior wall and ceiling finishes are regulated based upon the occu- 
pancy classification of the space and their location within the means of egress system. The classification may typically be 
reduced where sprinkler protection is provided. 

Sec. 804.4. Verify compliance of floor finishes. While regulated differently than wall and ceiling finishes, floor finishes com- 
prised of fibers are also controlled based upon their use in the egress system, the occupancy classification, and the presence of a 
sprinkler system. 

9. Evaluate means of egress system based on anticipated occupant loads. The expected occupant load is the basis for the design 
of the means of egress system. The egress elements must provide for a direct, continuous, obvious, undiminished and unobstructed 
path of travel from any occupiable point in the building to the public way. 

Sec. 1004. Determine the design occupant load. Although the primary use of an occupant load is in the design of the building ' s 
means of egress system, occupant load is also occasionally an important factor in occupancy classification, sprinkler system and 
fire alarm system requirements, and plumbing fixture counts. 

Chapter 10. Verify compliance with means of egress provisions. The means of egress system is intended to provide the primary 
occupant protection from fire and other hazards. The system consists of two major components, egress components and egress 
design. 

Sec. 1005.1 Egress width and distribution 

Sec. 1006.3 Emergency lighting 

Sec. 1007 Accessible means of egress 

Sec. 1008.1.2 Door swing 

Sec. 1008. L9 Door operations 

Sec. 1008. l.lOPanic hardware 

Sec. 1009.1 Stairway width 

Sec. 1009.4 Stairway treads and risers 

Sec. 1011 Exit signs 

Sec. 1012 Stairway and ramp handrails 

Sec. 1013 Guards 

Sec. 1014.2 Egress through intervening spaces 

Sec. 1014.3 Common path of egress travel 

Sec. 1015.1 Number of exit or exit access doorways 

Sec. 1015.2 Egress separation 

Sec. 1016.1 Travel distance 

Sec. 1018.1 Corridor construction 

Sec. 1021 Number of exits 

Sec. 1022 Vertical exit enclosures 

Sec. 1023 Exit passageways 

Sec. 1025 Horizontal exits 

Sec. 1026 Exterior exit stairways 

Sec. 1027 Exit discharge 

Sec. 1028 Egress firom assembly occupancies 

viii 201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



10. Identify any special use features of the building. The activities that occur within the building pose varying risks to the occu- 
pants. Special conditions are applicable when such activities are anticipated. 

Chapter 4. Verify compliance with special detailed requirements. These provisions are often an extension of the general 
requirements found elsewhere in the code. 

Sec. 410 Stages and platforms 

Sec. 413 Combustible storage 

Sec. 414 Hazardous materials 

Sec. 416 Application of flammable finishes 

11. Determine areas of building and site required to be accessible. In general, access to persons with disabilities is required for 
all buildings. 

Chapter llA and/or IIB. Verify compliance with accessibility provisions. In order to be considered as accessible, buildings and 
their individual elements must comply with the applicable technical provisions of Chapters 1 lA and/or 1 IB. 

12. Determine extent of other miscellaneous provisions. Additional provisions may be applicable based upon each individual 
building and its characteristics. 

Sec. 2406.3. Verify safety glazing provided in hazardous locations. Safety glazing must be appropriately identified to ensure 
the proper glazing material is installed in areas considered as subject to human impact. 

Chapter 12. Interior environment. Provisions regulating ventilation, temperature control, lighting, sound transmission, room 
dimensions and surrounding materials associated with interior spaces. 

Chapter 14 Exterior walls. Requirements for installation of wall coverings and the permissible use of combustible materials on the 
exterior side of exterior walls. 

Chapter 24. Glass and glazing. General provisions for the installation of glazing materials and skylights. 

Chapter 30. Elevators. Elevator hoistway provisions, including enclosure of hoistways, emergency operations and hoistway vent- 
ing. 

Chapter 31. Special construction. A variety of special conditions are addressed, including membrane structures, temporary struc- 
tures, pedestrian walkways and tunnels, awnings and canopies, marquees, signs and swimming pool enclosures. 

Structural Provisions 

General Requirements 

1. Design Loads. 

The 2009 IBC references the national load standard. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE/SEI 
7 — 05) with Supplement Number 2. 

Determine the applicable design loads that the building structure is expected to be subjected to. Code prescribed loads are given in 
Chapter 16 and the referenced standard, ASCE/SEI 7. The code prescribed minimum Hve loads are given in IBC Table 1607.1. 

The various code prescribed loads are probabilistic in nature. Environmental loads, such as flood, rain, snow, seismic and wind 
vary based on the location of the building site. The following table gives the IBC section and ASCE/SEI 7 chapter for various types 
of load. 



REFERENCED IBC SECTIONS AND ASCE/SEI 7 CHAPTERS FOR LOADS 


TYPE OF LOAD 


IBC SECTION 


ASCE/SEI 7 CHAPTER 


Dead loads 


Section 1606 


Chapter 3 


Live loads 


Section 1607, Table 1607.1 


Chapter 4 


Snow loads 


Section 1608 


Chapter 7 


Wind loads 


Section 1609 


Chapter 6 


Soil lateral loads 


Section 1610 


Chapter 3 


Rain loads 


Section 1611 


Chapter 8 


Flood loads 


Section 1612 


Chapter 51 


Earthquake loads 


Section 1613 


Chapter 11-22 



1. Section 1612 references ASCE 24 which references Chapter 5 of ASCE/SEI 7 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



2. Structural Materials. 



The structural design begins with the selection of the type of structural materials to be used to support the building. Structural fram- 
ing systems are constructed of concrete, masonry, steel or wood. Some miscellaneous or specialty structures and components, such 
as awnings, canopies and cladding, are often constructed of aluminum. 

The design of various structural materials is covered in specific material chapters in the code which in turn reference design stan- 
dards for the type of material involved. The referenced standards in the 2009 IBC for the structural materials are shown in the 
following table: 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN STANDARDS FOR STRUCTURAL MATERIALS^ 


MATERIAL 


IBC/CBC CHAPTER 


REFERENCED STANDARD 


Concrete 


19 


ACI318— 08 
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete 


Aluminum 


20 


ADM 1—05 
Aluminum Design Manual 


Masonry 


21 


TMS 402-08/ACI 530-08/ASCE 5-08 
Building Code Requirements and Specification for Masonry Structures (MSJC Code) 


Steel 


22 


AISC 360—05 
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings 

AISC 341— 05 

Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, 

including Supplement No. 1 dated 2006 

AISIS 100— 2007 
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members 


Wood 


23 


AF&PA NDS— 05 
National Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction with 2005 Supplement 

AF&PA SDPWS— 08 
Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic 



1. The above table shows the main structural design standards for these structural materials. For a complete list of referenced standards, see IBC Chapter 35. 

3. Structural Analysis, Design and Detailing. 

Once the applicable loads are determined, the structural system of the building must be analyzed to determine the effects of the gov- 
erning gravity and lateral loads that act on the structure. The structural system of a typical building consists of the roof and floor sys- 
tems, walls, beams and columns, and the foundation. From the structural analysis, the next step is to design the structural members, 
elements and systems to provide the minimum level of resistance in accordance with the various load combinations prescribed in 
Section 1605, 

Once the structural elements and systems are designed, the next step is to detail the load transfer connections to provide a com- 
plete load path from the point of origin to the resisting element. In general, the ultimate resisting element of buildings and structures 
is the foundation and supporting ground. The final step is to prepare a complete set of construction documents as required by Sec- 
tions 107 and 1603. Construction documents are defined in Section 202 as "Written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or 
assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for obtaining a 
building permit." In general, construction documents consist of plans, specifications and calculations. 

Section 1603.1 requires construction documents to show the size, section and relative locations of structural members with floor 
levels, column centers and offsets dimensioned. Design loads required by Sections 1603. 1 . 1 through 1603. 1 .9 must be indicated on 
the construction documents. If complete construction documents consisting of plans, specifications and calculations are provided, 
the items Usted in Sections 1603. 1.1 through 1603.9 are generally included. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



The exception permits construction documents for buildings constructed in accordance with the conventional light-frame con- 
struction provisions of Section 2308 need only indicate the following: 

Roor and roof live loads 

Ground snow load, P^. 

Basic (3-second gust) wind speed (mph) and wind exposure category. 

Seismic design category and site class. 

Flood design data where sited in flood hazard areas 

Design load-bearing values of soils. 

General Requirements 

1. Occupancy Category (IBC/CBC Table 1604.5). 

Determine the occupancy category of the building based on Table 1604.5. 

Where a structure is occupied by two or more occupancies that are not the same occupancy category, the building must be classi- 
fied in the highest occupancy category corresponding to the various occupancies. 

Where structures have two or more portions that are structurally separated, each separate portion should be separately classified. 

Where a separated portion of a structure provides required access or egress from another portion of the building with a higher 
occupancy category, both portions of the building must be assigned the higher occupancy category. 

Where a separated portion of a structure shares life safety components with another portion of the building with a higher occu- 
pancy category, both portions of the building must be assigned the higher occupancy category. 

2. Floor and roof live loads (IBC/CBC Table 1607.1). 

Determine uniformly distributed and concentrated floor live load for the floor areas of the building in accordance with Section 
1603.1.1 and Table 1607.1. 

Floor live load reduction in accordance with Section 1607.9 should be indicated for each type of live load that is reduced. 

Determine the roof live load for roof areas in accordance with Section 1607.1 1. 

Roof live load reduction in accordance with Section 1607.1 1.2 should be indicated for roof live loads that are reduced. 

3. Snow load (IBC/CBC Section 1608, ASCE/SEI 7 Section 7). 

Determine the ground snow load, P^, based on the location of the building site in accordance with Figure 1608.2 for the contigu- 
ous United States and Table 1608.2 for Alaska. 

In areas where the ground snow load, P^, exceeds 10 psf, the following information should be determined: 

1. Flat-roof snow load, Pf. 

2. Snow exposure factor, Q. 

3. Snow load importance factor, /. 

4. Thermal factor, C,. 

4. Wind speed and wind exposure category. 

Determine the following information related to wind loads in accordance with Section 1603.1.4: 

1. Basic 3-second gust wind speed (mph). 

2. Wind importance factor, /. 

3. Wind exposure category (B, C, D). If more than one wind exposure is used, the wind exposure for each wind direction 
should be determined. 

4. The applicable internal pressure coefficient. 

5. The design wind pressure (psf) used for the design of exterior component and cladding materials not specifically designed 
by the registered design professional should be indicated. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE xl 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



5. Earthquake design requirements. 

Determine the following information related to seismic loads regardless of whether seismic loads govern the design of the lat- 
eral-force-resisting system of the building: 

1 . Seismic importance factor, /, based on occupancy category. 

2. Mapped spectral response accelerations, S^ and 5^. 

3. Site class. 

4. Design spectral response coefficients, S^s and Sfy^. 

5. Seismic design category. 

6. Basic seismic-force-resisting system(s). 

7. Design base shear. 

8. Seismic response coefficient(s), C5. 

9. Response modification factor(s), R, 

10. Analysis procedure used. 

6. Geotechnieal information. 

The design load bearing values of soils shall be shown on the construction documents in accordance with Section 1603.1.6. 

7. Special loads. 

Determine any special loads that are applicable to the design of the building, structure or portions thereof along with the specific 
section of the code that addresses the special loading condition in accordance with Section 1603.1.8. 

8. Load combinations. 

Buildings and other structures and portions thereof are required to be designed to resist the load combinations specified in Sec- 
tion 1605.2 or 1605.3 and Chapters 18 through 23, and the special seismic load combinations with overstrength as required by 
Section 1605.1 and ASCE/SEI 7. 

9. Wind and seismic detaUing. 

Lateral-force-resisting systems are required to conform to the seismic detailing requirements of the code and ASCE/SEI 7 (exclud- 
ing Chapter 14 and Appendix 1 1 A) even when wind load effects are greater than seismic load effects. See Section 1604.10. 

10. Serviceability. 

Structural systems and members shall be designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deflections and lateral drift. The deflection 
of structural members shall not exceed the more restrictive of the limitations of Sections 1604.3.2 through 1604.3.6 or that per- 
mitted by Table 1604.3. Structural systems shall be designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deformation and lateral drift due 
to earthquake loading in accordance with Section 12.12.1 of ASCE/SEI 7. 

11. Foundation. 

A foundation system must be designed that provides adequate support for gravity and lateral loads. Walls of buildings of conven- 
tional light frame construction, as defined in Section 202, are permitted to be supported by footings constructed in accordance 
with Table 1 809.7. Otherwise, the foundation system must be designed in accordance with other provisions of Chapter 1 8. The 
following table gives a summary of applicable sections for foundation systems. 



FOUNDATION REQUIREMENTS 


SUBJECT 


IBC SECTION 


Presumptive load-bearing values of soils 


1806, Table 1806.2 


Foundation walls, retaining walls and embedded posts & poles 


1807 


General requirements for foundations 


1808 


Minimum concrete specified concrete strength 


Table 1808.8.1 


Minimum concrete cover 


Table 1808.8.2 


Shallow foundations (footings) 


1809 


Prescriptive footings for light frame walls 


Table 1809.7 


Deep foundations 


1810 



xii 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



A geotechnical investigation is required where required by Section 1803.2 unless the building official determines that a soils 
investigation is not required in accordance with the exception. A geotechnical investigation is required for buildings assigned to 
Seismic Design Categories C, D, E and F in accordance with Sections 1803.5.11 and 1803.5.12. 

12. Excavation, grading and fill 

Requirements for excavation, grading and fill related to foundation construction are covered in Section 1804. General require- 
ments for site grading are covered in Appendix J. 

13. Flood design data. 

Where required by Section 1612.5, buildings located in flood hazard areas as established in Section 1612.3 are required to pro- 
vide documentation that includes the following information regardless of whether flood loads govern the design of the building : 

1. In flood hazard areas not subject to high- velocity wave action, the elevation of the proposed lowest floor, including the 
basement; and the elevation to which any nonresidential building will be dry flood proofed. 

2. In flood hazard areas not subject to high- velocity wave action, the elevation to which any nonresidential building will be dry 
floodproofed. 

3. In flood hazard areas subject to high- velocity wave action, the proposed elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal 
structural member of the lowest floor, including the basement. 

14. Special inspection. 

Where special inspection, special inspection for seismic resistance, or structural testing for seismic resistance is required by Sec- 
tion 1704, 1707 or 1708, the registered design professional in responsible charge is required to prepare a statement of special 
inspections in accordance with Section 1705. The statement of special inspections must be submitted by the permit applicant as a 
condition of permit issuance in accordance with Section 106.1. 

A statement of special inspections is not required for structures designed and constructed in accordance with the conventional 
construction provisions of Section 2308 unless specific components in the structure require special inspection. 

The statement of special inspections is permitted to be prepared by a qualified person approved by the building official for con- 
struction not designed by a registered design professional. 



SPECIAL INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS 


TYPE OF SPECIAL INSPECTION 


APPLICABLE SECTION 


REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION 


Steel construction 


1704.3 


Table 1704.3 


Concrete construction 


1704.4 


Table 1704.4 


Masonry construction 
Level 1 
Level 2 


1704.5 


Table 1704.5.1 
Table 1704.5.3 


Wood construction 


1704.6 





Soils 


1704.7 


Table 1704.7 


Driven deep foundations 


1704.8 


Table 1704.8 


Cast in place deep foundations 


1704.9 


Table 1704.9 


Helical pile foundations 


1704.10 





Vertical masonry foundations 


1704.11 

1704.5 


— 


Sprayed fire resistant materials 


1704.12 





Mastic and intumescent fire resistive coatings 


1704.13 


_ 


Exterior insulation and finish (EIFS) systems 


1704.14 





Special cases 


1704.15 





Smoke control systems 


1704.16 


— 



Where required by the provisions of Section 1709.2 or 1709.3, the owner shall employ a registered design professional to perform structural observations as 
defined in Section 1702. At the conclusion of the work included in the permit, the structural obserxer shall submit a written statement to the building official 
that identifies any reported deficiencies that have not been resolved. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



xlli 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



15. Special inspection for wind and seismic resistance. 

Section 1706.1 requires special inspections for wind requirements based on wind speed and exposure category as prescribed in 
Sections 1706,2 through 1706.4, unless exempted by the exceptions to Section 1704.1. 

Section 1707.1 requires special inspections for seismic resistance based on seismic design category as prescribed in Sections 
1707.2 through 1707.9, unless exempted by the exceptions of Section 1704.1 or 1705.3. 

16. Structural testing for seismic resistance. 

Section 1708.1 requires specific testing and qualification for seismic resistance as prescribed in Sections 1708.2 through 1708.5, 
unless exempted from special inspections by the exceptions of Section 1704;1 and 1705.3. 

17. Structural observation. 

Where required by the provisions of Section 17 10.2 or 17 10.3 the owner is required to employ a registered design professional to 
perform structural observations as defined in Section 1702. Section 1710.2 requires structural observations for seismic resis- 
tance for certain structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F; Section 1710.3 requires structural observations for 
wind requirements for certain structures sited where the wind speed exceeds 110 mph. 

At the conclusion of the work included in the permit, the structural observer is required to submit a written statement to the 
building official that identifies any reported deficiencies that have not been resolved. 

Prior to the commencement of observations, the structural observer is required to submit a written statement to the building 
official identifying the structural observations. 

At the conclusion of the work included in the permit, the structural observer is required to submit a written statement to the 
building official indicating what site visits have been made, identifies any deficiencies that have not been resolved. 

18. Contractor responsibility. 

Section 1709 requires each contractor responsible for the construction of a main wind- or seismic-force-resisting system, desig- 
nated seismic system or a wind- or seismic-resisting component listed in the statement of special inspections is required to sub- 
mit a written statement of responsibility to the building official and the owner prior to the commencement of work on the system 
or component. (The term "designated seismic system" is defined in Section 1702 and Section 1 1 .2 of ASCE/SEI 7). The contrac- 
tor's statement of responsibility is required to acknowledge awareness of the special requirements contained in the statement of 
special inspections. 

19. Phased approvals. 

Construction of foundations or other part of a building is permitted before the construction documents for the whole building or 
structure have been submitted, provided adequate information has been filed. The holder of such permit for the foundation or 
other part of a building proceeds at their own risk and without assurance that a permit for the entire structure will be granted. 

20. Amended construction documents. 

Work must be constructed in accordance with the approved construction documents and any changes made during construction 
that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents must be resubmitted for approval as amended construction 
documents. 

21. Deferred submittals. 

Deferred submittals are items that are not submitted at the time of permit application and must have the prior approval of the 
building official in accordance with Section 107.3.4.2. The registered design professional in responsible charge is required to hst 
the deferred submittals on the construction documents for review by the building official. Documents for deferred submittal 
items must be reviewed by the registered design professional in responsible charge who will forward them to the building official 
with a notation indicating that they have been reviewed and are in general conformance with the design of the building. 



xiv 201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



How to Distinguish Between Model Code Language 

and 
California Amendments 

To distinguish between model code language and the incorporated California amendments, including exclusive California stan- 
dards, California amendments will appear in italics, 

[BSC] This symbol within a section identifies which State agency(s), by its "acronym," has amended a section of the model code. 

Legend of Acronyms of Adopting State Agencies 

BSC California Building Standards Commission 

SFM Ofp.ce of the State Fire Marshal 

HCD Department of Housing and Community Development 

DSA-AC Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance 

DSA-SS Division of the State Architect- Structural Safety 

DSA-SS/CC Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety/Community Colleges 

OSHPD Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development 

CSA Corrections Standards Authority 

DPH Department of Public Health 

AGR Department of Food and Agriculture 

CEC California Energy Commission 

CA Department of Consumer Affairs: 

Board ofBarbering and Cosmetology 
Board of Examiners in Veterinary Medicine 
Board of Pharmacy 
Acupuncture Board 
Bureau of Home Furnishings 
Structural Pest Control Board 

SL State Librarian 

SLC State Lands Commission 

DWR Department of Water Resources 

Symbols in the margins indicate the status of code changes as follows: 

This symbol indicates that a change has been made to a California amendment. 

> This symbol indicates California deletion of California language. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



xvi 2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



California Matrix Adoption Tables 



Format of the California IVIatrix Adoption Tables 

The matrix adoption tables, which follow, show the user which state agencies have adopted and/or amended given sections of the 
model code. The building application determines which state agency's adoptions apply. See Section's 102 through 1 14 for building 
applications and enforcement responsibilities. 

Agencies are grouped together, based on either local or state enforcement responsibilities. For example, regulations from SFM 
are enforced both at the state and local levels; therefore, SFM is listed twice in each adoption table indicating state enforcement 
responsibilities and local enforcement responsibilities. 

The side headings identify the scope of state agencies' adoption as follows: 

Adopt the entire IBC chapter without state amendments. 

If there is an "X" under a particular state agency's acronym on this row; this means that particular state agency has adopted the entire 
model code chapter without any state amendments. 

Example: 







CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 
















Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


SS 


SS/CC 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 




X 




































Adopt entire chapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 












S 


A 


M 


P 


L 


E 


















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 








































Chapter/Section 









































Adopt the entire IBC chapter as amended, state-amended sections are listed below: 

If there is an "X" under a particular state agency's acronym on this row, it means that particular state agency has adopted the entire 
model code chapter; with state amendments. 

Each state-amended section that the agency has added to that particular chapter is listed. There will be an "X" in the column, by 
that particular section, under the agency's acronym, as well as an "X" by each section that the agency has adopted. 



Example: 







CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 
















Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


SS 


SS/CC 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 








































Adopt entire chapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 




X 




































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












S 


A 


M 


P 


L 


E 


















Chapter/Section 








































202 




X 





































2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



xvii 



Adopt only those sections that are listed below: 

If there is an "X" under a particular state agency's acronym on this row, it means that particular state agency is adopting only specific 
model code or state-amended sections within this chapter. There will be an "X" in the column under the agency's acronym, as well 
as an "X" by each section that the agency has adopted. 

Example: 









CHAPTER 2 


- DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 
















Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


SS 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 








































Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 








































Adopt only those sections 
that are listed below 








X 


X 




S 


A 


M 


P 


L 


E 
















Chapter 1 








































202 








X 


X 




s 


A 


M 


P 


L 


E 
















202 








X 


X 






C 





N 


T. 


















203 








X 


X 






























203 








X 


X 































xvlll 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



ORDINANCE 

The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 
2010 California Building Code as an enforceable regulation governing structures and premises should ensure that certain factual 
information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. 
The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information 
required for insertion into the code text. 

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF 

THE CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 

ORDINANCE NO. 

An ordinance of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2010 edition of the California Building Code, regulating and governing the condi- 
tions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by providing the standards for supplied utilities and facilities and 
other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the con- 
demnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and use and the demolition of such structures in the [JURISDIC- 
TION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance No. of the [JURISDICTION] 

and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF 
RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the California Building Code, 2010 edition, including 
Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see California Building Code Section 101 .2. 1, 2010 edi- 
tion), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Building Code of the [JURISDICTION], in the 
State of California for regulating and governing the conditions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by provid- 
ing the standards for supplied utilities and facilities and other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures are 
safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and use 
and the demolition of such structures as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; and 
each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Building Code on file in the office of the [JURIS- 
DICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, insertions, 
deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [DATE OF ISSUANCE] 

Section 3412.2. Insert: [DATE IN ONE LOCATION] 

Section 3. That Ordinance No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR 

ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENTION] and all other ordinances 
or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4, That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, 
such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that it 
would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that any one or more 
sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Building Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding 
impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any 
act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this ordinance; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any character be 
lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance. 

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be pubUshed. 
(An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be 
in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 7. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE xix 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



VOLUME 1 

CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION. ... 3 

DIVISION I CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATION 3 

Section 

1 . 1 General 3 

1.2 Building Standards Commission 5 

1.3 Corrections Standards Authority 6 

1.4 Department of Consumer Affairs 6 

1.5 Reserved 7 

1.6 Department of Food and Agriculture 7 

1.7 California Department of Public Health 7 

1 .8 Department of Housing and 

Community Development 7 

1.8.2 Authority and Abbreviations 7 

1.8.3 Local Enforcing Agency 8 

1.8.4 Permits, Fees, Applications and Inspections. ... 9 

1.8.5 Right-of-Entry for Enforcement 10 

1.8.6 Local Modification by 

Ordinance or Regulation 10 

1.8.7 Alternate Materials, Designs, Tests and 

Methods of Construction 10 

1.8.8 Appeals Board 11 

1.8.9 Unsafe Buildings or Structures 12 

1.8.10 Other Building Regulations 12 

1.9 Division of the State Architect 12 

1.10 Office of Statewide Health Planning and 

Development 15 

1.11 Office of the State Fire Marshal 16 

1.12 State Librarian 20 

1.13 Reserved 20 

1.14 California State Lands Commission 20 

DIVISION II SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION. ... 21 

101 General 21 

102 Applicability 21 

103 Department of Building Safety 22 

104 Duties and Powers of Building Officials 22 

105 Permits 23 

106 Floor and Roof Design Loads 25 

107 Submittal Documents 25 

108 Temporary Structures and Uses 27 

109 Fees 27 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



1 10 Inspections 27 

111 Certificate of Occupancy 28 

1 12 Service Utilities 29 

113 Board of Appeals 29 

1 14 Violations 29 

115 Stop Work Order 29 

116 Unsafe Structures and Equipment 29 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 39 

Section 

201 General 39 

202 Definitions 39 

CHAPTER 3 USE AND OCCUPANCY 

CLASSIFICATION 59 

Section 

301 General 59 

302 Classification 59 

303 Assembly Group A 59 

304 Business Group B 60 

305 Educational Group E 60 

306 Factory Group F 61 

307 High-Hazard Group H 61 

308 Institutional Group 1 70 

309 Mercantile Group M 71 

310 Residential Group R 71 

311 Storage Group S 74 

312 Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 75 

313 Laboratories Group L [SFM] 75 

CHAPTER 4 SPECIAL DETAILED 

REQUIREMENTS BASED ON 

USE AND OCCUPANCY 81 

Section 

401 Scope 81 

402 Covered Mall and Open Mall Buildings 81 

403 High-Rise Buildings and Group 1-2 
Occupancies Having Occupied Floors 
Located more than 75 Feet Above the Lowest 
Level of Fire Department Vehicle Access 84 

404 Atriums 88 

405 Underground Buildings 88 

406 Motor- Vehicle-Related Occupancies 89 

407 Group 1-2 93 

xxl 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



408 Group 1-3. 96 

409 Motion Picture Projection Rooms 99 

410 Stages and Platforms 100 

411 Special Amusement Buildings 102 

412 Aircraft-Related Occupancies 102 

413 Combustible Storage 105 

414 Hazardous Materials 105 

415 Groups H-l,H-2,H-3,H-4 and H-5 109 

416 Application of Flammable Finishes 122 

417 Drying Rooms 122 

418 Organic Coatings 122 

419 LiveAVork Units 123 

420 Groups R-1, R-2, R-2.1, R-3, 

R-3.1andR-4 123 

421 Hydrogen Cutoff Rooms 124 

422 Ambulatory Health Care Facilities 125 

423 Storm Shelters 125 

424 Special Provisions for Residential Hotels 

[HCD 1 & HCD 1-AC] 125 

425 Special Provisions for Licensed 

24-Hour Care Facilities in a 

Group R-2.1, R-3.1, R-4 [SFM] 125 

426 Group 1-4 [SFM] 128 

427 Reserved 129 

428 Reserved 129 

429 Reserved 129 

430 Horse Racing Stables [SFM] 129 

431 Pet Kennels [SFM] 129 

432 Combustion Engines and 

Gas Turbines [SFM] 129 

433 Fixed Guideway Transit Systems [SFM] 130 

434 Explosives [SFM] 133 

435 Reserved 136 

436 Winery Caves [SFM] 136 

437 Reserved 137 

438 Reserved 137 

439 Public Libraries [SL AND SFM] 137 

440 Group C [SFM] 138 

441 Reserved 140 

442 Group E [SFM] 140 

443 Group L [SFM] 141 

444 Reserved 144 

445 Large Family Day-Care Homes [SFM] 144 



CHAPTER 5 GENERAL BUILDING 

HEIGHTS AND AREAS 149 

Section 

501 General 149 

502 Definitions 149 

503 General Building Height and 

Area Limitations 149 

504 Building Height 149 

505 Mezzanines 151 

506 Building Area Modifications 152 

507 Unlimited Area Buildings 153 

508 Mixed Use and Occupancy 154 

509 Special Provisions 156 

CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 163 

Section 

601 General 163 

602 Construction Classification 163 

603 Combustible Material in 

Type I and II Construction 165 

CHAPTER? FIRE AND SMOKE 

PROTECTION FEATURES 169 

Section 

701 General 169 

702 Definitions 169 

703 Fire-Resistance Ratings and Fire Tests 170 

704 Fire-Resistance Rating of 

Structural Members 171 

705 Exterior Walls 173 

706 Fire Walls 177 

707 Fire Barriers 179 

708 Shaft Enclosures 180 

709 Fire Parfitions 184 

710 Smoke Barriers 185 

711 Smoke Partitions 185 

712 Horizontal Assemblies 186 

713 Penetrations 187 

714 Fire-Resistant Joint Systems 189 

715 Opening Protectives 190 

716 Ducts and Air Transfer Openings 194 

717 Concealed Spaces 199 

718 Fire-Resistance Requirements for Plaster. ... 201 

719 Thermal- and Sound-Insulating Materials ...201 

720 Prescripfive Fire Resistance 202 

721 Calculated Fire Resistance 224 



xxii 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 7A MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 
METHODS FOR EXTERIOR 
WILDFIRE EXPOSURE 255 

Section 

701 A Scope, Purpose and Application 255 

702A Definitions 256 

703A Standards of Quality 256 

704A Ignition-Resistant Construction 257 

705A Roofing 258 

706A Vents 258 

707A Exterior Covering 258 

708 A Exterior Windows and Doors 260 

709A Decking 260 

710A Accessory Structures 261 

CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISHES 265 

Section 

801 General 265 

802 Definitions 265 

803 Wall and Ceiling Finishes 265 

804 Interior Floor Finish 268 

805 Combustible Materials in Type I 

and II Construction 268 

806 Decorative Materials and Trim 269 

807 Insulation 269 

808 Acoustical Ceiling Systems , 269 

CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS ... 277 

Section 

901 General 277 

902 Definitions 277 

903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 280 

904 Alternative Automatic 

Fire-Extinguishing Systems 287 

905 Standpipe Systems 289 

906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 292 

907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 294 

908 Emergency Alarm Systems 308 

909 Smoke Control Systems 308 

910 Smoke and Heat Vents 315 

911 Fire Command Center 317 

912 Fire Department Connections 318 

913 Fire Pumps 318 

914 Emergency Responder Safety Features 319 

915 Emergency Responder Radio Coverage 319 

201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS 325 

Section 

1001 Administration 325 

1002 Definitions 325 

1003 General Means of Egress 326 

1004 Occupant Load 329 

1005 Egress Width 330 

1006 Means of Egress Illumination 330 

1007 Accessible Means of Egress 331 

1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 334 

1009 Stairways 340 

1010 Ramps 343 

101 1 Exit Signs 344 

1012 Handrails 346 

1013 Guards .347 

1014 Exit Access 348 

1015 Exit and Exit Access Doorways 349 

1016 Exit Access Travel Distance 351 

1017 Aisles 352 

1018 Corridors 352 

1019 Egress Balconies 354 

1020 Exits 354 

1021 Number of Exits and Continuity 354 

1022 Exit Enclosures 355 

1023 Exit Passageways 357 

1024 Luminous Egress Path Markings 357 

1025 Horizontal Exits 359 

1026 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways 360 

1027 Exit Discharge 360 

1028 Assembly 361 

1029 Emergency Escape and Rescue 366 

CHAPTER 11 RESERVED 369 

CHAPTER llA HOUSING ACCESSIBILITY . . . • 373 

Section 

1 101 A Application 373 

1 102A Building Accessibility 373 

1 103 A Design and Construction 374 

1104A Covered Multifamily Dwellings 374 

1105A Garages, Carports and Parking Facilities . . . , 375 

1106A Site and Building Characteristics 375 

1107A Definitions 375 

1 108 A General Requirements for Accessible Parking 

and Exterior Routes of Travel 378 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1109A 
lllOA 
llllA 
1112A 
1113A 

1114A 

1115A 
1116A 
1117A 

1118A 
1119A 
11 20 A 
1121A 

11 22 A 

11 23 A 

11 24 A 

1125A 

11 26 A 

11 27 A 
1128A 
11 29 A 
1130A 

1131A 
1132A 
1133A 
11 34 A 
1135A 

11 36 A 

11 37 A 
1138A 
1139A 
1140A 
1141A 
11 42 A 

1143A 
1144A 
1145A 
11 46 A 

xxiv 



Parking Facilities 378 

Exterior Routes of Travel 380 

Changes in Level on Accessible Routes 380 

Curb Ramps on Accessible Routes 381 

Walks and Sidewalks on an 

Accessible Route 381 

Exterior Ramps and Landings on 

Accessible Routes 382 

Exterior Stairways 383 

Hazards on Accessible Routes 384 

General Requirements for Accessible 
Entrances, Exits, Interior Routes of 
Travel and Facility Accessibility 385 

Egress and Areas of Refuge 385 

Interior Routes of Travel 385 

Interior Accessible Routes 385 

Changes in Level on Accessible Routes 386 

Interior Ramps and Landings on 
Accessible Routes 386 

Interior Stairways 387 

Elevators and Platform 

(Wheelchair) Lifts 388 

Hazards on Accessible Routes 390 

Doors 390 

Common Use Facilities 391 

Covered Dwelling Units 398 

Reserved 398 

Accessible Route Within Covered 

Multifamily Dwelling Units 398 

Changes in Level on Accessible Routes 398 

Doors 398 

Kitchens 400 

Bathing and Toilet Facilities 400 

Laundry Rooms 403 

Electrical Receptacle, 

Switch and Control Heights 403 

Other Features and Facilities 405 

Reserved 405 

Accessible Drinking Fountains 405 

Accessible Telephones 405 

Accessible Swimming Pools 406 

Electrical Receptacle, Switch and 

Control Heights 407 

Signage 407 

Reserved 408 

Reserved 408 

Reserved 408 



1 147A Reserved 408 

1148A Reserved 408 

1 149A Reserved 408 

1 150 A Site Impracticality Tests 409 

CHAPTER IIB ACCESSIBILITY TO PUBLIC 
BUILDINGS, PUBLIC 
ACCOMODATIONS, 
COMMERICAL BUILDINGS 
AND PUBLICLY FUNDED 
HOUSING 465 

Section 

IIOIB Scope 465 

1102B Definitions 465 

1 103B Building Accessibility 468 

1 104B Accessibility for Group A Occupancies 469 

1 105B Accessibility for Group B Occupancies 472 

1 106B Accessibility for Group E Occupancies 473 

1 107B Factories and Warehouses 474 

1108B Accessibility for Group H Occupancies 474 

1109B Accessibility for Group I Occupancies 475 

I I lOB Accessibility for Group M Occupancies 475 

I I I IB Accessibility for Group R Occupancies 477 

1112B Reserved 479 

1113B Reserved 479 

11 14B Facility Accessibility 479 

1 1 15B Bathing and Toilet Facilities 

(Sanitary Facilities) 480 

1 1 16B Elevators and Special Access 

(Wheelchair) Lifts 486 

1 1 17B Other Building Components 489 

1 1 18B Space Allowance and Reach Ranges 497 

1 1 19B Special Standards of Accessibility for 

Buildings with Historical Significance .... 497 

1120B Floor and Levels 497 

1121B Transportation Facilities 498 

1 122B Fixed or Built-in Seating, 

Tables and Counters 501 

1123B Access to Employee Areas 502 

1 124B Ground and Floor Surfaces 502 

1125B Storage 502 

1126B Vending Machines and Other Equipment .... 502 

1 127B Exterior Routes of Travel 503 

1 128B Pedestrian Grade Separations 

(Overpasses and Underpasses) 504 

1 129B Accessible Parking Required 504 

1 130B Parking Structures 506 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



113 IB Passenger Drop-off and Loading Zones 506 

1132B Outdoor Occupancies 506 

11 33B General Accessibility for 

Entrances, Exits and Paths of Travel 508 

1134B Accessibility for Existing Buildings 515 

1 1 35B Historic Preservation— Special Standards 
of Accessibility for Buildings with 
Historical Significance 516 

CHAPTER lie STANDARDS FOR CARD 
READERS AT GASOLINE 
FUELDISPENSING 
FACILITIES 587 

Section 

1 lOlC Card-Reader Devices at 

Fuel-Dispensing Equipment 587 

1102C Application 587 

1 103C Number of Accessible 

Card-Reading Devices Required 587 

1 104C Required Features 587 

CHAPTER 12 INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT 593 

Section 

1201 General 593 

1202 Definitions 593 

1203 Ventilation 593 

1204 Temperature Control 594 

1205 Lighting 595 

1206 Yards or Courts 595 

1207 Sound Transmission 596 

1208 Interior Space Dimensions 598 

1209 Access to Unoccupied Spaces 599 

1210 Surrounding Materials 599 

121 1 Garage Door Springs 599 

1212 Reserved 600 

1213 Reserved 600 

1214 Reserved 600 

1215 Reserved 600 

1216 Reserved 600 

1217 Reserved 600 

1218 Reserved 600 

1219 Reserved 600 

1220 Reserved 600 

1221 Reserved 600 

1222 Reserved 600 

1223 Reserved 600 

1224 Hospitals 600 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



1225 Skilled Nursing and 

Intermediate-Care Facilities 628 

1226 Clinics 633 

1227 Correctional Treatment Centers 636 

1228 Reserved 641 

1229 Reserved 641 

1230 Minimum Standards for 

Juvenile Facilities 641 

1231 Local Detention 645 

1232 Reserved 651 

1233 Reserved 651 

1234 Reserved 651 

1235 Sanitary Control of Shellfish 

(Plants and Operations) 651 

1236 Laboratory Animal Quarters 651 

1237 Wild Animal Quarantine Facilities 652 

1238 Reserved 652 

1239 Reserved 652 

1240 Meat and Poultry Processing Plants 652 

1241 Collection Centers and Facilities 654 

1242 Renderers 654 

1243 Horsemeat and Pet Food Establishments .... 654 

1244 Reserved 655 

1245 Reserved 655 

1246 Reserved 655 

1247 Reserved 655 

1248 Reserved 655 

1249 Reserved 655 

1250 Pharmacies 655 

1251 Veterinary Facilities 655 

1252 Barber Colleges and Shops 656 

1253 Schools of Cosmetology, 

Cosmetological Establishments and 

Satellite Classrooms 656 

1254 Acupuncture Offices 657 

CHAPTER 13 ENERGY EFFICIENCY 659 

CHAPTER 14 EXTERIOR WALLS 663 

Section 

1401 General 663 

1402 Definitions 633 

1403 Performance Requirements 663 

1404 Materials 664 

1405 Installation of Wall Coverings 665 

XXV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1406 Combustible Materials on the 

Exterior Side of Exterior Walls 669 

1407 Metal Composite Materials (MCM) 670 

1408 Exterior Insulation and 

Finish Systems (EIFS) 671 

1409 [DSA-SS and DSA-SS/CC, OSHPD 1,2 & 4] 

Additional Requirements for Anchored and 
Adhered Veneer 671 

CHAPTER 15 ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 675 

Section 

1501 General 675 

1502 Definitions 675 

1503 Weather Protection 675 

1504 Performance Requirements 676 

1505 Fire Classification 677 

1506 Materials 678 

1507 Requirements for Roof Coverings 678 

1508 Roof Insulation 687 

1509 Rooftop Structures 688 

1510 Reroofmg 689 

1511 [DSA-SS and OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] Seismic 

Anchorage of Slate Shingle, Clay and 
Concrete Tile Roof Coverings 690 

INDEX 691 

HISTORY NOTE 731 

VOLUME 2 

CHAPTER 16 STRUCTURAL DESIGN 5 

Section 

1601 General 5 

1602 Definitions and Notations 5 

1603 Construction Documents 6 

1604 General Design Requirements 7 

1605 Load Combinations 10 

1606 Dead Loads .11 

1607 Live Loads 11 

1608 Snow Loads 17 

1609 Wind Loads 20 

1610 Soil Lateral Loads 33 

161 1 Rain Loads 34 

1612 Flood Loads 40 

1613 Earthquake Loads 42 

1614 Structural Integrity 48 



1615 Additional Requirements [DSA-SS/CC] 69 

CHAPTER 16A STRUCTURAL DESIGN 79 

Section 

1601A General 79 

1602 A Definitions and Notations 79 

1603 A Construction Documents 81 

1604A General Design Requirements 82 

1605A Load Combinations 84 

1606A Dead Loads 86 

1607A Live Loads 86 

1608A Snow Loads 91 

1609A Wind Loads 94 

1610A Soil Lateral Loads 104 

1611A Rain Loads 104 

1612A Flood Loads 1 10 

1613A Earthquake Loads 112 

1614A Structural Integrity 117 

1615A Modifications to ASCE 7 119 

CHAPTER 17 STRUCTURAL TESTS AND 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 129 

Section 

1701 General 129 

1702 Definitions 129 

1703 Approvals 129 

1704 Special Inspections 130 

1705 Statement of Special Inspections 141 

1706 Special Inspections for Wind Requirements . . 143 

1707 Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance . . 143 

1708 Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance. ... 144 

1709 Contractor Responsibility 145 

1710 Structural Observations 145 

1711 Design Strengths of Materials 145 

1712 Alternative Test Procedure 145 

1713 Test Safe Load 146 

1714 In-Situ Load Tests 146 

1715 Preconstruction Load Tests 146 

1716 Material and Test Standards 147 

CHAPTER 17A STRUCTURAL TESTS AND 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 151 

Section 

1701A General 151 

1702A Definitions 151 

1703A Approvals 152 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1704A Special Inspections 153 

1705 A Statement of Special Inspections 165 

1706 A Special Inspections for Wind Requirements . . 167 

1707 A Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance . . 167 

1708A Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance 168 

1709 A Contractor Responsibility 169 

1710A Structural Observations 169 

1711 A Design Strengths of Materials 169 

1712A Alternative Test Procedure 170 

1713A Test Safe Load 170 

1714A In-Situ Load Tests 170 

1715A Preconstruction Load Tests 170 

1716A Material and Test Standards 171 

CHAPTER 18 SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 175 

Section 

1801 General 175 

1802 Definitions 175 

1803 Geotechnical Investigations 175 

1804 Excavation, Grading and Fill 178 

1805 Dampproofing and Waterproofing 179 

1806 Presumptive Load-Bearing Values of Soils. . . 180 

1807 Foundation Walls, Retaining Walls and 

Embedded Posts and Poles 181 

1808 Foundations 187 

1809 Shallow Foundations 189 

1810 Deep Foundations 192 

CHAPTER 18A SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS .... 207 

Section 

1801A General 207 

1802A Definitions 207 

1803 A Geotechnical Investigations 208 

1804 A Excavation, Grading and Fill 211 

1805 A Dampproofing and Waterproofing 211 

1806 A Presumptive Load-Bearing Values of Soils. . . 213 

1807 A Foundation Walls, Retaining Walls 

and Embedded Posts and Poles 213 

1808A Foundations 215 

1809A Shallow Foundations 218 

1810A Deep Foundations 219 

1 8 11 A Prestressed Rock and S oil 

Foundation Anchors 231 



CHAPTER 19 CONCRETE 235 

Section 

1901 General 235 

1902 Definitions 235 

1903 Specifications for Tests and Materials 235 

1904 Durability Requirements 236 

1905 Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing 236 

1906 Formwork, Embedded Pipes and 

Construction Joints 238 

1907 Details of Reinforcement 238 

1908 Modifications to ACI 318 239 

1909 Structural Plain Concrete 241 

1910 Minimum Slab Provisions 242 

1911 Anchorage to Concrete — Allowable 

Stress Design 242 

1912 Anchorage to Concrete — Strength Design . . . 243 

1913 Shotcrete 244 

1914 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 245 

1915 Concrete-Filled Pipe Columns 245 

1916 Additional Requirements [DSA-SS/CC] 246 

CHAPTER 19A CONCRETE 253 

Section 

1902A General 253 

1902A Definitions 253 

1903 A Specifications for Tests and Materials 255 

1904A Durability Requirements 255 

1905 A Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing 256 

1906 A Formwork, Embedded Pipes and 

Construction Joints 257 

1907 A Details of Reinforcement 257 

1908A Modifications to ACI 318 258 

1909 A Structural Plain Concrete Not Permitted 

by OSHPD and DSA-SS 262 

1910A Minimum Slab Provisions 262 

1 9 1 1 A Anchorage to Concrete — 

Allowable Stress Design 263 

1 9 1 2 A Anchorage to Concrete — 

Strength Design 263 

1913A Shotcrete 264 

1914A Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 265 

1915A Concrete-Filled Pipe Columns 265 

1 9 1 6A Concrete, Reinforcement and 

Anchor Testing 266 

1917A Existing Concrete Structures 267 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



xxvil 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 20 ALUMINUM 271 

Section 

2001 General 271 

2002 Materials 271 

2003 Inspection 271 

CHAPTER 21 MASONRY 275 

Section 

2101 General 275 

2102 Definitions and Notations 275 

2103 Masonry Construction Materials 278 

2104 Construction 280 

2105 Quality Assurance 280 

2106 Seismic Design 281 

2107 Allowable Stress Design 282 

2108 Strength Design of Masonry 282 

2109 Empirical Design of Masonry 282 

2110 Glass Unit Masonry 284 

2111 Masonry Fireplaces 284 

2112 Masonry Heaters 287 

2113 Masonry Chimneys 287 

2114 Additional Requirements [DSA-SS/CC] 291 

CHAPTER 21A MASONRY 297 

Section 

2101A General .297 

2102A Definitions and Notations 298 

2 103 A Masonry Construction Materials 301 

2104A Construction 302 

2105A Quality Assurance 305 

2106A Seismic Design 306 

2 107 A Allowable Stress Design 307 

2 108 A Strength Design of Masonry 308 

2 109 A Empirical Design of Masonry Not Permitted 

by OSHPD and DSA-SS 309 

21 lOA Glass Unit Masonry 309 

21 11 A Masonry Fireplaces 309 

2112A Masonry Heaters 311 

21 13A Masonry Chimneys 312 

21 14A Nonbearing Walls 316 

21 15A Masonry Screen Walls 316 



CHAPTER 22 STEEL 319 

Section 

2201 General 319 

2202 Definitions 319 

2203 Identification and Protection of Steel 

for Structural Purposes 319 

2204 Connections 319 

2205 Structural Steel 320 

2206 Steel Joists 320 

2207 Steel Cable Structures 321 

2208 Steel Storage Racks 321 

2209 Cold-Formed Steel 321 

22 1 Cold-Formed Steel Light-Frame 

Construction 321 

221 1 Additional Requirements [DSA-SS/CC] 322 

CHAPTER 22A STEEL 327 

Section 

2201A General 327 

2202A Definitions 327 

2203A Identification and Protection of 

Steel for Structural Purposes 327 

2204A Connections 327 

2205A Structural Steel 328 

2206A Steel Joists 330 

2207A Steel Cable Structures 331 

2208A Steel Storage Racks 331 

2209A Cold-Formed Steel 331 

22 1 A Cold-Formed Steel 

Light-Frame Construction 331 

221 lA Light Modular Steel Moment 

Frames for Public Elementary and 

Secondary Schools, and 

Community Colleges 332 

2212A Testing 333 

CHAPTER 23 WOOD 337 

Section 

2301 General 337 

2302 Definitions 337 

2303 Minimum Standards and Quality 339 

2304 General Construction Requirements 343 

2305 General Design Requirements for 

Lateral-Force-Resisting Systems 354 

2306 Allowable Stress Design 357 



xxviii 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



2307 Load and Resistance Factor Design 358 

2308 Conventional Light-Frame Construction 358 

CHAPTER 24 GLASS AND GLAZING 411 

Section 

2401 General 411 

2402 Definitions 411 

2403 General Requirements for Glass 411 

2404 Wind, Snow, Seismic and 

Dead Loads on Glass 411 

2405 Sloped Glazing and Skylights 413 

2406 Safety Glazing 415 

2407 Glass in Handrails and Guards 417 

2408 Glazing in Athletic Facilities 417 

2409 Glass in Elevator Hoistways and 

Elevator Cars 417 

CHAPTER 25 GYPSUM BOARD 

AND PLASTER 421 

Section 

2501 General 421 

2502 Definitions 421 

2503 Inspection 421 

2504 Vertical and Horizontal Assemblies 421 

2505 Shear Wall Construction 422 

2506 Gypsum Board Materials 422 

2507 Lathing and Plastering 422 

2508 Gypsum Construction 423 

2509 Gypsum Board in Showers and 

Water Closets 424 

2510 Lathing and Furring for Cement 

Plaster (Stucco) 424 

2511 Interior Plaster 425 

2512 Exterior Plaster 425 

2513 Exposed Aggregate Plaster 426 

CHAPTER 26 PLASTIC 431 

Section 

2601 General 431 

2602 Definitions 431 

2603 Foam Plastic Insulation 43 1 

2604 Interior Finish and Trim 434 

2605 Plastic Veneer 435 

2606 Light-Transmitting Plastics 435 

2607 Light-Transmitting Plastic Wall Panels 436 

2608 Light-Transmitting Plastic Glazing 437 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



2609 Light-Transmitting Plastic Roof Panels 437 

2610 Light-Transmitting Plastic Skylight Glazing . . 438 

261 1 Light-Transmitting Plastic Interior Signs .... 439 

2612 Fiber Reinforced Polymer and 

Fiberglass-Reinforced Polymer 439 

2613 Reflective Plastic Core Insulation 440 

CHAPTER 27 ELECTRICAL 443 

Section 

2701 General 443 

2702 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 443 

CHAPTER 28 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS 447 

Section 

2801 General 447 

CHAPTER 29 PLUMBING SYSTEMS 449 

Section 

2901 General 449 

CHAPTER 30 ELEVATORS AND 

CONVEYING SYSTEMS 455 

Section 

3001 General 455 

3002 Hoistway Enclosures 455 

3003 Emergency Operations 456 

3004 Hoistway Venting 457 

3005 Conveying Systems 457 

3006 Machine Rooms 458 

3007 Fire Service Access Elevator 458 

3008 Occupant Evacuation Elevators 459 

3009 Special Requirements for Elevators 

in Hospitals 460 

CHAPTER 31 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION 465 

Section 

3101 General 465 

3102 Membrane Structures 465 

3103 Temporary Structures 466 

3104 Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels 466 

3105 Av^^nings and Canopies 467 

3106 Marquees 468 

3107 Signs 468 

3108 Telecommunication and Broadcast Towers. . . 468 

3109 Swimming Pool Enclosures and 

Safety Devices 468 

3110 Automatic Vehicular Gates 472 

xxix 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 31A RESERVED 473 

CHAPTER 31B PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS ... 477 

Section 

3101B Scope 477 

3102B Definitions 477 

3103B Special Pool Classifications 478 

3104B Accessibility to the Physically 

Handicapped Person 478 

3105B Alternate Equipment, Materials and 

Methods of Construction 478 

3106B Pool Construction 478 

3107B Additional Requirements for a 

Temporary Training Pool 479 

3108B Pool Geometry 479 

3109B Permanent Markings 479 

3110B Steps, Recessed Steps, Ladders and 

Recessed Stairs (Treads) 482 

3111B Handholds 483 

3112B Diving Boards 483 

3113B Pool Decks 483 

3114B Pool Lighting 483 

3115B Bathhouse Dressing, 

Shower and Toilet Facilities 484 

31 16B Drinking Fountains 484 

3117B Hose Bibbs 484 

31 18B Enclosure of Pool Area 484 

3119B Signs 485 

3120B Indoor Pool Ventilation 487 

3121B Foundations For Pool Equipment 487 

3122B Gas Chlorination Equipment Room 487 

3123B General Requirements 487 

3124B Turnover Time 487 

3 125B Recirculation Piping System and 

Components 487 

3126B Recirculation Pump Capacity 488 

3127B Water Supply Inlets 488 

3128B Filters (All Types) 488 

3129B Rapid Sand Pressure Filters 488 

3 DOB Diatomaceous Earth Filters 489 

3131B High-Rate Sand Filters 489 

3132B Chemical Feeders 489 

3133B Disinfectant Feeders 489 

3134B Pool Fittings 490 

3135B Spa Pool Special Requirements 491 

3136B Cleaning Systems 491 

XXX 



3137B Waste Water Disposal 491 

3138B Reserved 491 

3139B Reserved 491 

3140B Reserved 491 

3141B Reserved 491 

3142B Reserved 491 

3143B Reserved 491 

3144B Reserved . 491 

3145B Reserved 491 

3146B Reserved 492 

3147B Reserved 492 

3148B Reserved 492 

3149B Reserved 492 

3150B Reserved 492 

3151B Reserved 492 

3152B Reserved 492 

3153B Reserved 492 

3154B Reserved 492 

3155B Reserved 492 

3156B Reserved 492 

3157B Reserved 492 

3158B Reserved 492 

3159B Reserved 492 

3160B 492 

3161B 492 

3162B Anti-Entrapment Devices and Systems 493 

CHAPTER 31C RADIATION 499 

Section 

3101C Scope 499 

3102C Radiation Shielding Barriers 499 

3103C Medical Radiographic and ^..^ 

Photofluorographic Installations 499 AB 

3104C Medical Therapeutic X-Ray Installations 499 ^^ 

CHAPTER 31D FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS 503 

Section 

3101D Scope 503 

3102D Definitions 503 

3103B Building and Structures 503 

CHAPTER 31E RESERVED 505 

CHAPTER 31F MARINE OIL TERMINALS 509 

Section 

3101F Introduction 509 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



3102F Audit and Inspection 510 

3103F Structural Loading Criteria 521 

3104F Seismic Analysis and 

Structural Performance 536 

3105F Mooring and Berthing 

Analysis and Design 543 

3106F Geotechnical Hazards and Foundations 548 

3107F Structural Analysis and 

Design of Components 552 

3108F Fire Prevention, Detection and Suppression . . 566 

3109F Piping and Pipelines 570 

3110F Mechanical and Electrical Equipment 573 

31 1 IF Electrical Systems 576 

CHAPTER 32 ENCROACHMENTS INTO THE 

PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY 581 

Section 

3201 General 581 

3202 Encroachments 581 

CHAPTER 33 SAFEGUARDS DURING 

CONSTRUCTION 585 

Section 

3301 General 585 

3302 Construction Safeguards 585 

3303 Demolition 585 

3304 Site Work 585 

3305 Sanitary 585 

3306 Protection of Pedestrians 586 

3307 Protection of Adjoining Property 587 

3308 Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys and 

Public Property 587 

3309 Fire Extinguishers 587 

3310 Means of Egress 588 

3311 Standpipes 588 

3312 Automatic Sprinkler System 588 

CHAPTER 34 EXISTING STRUCTURES 591 

Section 

3401 General 591 

3402 Definitions 592 

3403 Additions 593 

3404 Alterations 593 

3405 Repairs. . 594 

3406 Fire Escapes 596 

3407 Glass Replacement 596 

3408 Change of Occupancy 596 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



3409 Historic Buildings 597 

3410 Moved Structures 597 

3411 Accessibility for Existing Buildings 597 

3412 Compliance Alternatives 599 

3413 Existing Group R-1 and Group R-2 

Occupancies [SFM] 608 

3414 Existing High-Rise Buildings [SFM] 611 

3415 Existing Group I Occupancies [SFM] 613 

3416 Existing Group L Occupancies [SFM] 614 

3417 Earthquake Evaluation and Design for 

Retrofit of Existing Buildings 614 

3418 Definitions 617 

3419 Seismic Criteria Selection for 

Existing Buildings 618 

3420 Method A 621 

3421 Method B 621 

3422 Peer Review Requirements 622 

3423 Additional Requirements for Public 

Schools and Community Colleges 623 

CHAPTER 34A EXISTING STRUCTURES 627 

Section 

3401A General 627 

3402A Definitions 627 

3403A Additions 628 

3404A Alterations 629 

3405A Repairs 630 

3406A Fire Escapes 63 1 

3407A Glass Replacement 631 

3408A Change of Occupancy 631 

3409A Historic Buildings 632 

3410A Moved Structures 632 

341 1 A Additions, Alterations, Repairs and 

Seismic Retrofit to Existing Buildings 
or Structures Designed in Accordance 
v^ith Pre- 1973 Building Code 632 

3412A Compliance Alternatives for Additions, 
Alterations, Repairs and Seismic 
Retrofit to Existing Structures 632 

3413A Modifications to ASCE 41 634 

3414A Peer Review Requirements 636 

341 5 A Earthquake Monitoring Instruments 

for Existing Buildings 637 

xxxi 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 35 REFERENCED STANDARDS 641 

APPENDIX A EMPLOYEE 

QUALIFICATIONS 671 

Section 

A 101 Building Official Qualifications 671 

A102 Referenced Standards 671 

APPENDIX B BOARD OF APPEALS 675 

Section 

BlOl General 675 

APPENDIX C GROUP U— AGRICULTURAL 

BUILDINGS 679 

Section 

ClOl General 679 

C102 Allowable Height and Area 679 

C103 Mixed Occupancies 679 

C104 Exits 679 

APPENDIX D FIRE DISTRICTS 683 

Section 

DlOl General 683 

D102 Building Restrictions 683 

D103 Changes to Buildings 684 

D104 Buildings Located Partially in the 

Fire District 684 

D105 Exceptions to Restrictions in Fire District . . . 684 

D106 Referenced Standards 685 

APPENDIX E RESERVED 689 

APPENDIX F RODENTPROOFING 693 

Section 

FlOl General 693 

APPENDIX G FLOOD-RESISTANT 

CONSTRUCTION 697 

Section 

GlOl Administration 697 

G102 Applicability 697 

G103 Powers and Duties 697 

G104 Permits 698 

G105 Variances 698 

G201 Definitions 699 

G301 Subdivisions 700 

G401 Site Improvement 700 

xxxii 



G501 Manufactured Homes 700 

G601 Recreational Vehicles 700 

G701 Tanks 701 

G801 Other Building Work 701 

G901 Temporary Structures and 

Temporary Storage 701 

GlOOl Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 701 

GllOl Referenced Standards 702 

APPENDIX H SIGNS 705 

Section 

HlOl General 705 

H102 Definitions 705 

H103 Location 705 

H104 Identification 705 

H105 Design and Construction 706 

H106 Electrical 706 

H107 Combustible Materials 706 

H108 Animated Devices 706 

H109 Ground Signs 706 

HllO Roof Signs 707 

Hill Wall Signs 707 

HI 12 Projecting Signs 707 

HI 13 Marquee Signs 708 

HI 14 Portable Signs 708 

HI 15 Referenced Standards 708 

APPENDIX I PATIO COVERS 711 

Section 

1101 General 711 

1102 Definitions 711 

1103 Exterior Openings 711 

1104 Structural Provisions 711 

APPENDIX J GRADING 715 

Section 

JlOl General 715 

J102 Definitions 715 

J103 Permits Required 715 

J 104 Permit Application and Submittals 715 

J105 Inspections 716 

J106 Excavations 716 

J107 Fills 719 

J108 Setbacks 721 

J109 Drainage and Terracing 721 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Jl 10 Erosion Control 721 

Jill Referenced Standards 721 

APPENDIX K GROUP R-3 AND GROUP R-3.1 
OCCUPANCIES PROTECTED 
BY THE FACILITIES OF THE 
CENTRAL VALLEY FLOOD 
PROTECTION PLAN 723 

Section 

KlOl Scope 723 

K102 Definitions 723 

K103 Structural Stability 724 

K104 Evacuation Locations 724 

K105 Space within the Building 724 

K106 Decks and Balconies that are 

Evacuation Locations 724 

K107 Rooftop Evacuation Locations 727 

K108 Attics that are Evacuation Locations 727 

K109 Alternate Means of Protection 727 

INDEX 729 

HISTORY NOTE 769 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE xxxiii 



xxxiv 2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 16 - STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 






















X 




















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 


X 




X 


X 








X 




X 






















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 










X 


X 


























X 




Chapter/Section 










































1601.1.1 
















X 


























1601.1.2 
















X 


























1601.1.3 
















X 


























1601.1.4 
















X 


























1601.2 
















X 




X 






















1601.3 
















X 




X 






















1602.1 




















X 






















1603.1 




















X 






















1607.1, Table 1607.1 




















X 






















1607.7 






X 


X 


X 
































1607.7.2 






X 


X 


X 


X 






























1612.3 




















X 






















1613.1 




















X 






















1613.1.1 






































X 




1613.1.2 


X 








































1613.3.1 ^ 


X 








































1613.5.1 




















X 






















1613.5.6 




















X 






















1613.5.6.1 




















X 






















1613.5.6.2 




















X 






















1613.6.3 


X 








































1613.6.9 


X 








































1615.1.1 
















X 


























1615.1.2 
















X 


























1615.1.3 
















X 


























1615.2.1.1 
















X 


























1615.2.1.2 
















X 


























1615.2.1.3 
















X 


























1615.3.1 
















X 


























1615.4 
















X 


























1615.5.1.1 
















X 


























1615.5.1.2 
















X 


























1615.5.1.3 
















X 


























1615.5.1.4 
















X 


























1615.5.1.5 
















X 


























1615.5.1.6 
















X 



























(continued) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 16 - STRUCTURAL DESIGN— continued 



Adopting agency 


BSD 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


ORA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 






















X 




















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 


X 




X 


X 








X 




X 






















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 










X 


X 


























X 




Chapter/Section 










































1615.5.2 
















X 


























1615.6 
















X 


























1615.7.1 
















X 


























1615.7.2 
















X 


























1615.8 
















X 


























1615.9.1 
















X 


























1615.9.2 - Active Earthquake 
Fault 
















X 


























1615.9.2 -Base 
















X 


























1615.9.2 - Distance for an 
Active Earthquake Fault 
















X 


























1615.9.2 - Irregular Structure 
















X 


























1615.9.2 - Next Generation 
Attenuation (NGA) 
















X 


























1615.9.2 - Structural Elements 
















X 


























1615.9.3 
















X 


























1615.9.4 
















X 


























1615.9.4.1 
















X 


























1615.9.4.2 
















X 


























1615.9.5 
















X 


























1615.9.6 
















X 


























1615.10 
















X 


























1615.10.1 
















X 


























1615.10.2 
















X 


























1615.10.3 
















X 


























1615.10.4 
















X 


























1615.10.5 
















X 


























1615.10.6 
















X 


























1615.10.7 
















X 


























1615.10.8 
















X 


























1615.10.9 
















X 


























1615.10.10 
















X 


























1615.10.11 
















X 


























1615.10.12 
















X 


























1615.10.13 
















X 


























1615.10.14 
















X 


























1615.10.15 
















X 



























(continued) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 16 - STRUCTURAL DESIGN— continued 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DBA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


GEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


SS 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 






















X 




















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 


X 




X 


X 








X 




X 






















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 










X 


X 


























X 




Chapter/Section 










































1615.10.16 
















X 


























1615.10.17 
















X 


























1615.10.18 
















X 


























1615.10.19 
















X 


























1615.10.20 
















X 


























1615.10.21 
















X 


























1615.10.22 
















X 


























1615.10.23 
















X 


























1615.10.24 
















X 


























1615.10.25 
















X 


























1615.10.26 
















X 





































































2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 16 

STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



n 



SECTION 1601 
GENERAL 

1601.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
structural design of buildings, structures and portions thereof 
regulated by this code. 

1601.1.1 Application, [DSA-SS/CC] The scope of applica- 
tion of Chapter 16 is as follows: 

Community college buildings regulated by the Division 
of the State Architect-Structural Safety/Community Col- 
leges (DSA-SS/CC), as listed in Section 1.9.2,2, 

1601.1.2 Identification of amendments, [DSA-SS/CC] 
Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety/Commu- 
nity Colleges (DSA-SS/CC) amendments appear in this 
chapter preceded with the appropriate acronym, as follows: 

Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety/Com- 
munity Colleges: [DSA-SS/CC] - For community college 
buildings listed in Section 1.9.2,2, 

1601.1.3 Reference to other chapters. [DSA-SS/CC] 

Where reference within this chapter is made to sections in 
Chapters 17 and 18, the provisions in Chapters 17 A and 
18A respectively shall apply instead. 

1601.1.4 Amendments. [DSA-SS/CC] See Section 161 5 for 
additional requirements. 

1601.2 References, [DSA-SS/CC, OSHPD 2] All referenced 
codes and standards listed in Chapter 35 shall include all the 
modifications contained in this code to referenced standards. 
In the event of any discrepancy between this code and a refer- 
enced standard, refer to Section 1.1.7. 

1601.3 Enforcement agency approval, [DSA-SS/CC, 

OSHPD 2] In addition to requirements ofCCR Title 24, Parts 1 
Sl 2, any aspect of project design, construction, quality assur- 
ance or quality control programs for which this code requires 
approval by the design professional are also subject to 
approval by the enforcement agency. 



SECTION 1602 
DEFINITIONS AND NOTATIONS 

1602.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter, have the meanings shown herein. 

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. A method of proportion- 
ing structural members, such that elastically computed stresses 
produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed spec- 
ified allowable stresses (also called "working stress design"). 

DEAD LOADS. The weight of materials of construction 
incorporated into the building, including but not limited to 
walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, fin- 
ishes, cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural 



and structural items, and the weight of fixed service equipment, 
such as cranes, plumbing stacks and risers, electrical feeders, 
heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems and 
automatic sprinkler systems. , 

DESIGN STRENGTH. The product of the nominal strength 
and a resistance factor (or strength reduction factor). 

DIAPHRAGM. A horizontal or sloped system acting to trans- 
mit lateral forces to the vertical-resisting elements. When the 
term "diaphragm" is used, it shall include horizontal bracing 
systems. 

Diaphragm, blocked. In light-frame construction, a dia- 
phragm in which all sheathing edges not occurring on a 
framing member are supported on and fastened to blocking. 

Diaphragm boundary. In light- frame construction, a loca- 
tion where shear is transferred into or out of the diaphragm 
sheathing. Transfer is either to a boundary element or to 
another force-resisting element. 

Diaphragm chord. A diaphragm boundary element per- 
pendicular to the applied load that is assumed to take axial 
stresses due to the diaphragm moment. 

Diaphragm flexible. A diaphragm is flexible for the pur- 
pose of distribution of story shear and torsional moment 
where so indicated in Section 12.3. 1 of ASCE 7, as modified 
in Section 1613.6.1. 

Diaphragm, rigid. A diaphragm is rigid for the purpose of 
distribution of story shear and torsional moment when the 
lateral deformation of the diaphragm is less than or equal to 
two times the average story drift. 

DURATION OF LOAD. The period of continuous applica- 
tion of a given load, or the aggregate of periods of intermittent 
applications of the same load. 

ENFORCEMENT AGENT. [OSHPD 2] That individual 
within the agency or organization charged with responsibility 
for agency or organization compliance with the requirements 
of this code. Used interchangeably with "Building Official" or 
"Code Official." 

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES. Buildings and other structures 
that are intended to remain operational in the event of extreme 
environmental loading from flood, wind, snow or earthquakes. 

FABRIC PARTITION. A partition consisting of a finished 
surface made of fabric, without a continuous rigid backing, that 
is directly attached to a framing system in which the vertical 
framing members are spaced greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) on 
center. 

FACTORED LOAD. The product of a nominal load and a load 
factor. 

GUARD. See Section 1002.1. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



IMPACT LOAD. The load resulting from moving machinery, 
elevators, craneways, vehicles and other similar forces and 
kinetic loads, pressure and possible surcharge from fixed or 
moving loads. 

LIMIT STATE. A condition beyond which a structure or 
member becomes unfit for service and is j udged to be no longer 
useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to 
be unsafe (strength limit state). 

LIVE LOADS. Those loads produced by the use and occu- 
pancy of the building or other structure and do not include con- 
struction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, 
rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load. 

LIVE LOADS (ROOF). Those loads produced (1) during 
maintenance by workers, equipment and materials; and (2) 
during the life of the structure by movable objects such as 
planters and by people. 

LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). A 

method of proportioning structural members and their connec- 
tions using load and resistance factors such that no applicable 
limit state is reached when the structure is subjected to appro- 
priate load combinations. The term "LRFD" is used in the 
design of steel and wood structures. 

LOAD EFFECTS. Forces and deformations produced in 
structural members by the applied loads. 

LOAD FACTOR. A factor that accounts for deviations of the 
actual load from the nominal load, for uncertainties in the analy- 
sis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the proba- 
bihty that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously. 

LOADS. Forces or other actions that result from the weight of 
building materials, occupants and their possessions, environ- 
mental effects, differential movement and restrained dimen- 
sional changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which 
variations over time are rare or of small magnitude, such as 
dead loads. All other loads are variable loads (see also ''Nomi- 
nal loads"). 

NOMINAL LOADS. The magnitudes of the loads specified in 
this chapter (dead, live, soil, wind, snow, rain, flood and earth- 
quake). 

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY. A category used to determine 
structural requirements based on occupancy. 

OTHER STRUCTURES. Structures, other than buildings, 
for which loads are specified in this chapter. 

PANEL (PART OF A STRUCTURE). The section of a floor, 
wall or roof comprised between the supporting frame of two 
adjacent rows of columns and girders or column bands of floor 
or roof construction. 

RESISTANCE FACTOR. A factor that accounts for devia- 
tions of the actual strength from the nominal strength and the 
manner and consequences of failure (also called "strength 
reduction factor"). 

STRENGTH, NOMINAL. The capacity of a structure or 
member to resist the effects of loads, as determined by compu- 
tations using specified material strengths and dimensions and 
equations derived from accepted principles of structural 
mechanics or by field tests or laboratory tests of scaled models. 



allowing for modeling effects and differences between labora- 
tory and field conditions. 

STRENGTH, REQUIRED. Strength of a member, cross sec- 
tion or connection required to resist factored loads or related 
internal moments and forces in such combinations as stipulated 
by these provisions. 

STRENGTH DESIGN. A method of proportioning structural 
members such that the computed forces produced in the mem- 
bers by factored loads do not exceed the member design 
strengtii [also called "load and resistance factor design'' 
(LRFD)]. The term "strength design" is used in the design of 
concrete and masonry structural elements. 

VEHICLE BARRIER SYSTEM. A system of building com- 
ponents near open sides of a garage floor or ramp or building 
walls that act as restraints for vehicles. 

NOTATIONS. 

D = Dead load. 

E = Combined effect of horizontal and vertical 
earthquake induced forces as defined in Section 

12.4.2ofASCE7. 

F = Load due to fluids with well-defined pressures and 
maximum heights. 

F^ = Flood load in accordance with Chapter 5 of ASCE 7. I 

H = Load due to lateral earth pressures, ground water 
pressure or pressure of bulk materials. 

L = Live load, except roof live load, including any per- 
mitted live load reduction. 

L^ = Roof live load including any permitted live load 
reduction. 

R = Rain load. 

S = Snow load. 

T = Self-straining force arising from contraction or 
expansion resulting from temperature change, 
shrinkage, moisture change, creep in component 
materials, movement due to differential settlement 
or combinations thereof. 

W = Load due to wind pressure. 



SECTION 1603 
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 

1603.1 General. Construction documents shall show the size, 
section and relative locations of structural members with floor 
levels, column centers and offsets dimensioned. The design 
loads and other information pertinent to the structural design 
required by Sections 1603.1.1 through 1603. L9 shall be indi- 
cated on the construction documents. 

Exception: Construction documents for buildings con- 
structed in accordance with the conventional light-frame 
construction provisions of Section 2308 shall indicate the 
following structural design information: 

1. Floor and roof live loads. 

2. Ground snow load, P„. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



3. Basic wind speed (3-second gust), miles per hour 
(mph) (km/hr) and wind exposure. 

4. Seismic design category and site class. 

5. Flood design data, if located in flood hazard areas 
established in Section 1612.3. 

6. Design load-bearing values of soils. 

[OSHPD 2] Additional requirements are included in Sections 
7-115 and 7-125 of the California Administrative Code (Part 1, 
Title 24, C.C.R). 

1603.1.1 Floor live load. The uniformly distributed, con- 
centrated and impact floor live load used in the design shall 
be indicated for floor areas. Use of live load reduction in 
accordance with Section 1607.9 shall be indicated for each 
type of live load used in the design. 

1603.1.2 Roof live load. The roof live load used in the 
design shall be indicated for roof areas (Section 1607.1 1). 

1603.1.3 Roof snow load. The ground snow load, Pg, shall be 
indicated. In areas where the ground snow load, P^, exceeds 
10 pounds per square foot (psf) (0.479 kN/m^), the following 
additional information shall also be provided, regardless of 
whether snow loads govern the design of the roof: 

1. Flat-roof snow load, P^ 

2. Snow exposure factor, C^. 

3. Snow load importance factor, /. 

4. Thermal factor, Q. 

1603.1.4 Wind design data. The following information 
related to wind loads shall be shown, regardless of whether 
wind loads govern the design of the lateral-force-resisting 
system of the building: 

1. Basic wind speed (3-second gust), miles per hour 
(km/hr). 

2. Wind importance factor, /, and occupancy category. 

3. Wind exposure. Where more than one wind exposure 
is utilized, the wind exposure and applicable wind 
direction shall be indicated. 

4. The applicable internal pressure coefficient. 

5. Components and cladding. The design wind pres- 
sures in terms of psf (kN/m^) to be used for the design 
of exterior component and cladding materials not spe- 
cifically designed by the registered design profes- 
sional. 

1603.1.5 Earthquake design data. The following informa- 
tion related to seismic loads shall be shown, regardless of 
whether seismic loads govern the design of the lateral- 
force-resisting system of the building: 

1. Seismic importance factor, /, and occupancy cate- 
gory. 

2. Mapped spectral response accelerations, Ss and 5;. 

3. Site class, 

4. Spectral response coefficients, ^£,5 and S^^j. 

5. Seismic design category. 



6. Basic seismic-force-resisting system(s). 

7. Design base shear. 

8. Seismic response coefficient(s), Q. 

9. Response modification factor(s), R. 
10. Analysis procedure used. 

1603.1.6 Geotechnical information. The design load- 
bearing values of soils shall be shown on the construction 
documents. 

1603.1.7 Flood design data. For buildings located in whole 
or in part in flood hazard areas as established in Section 
1612.3, the documentation pertaining to design, if required 
in Section 1612.5, shall be included and the following infor- 
mation, referenced to the datum on the conmiunity's Flood 
Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), shall be shown, regardless of 
whether flood loads govern the design of the building: 

1 . In flood hazard areas not subject to high-velocity 
wave action, the elevation of the proposed lowest 
floor, including the basement. 

2. In flood hazard areas not subject to high-velocity 
wave action, the elevation to which any nonresiden- 
tial building will be dry floodproofed. 

3. In flood hazard areas subject to high- velocity wave 
action, the proposed elevation of the bottom of the 
lowest horizontal structural member of the lowest 
floor, including the basement. 

1603.1.8 Special loads. Special loads that are applicable to 
the design of the building, structure or portions thereof shall 
be indicated along with the specified section of this code 
that addresses the special loading condition. 

1603.1.9 Systems and components requiring special 
inspections for seismic resistance. Construction docu- 
ments or specifications shall be prepared for those systems 
and components requiring special inspection for seismic 
resistance as specified in Section 1707.1 by the registered 
design professional responsible for their design and shall be 
submitted for approval in accordance with Section 107.1, 
Chapter 7, Division 11. Reference to seismic standards in 
lieu of detailed drawings is acceptable. 

SECTION 1604 
GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 

1604.1 General. Building, structures and parts thereof shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with strength design, 
load and resistance factor design, allowable stress design, 
empirical design or conventional construction methods, as per- 
mitted by the applicable material chapters. 

1604.2 Strength. Buildings and other structures, and parts 
thereof, shall be designed and constructed to support safely the 
factored loads in load combinations defined in this code with- 
out exceeding the appropriate strength limit states for the mate- 
rials of construction. Alternatively, buildings and other 
structures, and parts thereof, shall be designed and constructed 
to support safely the nominal loads in load combinations 
defined in this code without exceeding the appropriate speci- 
fied allowable stresses for the materials of construction. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



Loads and forces for occupancies or uses not covered in this 
chapter shall be subject to the approval of the building official. 

1604.3 Serviceability. Structural systems and members 
thereof shall be designed to have adequate stiffness to limit 
deflections and lateral drift. See Section 12, 12. 1 of ASCE 7 for 
drift limits applicable to earthquake loading. 

1604.3.1 Deflections. The deflections of structural mem- 
bers shall not exceed the more restrictive of the limitations 
of Sections 1604.3.2 through 1604.3.5 or that permitted by 
Table 1604.3. 

TABLE 1604.3 
DEFLECTION LIMITS^' '''*=' "^^ ' 



CONSTRUCTION 


L 


Soriy' 


D+U"'^ 


Roof members:^ 

Supporting plaster ceiling 
Supporting nonplaster ceiling 
Not supporting ceiling 


1/360 
//240 
//1 80 


//360 
//240 
//1 80 


1/240 
//ISO 
//1 20 


Roor members 


//360 


— 


//240 


Exterior walls and interior partitions: 
With brittle finishes 
With flexible finishes 


— 


//240 
//1 20 


— 


Farm buildings 


— 


— 


//1 80 


Greenhouses 


-^ 


— 


//120 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. For structural roofing and siding made of formed metal sheets, the total load 
deflection shall not exceed //60. For secondary roof structural members sup- 
porting formed metal roofing, the live load deflection shall not exceed //1 50, 
For secondary wall members supporting formed metal siding, the design 
wind load deflection shall not exceed 1/90. For roofs, this exception only 
applies when the metal sheets have no roof covering. 

b. Interior partitions not exceeding 6 feet in height and flexible, folding and 
portable partitions are not governed by the provisions of this section. The 
deflection criterion for interior partitions is based on the horizontal load 
defined in Section 1607.13. 

c. See Section 2403 for glass supports. 

d. For wood strucmral members having a moisture content of less than 1 6 per- 
cent at time of installation and used under dry conditions, the deflection 
resulting from L + 0.5D is permitted to be substituted for the deflection 
resulting from L + D. 

e. The above deflections do not ensure against ponding. Roofs that do not have 
sufficient slope or camber to assure adequate drainage shall be investigated 
for ponding. See Section 1611 for rain and ponding requirements and Sec- 
tion 1503.4 for roof drainage requirements. 

f. The wind load is permitted to be taken as 0.7 times the "component and clad- 
ding" loads for the purpose of determining deflection limits herein. 

g. For steel structural members, the dead load shall be taken as zero. 

h. For aluminum structural members or aluminum panels used in skylights and 
sloped glazing framing, roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, 
not supporting edge of glass or aluminum sandwich panels, the total load 
deflection shall not exceed //60. For continuous aluminum structural members 
supporting edge of glass, the total load deflection shall not exceed 1/115 for 
each glass lite or //60 for the entire length of the member, whichever is more 
stringent. For aluminum sandwich panels used in roofs or walls of sunroom 
additions or patio covers, the total load deflection shall not exceed //120. 

i. For cantilever members, / shall be taken as twice the length of the cantilever. 

1604.3.2 Reinforced concrete. The deflection of rein- 
forced concrete structural members shall not exceed that 
permitted by ACI 318. 

1604.3.3 Steel. The deflection of steel structural members 
shall not exceed that permitted by AISC 360, AISI SlOO, 
ASCE 3, ASCE 8, SJI CJ-1.0, SJI JG-1.1, SJI K-1.1 or SJI 
LH/DLH-1.1, as applicable. 



1604.3.4 Masonry. The deflection of masonry structural 
members shall not exceed that permitted by TMS 402/ACI 
530/ASCE 5. 

1604.3.5 Aluminum. The deflection of aluminum struc- 
tural members shall not exceed that permitted by AA 
ADMl. 

1604.3.6 Limits. Deflection of structural members over 
span, /, shall not exceed that permitted by Table 1604.3. 

1604.4 Analysis. Load effects on structural members and their 
connections shall be determined by methods of structural anal- 
ysis that take into account equilibrium, general stability, geo- 
metric compatibility and both short- and long-term material 
properties. 

Members that tend to accumulate residual deformations 
under repeated service loads shall have included in their analy- 
sis the added eccentricities expected to occur during their ser- 
vice life. 

Any system or method of construction to be used shall be 
based on a rational analysis in accordance with well-estabHshed 
principles of mechanics. Such analysis shall result in a system 
that provides a complete load path capable of transferring loads 
from their point of origin to the load-resisting elements. 

The total lateral force shall be distributed to the various verti- 
cal elements of the lateral-force-resisting system in proportion 
to their rigidities, considering the rigidity of the horizontal 
bracing system or diaphragm. Rigid elements assumed not to 
be a part of the lateral-force-resisting system are permitted to 
be incorporated into buildings provided their effect on the 
action of the system is considered and provided for in the 
design. Except where diaphragms are flexible, or are permitted 
to be analyzed as flexible, provisions shall be made for the 
increased forces induced on resisting elements of the structural 
system resulting from torsion due to eccentricity between the 
center of application of the lateral forces and the center of rigid- 
ity of the lateral-force-resisting system. 

Every structure shall be designed to resist the overturning 
effects caused by the lateral forces specified in this chapter. See 
Section 1609 for wind loads, Section 1610 for lateral soil loads 
and Section 1613 for earthquake loads. 

1604.5 Occupancy category. Each building and structure 
shall be assigned an occupancy category in accordance with 
Table 1604.5. 

1604.5.1 Multiple occupancies. Where a building or struc- 
ture is occupied by two or more occupancies not included in 
the same occupancy category, it shall be assigned the classifi- 
cation of the highest occupancy category corresponding to 
the various occupancies. Where buildings or structures have 
two or more portions that are structurally separated, each por- 
tion shall be separately classified. Where a separated portion 
of a building or structure provides required access to, 
required egress from or shares life safety components with 
another portion having a higher occupancy category, both 
portions shall be assigned to the higher occupancy category. 

1604.6 In-situ load tests. The building official is authorized to 
require an engineering analysis or a load test, or both, of any 
construction whenever there is reason to question the safety of 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



the construction for the intended occupancy. Engineering anal- 
ysis and load tests shall be conducted in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1714. 

1604.7 Preconstniction load tests. Materials and methods of 
construction that are not capable of being designed by 
approved engineering analysis or that do not comply with the 
applicable material design standards listed in Chapter 35, or 
alternative test procedures in accordance with Section 1712, 
shall be load tested in accordance with Section 1715. 

1604.8 Anchorage. 

1604.8.1 General. Anchorage of the roof to walls and col- 
umns, and of walls and columns to foundations, shall be 
provided to resist the uplift and sliding forces that result 
from the application of the prescribed loads. 

1604.8.2 Walls. Walls shall be anchored to floors, roofs and 
other structural elements that provide lateral support for the 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



wall. Such anchorage shall provide a positive direct connec- 
tion capable of resisting the horizontal forces specified in 
this chapter but not less than the minimum strength design 
horizontal force specified in Section 1 1 .7.3 of ASCE 7, sub- 
stituted for "£" in the load combinations of Section 1605.2 
or 1605.3. Concrete and masonry walls shall be designed to 
resist bending between anchors where the anchor spacing 
exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm). Required anchors in masonry 
walls of hollow units or cavity walls shall be embedded in a 
reinforced grouted structural element of the wall. See Sec- 
tions 1 609 for wind design requirements and 1 6 1 3 for earth- 
quake design requirements. 

1604.8.3 Decks. Where supported by attachment to an exte- 
rior wall, decks shall be positively anchored to the primary 
structure and designed for both vertical and lateral loads as 
applicable. Such attachment shall not be accomplished by 
the use of toenails or hails subject to withdrawal. Where 



TABLE 1604.5 
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY OF BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES 



OCCUPANCY 
CATEGORY 


NATURE OF OCCUPANCY 


I 


Buildings and other structures that represent a low hazard to human life in the event of failure, including but not limited to: 

• Agricultural facilities. 

• Certain temporary facilities. 

• Minor storage facihties. 


II 


Buildings and other structures except those listed in Occupancy Categories I, III and IV 


m 


Buildings and other structures that represent a substantial hazard to human life in the event of failure, including but not 
limited to: 

• Buildings and other structures whose primary occupancy is public assembly with an occupant load greater than 300. 

• Buildings and other structures containing elementary school, secondary school or day care facilities with an occupant 
load greater than 250. 

• Buildings and other structures containing adult education facilities, such as colleges and universities, with an occupant 
load greater than 500. 

• Group 1-2 occupancies with an occupant load of 50 or more resident patients but not having surgery or emergency 
treatment facilities. 

• Group 1-3 occupancies, 

• Any other occupancy with an occupant load greater than 5,000^. 

• Power-generating stations, water treatment facilities for potable water, waste water treatment facilities and other pub- 
lic utility facihties not included in Occupancy Category IV. 

• Buildings and other structures not included in Occupancy Category IV containing sufficient quantities of toxic or ex- 
plosive substances to be dangerous to the public if released. 


IV 


Buildings and other structures designated as essential facihties, including but not limited to: 

• Group 1-2 occupancies having surgery or emergency treatment facilities. [OSHPD 3] For OSHPD 3 facilities, see Sec- 
tion 308.3,2. 

• Fire, rescue, ambulance and pohce stations and emergency vehicle garages. 

• Designated earthquake, hurricane or other emergency shelters. 

• Designated emergency preparedness, communications and operations centers and other facilities required for emer- 
gency response. 

• Power-generating stations and other pubhc utility facilities required as emergency backup facilities for Occupancy 
Category IV structures. 

• Structures containing highly toxic materials as defined by Section 307 where the quantity of the material exceeds the 
maximum allowable quantities of Table 307. 1 (2). 

• Aviation control towers, air traffic control centers and emergency aircraft hangars. 

• Buildings and other structures having critical national defense functions. 

• Water storage facihties and pump structures required to maintain water pressure for fire suppression. 



a. For purposes of occupant load calculation, occupancies required by Table 1004. 1. 1 to use gross floor area calculations shall be permitted to use net floor areas to 
determine the total occupant load. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



positive connection to the primary building structure cannot 
be verified during inspection, decks shall be self-support- 
ing. Connections of decks with cantilevered framing mem- 
bers to exterior walls or other framing members shall be 
designed for both of the following: 

1. The reactions resulting from the dead load and live 
load specified in Table 1607. 1, or the snow load spec- 
ified in Section 1608, in accordance with Section 
1605, acting on all portions of the deck. 

2, The reactions resulting from the dead load and live 
load specified in Table 1607.1, or the snow load spec- 
ified in Section 1608, in accordance with Section 
1605, acting on the cantilevered portion of the deck, 
and no live load or snow load on the remaining por- 
tion of the deck. 

1604.9 Counteracting structural actions. Structural mem- 
bers, systems, components and cladding shall be designed to 
resist forces due to earthquake and wind, with consideration of 
overturning, sliding and uplift. Continuous load paths shall be 
provided for transmitting these forces to the foundation. Where 
sliding is used to isolate the elements, the effects of friction 
between sliding elements shall be included as a force. 

1604.10 Wind and seismic detailing. Lateral-force-resisting 
systems shall meet seismic detailing requirements and limita- 
tions prescribed in this code and ASCE 7, excluding Chapter 
14 and Appendix 1 1 A, even when wind load effects are greater 
than seismic load effects. 



SECTION 1605 
LOAD COMBINATIONS 

1605.1 General. Buildings and other structures and portions 
thereof shall be designed to resist: 

1. The load combinations specified in Section 1605,2, 
1605.3.1 or 1605.3.2, 

2. The load combinations specified in Chapters 18 through 
23, and 

3. The load combinations with overstrength factor speci- 
fied in Section 12.4.3.2 of ASCE 7 where required by 
Section 12.2.5.2, 12.3.3.3 or 12.10.2.1 of ASCE 7. With 
the simplified procedure of ASCE 7 Section 12.14, the 
load combinations with overstrength factor of Section 
12.14.3.2 of ASCE 7 shall be used. 

Applicable loads shall be considered, including both earth- 
quake and wind, in accordance with the specified load combi- 
nations. Each load combination shall also be investigated with 
one or more of the variable loads set to zero. 

Where the load combinations with overstrength factor in Sec- 
tion 12.4.3.2 of ASCE 7 apply, they shall be used as follows: 

1. The basic combinations for strength design with 
overstrength factor in Heu of Equations 16-5 and 16-7 in 
Section 1605.2.1. 

2. The basic combinations for allowable stress design with 
overstrength factor in lieu of Equations 16-12, 16-13 and 
16-15 in Section 1605.3.1. 



3. The basic combinations for allowable stress design with 
overstrength factor in lieu of Equations 16-20 and 16-21 
in Section 1605.3.2. 

1605.1.1 Stability. Regardless of which load combinations 
are used to design for strength, where overall structure sta- 
bility (such as stability against overturning, sliding, or buoy- 
ancy) is being verified, use of the load combinations 
specified in Section 1605.2 or 1605.3 shall be permitted. 
Where the load combinations specified in Section 1605.2 
are used, strength reduction factors applicable to soil resis- 
tance shall be provided by a registered design professional. 
The stability of retaining walls shall be verified in accor- 
dance with Section 1807.2.3. 

1605.2 Load combinations using strength design or load 
and resistance factor design. 

1605.2.1 Basic load combinations. Where strength design 
or load and resistance factor design is used, structures and 
portions thereof shall resist the most critical effects from the 
following combinations of factored loads: 

1.4(D+F) 



(Equation 16-1) 



L2(Z) + F+r) + L6(L + /f) + 
0.5(4 or 5 or/?) 



(Equation 16-2) 

1 .2D + 1 .6(L, or 5 or /?) + (/IL or 0.8 W) (Equation 16-3) 

L2D+ 1.6W+/iL + 0.5(L,or5or/?) (Equation 16-4) 

1 .2D + 1 .OE +f^L +f^S (Equation 16-5) 

0.9D+ 1.6W+ 1.6^ (Equation 16-6) 

0.9D + 1 .OE + 1 .67/ (Equation 16-7) 
where: 

/i = 1 for floors in places of public assembly, for live loads 
in excess of 100 pounds per square foot (4.79 kN/m^), 
and for parking garage live load, and 

= 0.5 for other live loads. 

/2 = 0.7 for roof configurations (such as saw tooth) that do 
not shed snow off the structure, and 

= 0.2 for other roof configurations. 

Exception: Where other factored load combinations are 
specifically required by the provisions of this code, such 
combinations shall take precedence. 

1605.2.2 Flood loads. Where flood loads, F^, are to be con- 
sidered in the design, the load combinations of Section 2.3.3 
of ASCE 7 shall be used. 

1605.3 Load combinations using allowable stress design. 

1605.3.1 Basic load combinations. Where allowable stress 
design (working stress design), as permitted by this code, is 
used, structures and portions thereof shall resist the most 
critical effects resulting from the following combinations of 



loads: 
D + F 

D-^H+F+L + T 
D+//+F+(L,or5or/?) 



(Equation 16-8) 

(Equation 16-9) 

(Equation 16-10) 



10 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



D + /f + F + 0.75(L + r) + 
0.75(L,or5ori?) 

Z)+//+F+(Wor0.7£) 

D + ^ + F + 0J5(W or 0.1 E) + 
0,75L + 0.75(L,or5ori?) 

0.6D + W+// 

0.6D + 0.7F+// 



(Equation 16-11) 
(Equation 16-12) 

(Equation 16-13) 
(Equation 16-14) 
(Equation 16-15) 



0.9D + E/1.4 



Exceptions: 



(Equation 16-21) 



Exceptions: 

1 . Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof 
Hve load or with more than three-fourths of the 
snow load or one-half of the wind load. 

2, Rat roof snow loads of 30 psf (1 .44 kN/m^) or less 
and roof live loads of 30 psf or less need not be 
combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof 
snow loads exceed 30 psf ( 1 .44 kN/m^), 20 percent 
shall be combined with seismic loads. 

1605.3.1.1 Stress increases. Increases in allowable 
stresses specified in the appropriate material chapter or 
the referenced standards shall not be used with the load 
combinations of Section 1605.3.1, except that increases 
shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 23. 

1605.3.1.2 Flood loads. Where flood loads, F^, are to be 
considered in design, the load combinations of Section 
2.4.2 of ASCE 7 shall be used. 

1605.3.2 Alternative basic load combinations. In lieu of the 
basic load combinations specified in Section 1605.3.1, struc- 
tures and portions thereof shall be permitted to be designed for 
the most critical effects resulting from the following combina- 
tions. When using these alternative basic load combinations 
that include wind or seismic loads, allowable stresses are per- 
mitted to be increased or load combinations reduced where 
permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced 
standards. For load combinations that include the counteract- 
ing effects of dead and wind loads, only two-thirds of the mini- 
mum dead load likely to be in place during a design wind event 
shall be used. Where wind loads are calculated in accordance 
with Chapter 6 of ASCE 7, the coefficient co in the following 
equations shall be taken as 1 .3. For other wind loads, CO shall be 
taken as 1. When using these alternative load combinations to 
evaluate sliding, overturning and soil bearing at the soil-struc- 
ture interface, the reduction of foundation overturning from 
Section 12. 13.4 in ASCE 7 shall not be used. When using these 
alternative basic load combinations for proportioning founda- 
tions for loadings, which include seismic loads, the vertical 
seismic load effect, E^, in Equation 12.4-4 of ASCE 7 is permit- 
ted to be taken equal to zero. 



D-\-L+(L,otSoxR) 
D + L + (a)W) 
D+L + coW+5/2 
D-HL + 5 + C0W2 

D+L + 5 + E/1.4 



(Equation 16-16) 
(Equation 16-17) 
(Equation 16-18) 
(Equation 16-19) 
(Equation 16-20) 



1 . Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof hve 
loads or with more than three-fourths of the snow load 
or one-half of the wind load. 

2. Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf ( 1 .44 kN/m^) or less and 
roof live loads of 30 psf or less need not be combined 
with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads 
exceed 30 psf (1 .44 kN/m^), 20 percent shall be com- 
bined with seismic loads. 

1605.3.2.1 Other loads. Where F,HotT are to be con- 
sidered in the design, each applicable load shall be added 
to the combinations specified in Section 1605.3.2. 

1605.4 Heliports and helistops. HeUport and helistop landing 
areas shall be designed for the following loads, combined in 
accordance with Section 1605: 

1 . Dead load, D, plus the gross weight of the helicopter, D^,, 
plus snow load, 5. 

2. Dead load, Z), plus two single concentrated impact loads, 
L, approximately 8 feet (2438 mm) apart applied any- 
where on the touchdown pad (representing each of the 
helicopter's two main landing gear, whether skid type or 
wheeled type), having a magnitude of 0.75 times the 
gross weight of the helicopter. Both loads acting together 
total 1.5 times the gross weight of the helicopter. 

3. Dead load, D, plus a uniform live load, L, of 100 psf (4.79 
kN/m2). 

Exception: Landing areas designed for helicopters with 
gross weights not exceeding 3,000 pounds (13.34 kN) in 
accordance with Items 1 and 2 shall be permitted to be 
designed using a 40 psf (1.92 kN/m^) uniform live load in 
Item 3, provided the landing area is identified with a 3,000- 
pound (13.34 kN) weight limitation. This 40 psf (1.92 
kN/m^) uniform live load shall not be reduced. The landing 
area weight Hmitation shall be indicated by the numeral "3" 
(kips) located in the bottom right comer of the landing area 
as viewed from the primary approach path. The indication 
for the landing area weight limitation shall be a minimum 5 
feet (1524 mm) in height. 



SECTION 1606 
DEAD LOADS 

1606.1 General. Dead loads are those loads defined in Section 
1602.1. Dead loads shall be considered permanent loads. 

1606.2 Design dead load. For purposes of design, the actual 
weights of materials of construction and fixed service equip- 
ment shall be used. In the absence of definite information, val- 
ues used shall be subject to the approval of the building official. 

SECTION 1607 
LIVE LOADS 

1607.1 General. Live loads are those loads defined in Section 
1602.1. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



11 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



TABLE 1607.1 
I MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED 
MINIMUM CONCENTRATED 



LIVE LOADS, L^ AND 
LIVE L0ADS9 



TABLE 1607.1— continued 
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS, L^, AND I 
MINIMUM CONCENTRATED LIVE LOADS^ 



OCCUPANCY OR USE 


UNIFORM 
(psf) 


CONCENTRATED 
(lbs.) 


1 . Apartments (see residential) 






2. Access floor systems 
Office use 
Computer use 


50 
100 


2,000 
2,000 


3. Armories and drill rooms 


150 


— 


4. Assembly areas and theaters 
Fixed seats (fastened to floor) 
Follow spot, projections and control 

rooms 
Lobbies 
Movable seats 
Stages and platforms 
Other assembly areas 


60 

50 
100 
100 
125 
100 


— 


5. Balconies (exterior) and decks'^ 


Same as 

occupancy 

served 


— 


6. Bowling alleys 


75 


— 


7. Catwalks 


40 


300 


8. Cornices 


60 


— 


9. Corridors, except as otherwise indicated 


100 


— 


10. Dance halls and ballrooms 


100 


— 


1 1 . Dining rooms and restaurants 


100 


— 


12. Dwellings (see residential) 


— 


— 


13. Elevator machine room grating 
(on area of 4 in^) 


— 


300 


14. Finish light floor plate construction 
(on area of 1 in-^) 


~ 


200 


15. Fire escapes 

On single-family dwellings only 


100 
40 


— 


16. Garages (passenger vehicles only) 
Trucks and buses 


40 ' Note a 
See Section 1607.6 


17. Grandstands 

(see stadium and arena bleachers) 


— 


18. Gymnasiums, main floors and balconies 


100 


19. Handrails, guards and grab bars 


See Section 1607.7 


20. Hospitals 

Corridors above first floor 
Operating rooms, laboratories 
Patient rooms 


80 
60 
40 


21. Hotels (see residential) 


— 


22. Libraries 

Corridors above first floor 
Reading rooms 
Stack rooms 


80 
60 
ISO'' 


23. Manufacturing 
Heavy 
Light 


250 
125 



OCCUPANCY OR USE 


UNIFORM 
(psf) 


CONCENTRATED 
(lbs.) 


24. Marquees 


75 




25. Office buildings- 
Corridors above first floor 
File and computer rooms shall be 
designed for heavier loads based 
on anticipated occupancy 
Lobbies and first-floor corridors 
Offices 


80 

100 
50 


2,000 

2,000 
2,000 


26. Penal institutions 
Cell blocks 
Corridors 


40 
100 


— 


27. Residential 

One- and two-family dwellings 
Uninhabitable attics without storage' 
Uninhabitable attics with limited 

storage'' J'*^ 
Habitable attics and sleeping areas 
All other areas 
Hotels and multifamily dwellings 
Private rooms and corridors 

serving them 
Public rooms and corridors serving 
them 


10 

20 

30 
40 

40 

100 


— 


28. Reviewing stands, grandstands and 
bleachers 


Notec 


29. Roofs 

All roof surfaces subject to maintenance 

workers 
Awnings and canopies 
Fabric construction supported by a 
lightweight rigid skeleton structure 
All other construction 
Ordinary flat, pitched, and curved roofs 
Primary roof members, exposed to a 
work floor 

Single panel point of lower chord of 
roof trusses or any point along 
primary structural members 
supporting roofs: 
Over manufacturing, storage ware- 
houses, and repair garages 
All other occupancies 
Roofs used for other special purposes 
Roofs used for promenade purposes 
Roofs used for roof gardens or 
assembly purposes 


5 

nonreducible 

20 

20 

Notel 
60 
100 


30. Schools • 
Classrooms 

Corridors above first floor 
First-floor corridors 


40 
80 
100 


31. Scuttles, skylight ribs and accessible 
ceilings 


— 


32. Sidewalks, vehicular driveways and 
yards, subject to trucking 


250^ 


33. Skating rinks 


100 


34. Stadiums and arenas 
Bleachers 
Fixed seats (fastened to floor) 


100^ 
60^ 



continued 



continued 



12 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



TABLE 1607.1— continued 
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS, L^ 
MINIMUM CONCENTRATED LIVE LOADS^ 



AND 



OCCUPANCY OR USE 


UNIFORM 
(psf) 


CONCENTRATED 
(lbs.) 


35. Stairs and exits 

One- and two-family dwellings 
All other 


40 
100 


Notef 


36. Storage warehouses 

(shall be designed for heavier loads if 
required for anticipated storage) 
Heavy 
Light 


250 
125 




37. Stores 

Retail 
First floor 
Upper floors 

Wholesale, all floors 


100 
75 
125 


1,000 
1,000 
1,000 


38. Vehicle barrier systems 


See Section 1607.7.3 


39. Walkways and elevated platforms 
(other than exitways) 


60 


— 


40. Yards and terraces, pedestrians 


100 


— 


41. [OSHPD 2] Storage racks andwall-hung 
cabinets 


Total 
loads^ 


— 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mnf , 
1 square foot = 0.0929 m\ 

1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m', 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 
1 pound per cubic foot - 16 kgAn^ 

a. Floors in garages or portions of buildings used for the storage of motor vehicles shall be 
designed for the uniformly distributed live loads of Table 1607.1 or the following con- 
centrated loads: (1) for garages restricted to passenger vehicles accommodating not 
more than nine passengers, 3,000 pounds acting on an area of 4.5 inches by 4.5 inches; 
(2) for mechanical parking structures without slab or deck which are used for storing 
passenger vehicles only, 2,250 pounds per wheel. 

b. The loading applies to stack room floors that support nonmobile, double-faced library 
bookstacks, subject to the following limitations: 

1 . The nominal bookstack unit height shall not exceed 90 inches; 

2. The nominal shelf depth shall not exceed 12 inches for each face; and 

3. Parallel rows of double-faced bookstacks shall be separated by aisles not less 
than 36 inches wide. 

c. Design in accordance with ICC 300. 

d. Other uniform loads in accordance with an approved method which contains provisions 
for truck loadings shall also be considered where appropriate. 

e. The concentrated wheel load shall be applied on an area of 4.5 inches by 4.5 inches. 

f . Minimum concentrated load on stair treads (on area of 4 square inches) is 300 pounds. 

g. Where snow loads occur that are in excess of the design conditions, the structure shall 
be designed to support the loads due to the increased loads caused by drift buildup or a 
greater snow design determined by the building official (see Section 1608). For spe- 
cial-purpose roofs, see Section 1607.11.2.2. 

h. See Section 1604.8.3 for decks attached to exterior walls. 

i. Attics without storage are those where the maximum clear height between the joist and 
rafter is less than 42 inches, or where there are not two or more adjacent trusses with the 
same web configuration capable of containing a rectangle 42 inches high by 2 feet 
wide, or greater, located within the plane of the truss. For attics without storage, this live 
load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirements, 
j. For attics with limited storage and constructed with trusses, this live load need only be 
applied to those portions of the bottom chord where there are two or more adjacent 
trusses with the same web configuration capable of containing a rectangle 42 inches 
high by 2 feet wide or greater, located within the plane of the truss. The rectangle shall 
fit between the top of the bottom chord and the bottom of any other truss member, pro- 
vided that each of the following criteria is met: 

i. The attic area is accessible by a pull-down stairway or framed opening in accor- 
dance with Section 1209.2, and 
ii. The truss shall have a bottom chord pitch less than 2: 12, 
iii. Bottom chords of trusses shall be designed for the greater of actual imposed dead 
load or 10 psf, uniformly distributed over the entire span, 
k. Attic spaces served by a fixed stair shall be designed to support the minimum live load 
specified for habitable attics and sleeping rooms. 



1, Roofs used for other special purposes shall be designed for appropriate loads as 

approved by the building official. 
m. [OSHPD 2] The minimum vertical design live load shall be as follows: 
Paper media: 

12-inch-deep (305 mm) shelf 33 pounds per lineal foot (482 N/m) 
15-inch-deep (381 mm) shelf 41 pounds per lineal foot (598 N/m), or 
33 pounds per cubic foot (5183 NM) per total volume of the rack or cabinet, 
whichever is less. 
Film media: 

18- inch-deep (457 mm) shelf 100 pounds per lineal foot (1459 N/m), or 
50 pounds per cubic foot (7853 N/m^) per total volume of the rack or cabinet, which- 
ever is less. 
Other media: 

20 pounds per cubic foot (311 N/n^) or 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa), 
whichever is less, but not less than actual loads. 

1607.2. Loads not specified. For occupancies or uses not des- 
ignated in Table 1607.1, the live load shall be determined in 
accordance with a method approved by the building official. 

1607.3 Uniform live loads. The live loads used in the design of 
buildings and other structures shall be the maximum loads 
expected by the intended use or occupancy but shall in no case 
be less than the minimum uniformly distributed unit loads 
required by Table 1607.1. 

1607.4 Concentrated loads. Floors and other similar surfaces 
shall be designed to. support the uniformly distributed live 
loads prescribed in Section 1607.3 or the concentrated load, in 
pounds (kilonewtons), given in Table 1607.1, whichever pro- 
duces the greater load effects. Unless otherwise specified, the 
indicated concentration shall be assumed to be uniformly dis- 
tributed over an area 2V2 feet by 2V2 feet [6V4 square feet (0.58 
m^)] and shall be located so as to produce the maximum load 
effects in the structural members. 

1607.5 Partition loads. In office buildings and in other build- 
ings where partition locations are subject to change, provisions 
for partition weight shall be made, whether or not partitions are 
shown on the construction documents, unless the specified live 
load exceeds 80 psf (3.83 kN/m^). The partition load shall not be 
less than a uniformly distributed live load of 15 psf (0.74 kN/m^). 

1607.6 Truck and bus garages. Minimum live loads for 
garages having trucks or buses shall be as specified in Table 
1607.6, but shall not be less than 50 psf (2.40 kN/m^), unless 
other loads are specifically justified and approvedhy the build- 
ing official. Actual loads shall be used where they are greater 
than the loads specified in the table. 

1607.6.1 Truck and bus garage live load application. The 

concentrated load and uniform load shall be uniformly dis- 
tributed over a 10-foot (3048 mm) width on a line normal to 
the centerline of the lane placed within a 12-foot- wide 
(3658 mm) lane. The loads shall be placed within their indi- 
vidual lanes so as to produce the maximum stress in each 
structural member. Single spans shall be designed for the 
uniform load in Table 1607.6 and one simultaneous concen- 
trated load positioned to produce the maximum effect. Mul- 
tiple spans shall be designed for the uniform load in Table 
1607.6 on the spans and two simultaneous concentrated 
loads in two spans positioned to produce the maximum neg- 
ative moment effect. Multiple span design loads, for other 
effects, shall be the same as for single spans. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



13 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



TABLE 1607.6 
UNIFORM AND CONCENTRATED LOADS 



LOADING 
CLASS^ 


UNIFORM LOAD 

(pounds/linear 

foot of lane) 


CONCENTRATED LOAD 
(pounds)^ 


For moment 
design 


For shear 
design 


H20-44 and HS20-44 


640 


18,000 


26,000 


H15-44andHS15-44 


480 


13,500 


19,500 



For SI: 1 pound per linear foot = 0.01459 kN/m, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 
1 ton = 8.90 kN. 

a. An H loading class designates a two-axle truck with a semitrailer. An HS 
loading class designates a tractor truck with a semitrailer. The numbers fol- 
lowing the letter classification indicate the gross weight in tons of the stan- 
dard truck and the year the loadings were instituted. 

b. See Section 1607.6.1 for the loading of multiple spans. 

1607.7 Loads on handrails, guards, grab bars, shower seats, 
dressing room bench seats and vehicle barrier systems. 

Handrails, guards, grab bars, accessible seats, accessible 
benches and vehicle barrier systems shall be designed and con- 
structed to the structural loading conditions set forth in this sec- 
tion. 

1607.7.1 Handrails and guards. Handrails and guards 
shall be designed to resist a load of 50 pounds per linear foot 
(plf) (0.73 kN/m) applied in any direction at the top and to 
transfer this load through the supports to the structure. Glass 
handrail assemblies and guards shall also comply with Sec- 
tion 2407. 

Exceptions: 

1 . For one- and two-family dwellings, only the single 
concentrated load required by Section 1607.7.1.1 
shall be apphed. 

2. In Group 1-3, F, H and S occupancies, for areas that 
are not accessible to the general public and that 
have an occupant load less than 50, the minimum 
load shall be 20 pounds per foot (0.29 kN/m). 

1607.7.1.1 Concentrated load. Handrails and guards 
shall be able to resist a single concentrated load of 200 
pounds (0.89 kN), applied in any direction at any point 
along the top, and to transfer this load through the sup- 
ports to the structure. This load need not be assumed to 
act concurrently with the loads specified in Section 
1607.7.1. 

1607.7.1.2 Components. Intermediate rails (all those 
except the handrail), balusters and panel fillers shall be 
designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load 
of 50 pounds (0.22 kN) on an area equal to 1 square foot 
(0.093 m^), including openings and space between rails. 
Reactions due to this loading are not required to be super- 
imposed with tiiose of Section 1607.7.1 or 1607.7.1.1. 

1607.7.2 Grab bars, shower seats and dressing room 
bench seats. Grab bars, shower seats and dressing room 
bench seat systems shall be designed to resist a single con- 
centrated load of 250 pounds (1.11 kN) apphed in any direc- 
tion at any point. [DSA-AC & HCD l-AC] See Chapter 1 lA, 
Section 1127A.4, and Chapter IIB, Sections 115B.7.2 and 
I117B.8, for grab bars, shower seats and dressing room 
bench seats, as applicable. 



1607.7.3 Vehicle barrier systems. Vehicle barrier systems 
for passenger vehicles shall be designed to resist a single 
load of 6,000 pounds (26.70 kN) apphed horizontally in any 
direction to the barrier system and shall have anchorage or 
attachment capable of transmitting this load to the structure. 
For design of the system, two loading conditions shall be 
analyzed. The first condition shall apply the load at a height 
of 1 foot, 6 inches (457 mm) above the floor or ramp surface. 
The second loading condition shall apply the load at 2 feet, 3 
inches (686 mm) above the floor or ramp surface. The more 
severe load condition shall govern the design of the barrier 
restraint system. The load shall be assumed to act on an area 
not to exceed 1 square foot (0.0929 m^), and is not required 
to be assumed to act concurrently with any handrail or guard 
loadings specified in Section 1607.7.1. Garages accommo- 
dating trucks and buses shall be designed in accordance 
with an approved method that contains provisions for traffic 
railings. 

1607.8 Impact loads. The hve loads specified in Section 
1607.3 include allowance for impact conditions. Provisions 
shall be made in the structural design for uses and loads that 
involve unusual vibration and impact forces. 

1607.8.1 Elevators. Elevator loads shall be increased by 
100 percent for impact and the structural supports shall be 
designed within the limits of deflection prescribed by 
ASMEA17.1. 

1607.8.2 Machinery. For the purpose of design, the weight 
of machinery and moving loads shall be increased as fol- 
lows to allow for impact: (1) elevator machinery, 100 per- 
cent; (2) light machinery, shaft- or motor-driven, 20 percent; 
(3) reciprocating machinery or power-driven units, 50 per- 
cent; (4) hangers for floors or balconies, 33 percent. Per- 
centages shall be increased where specified by the 
manufacturer. 

1607.9 Reduction in live loads. Except for uniform live loads 
at roofs, all other minimum uniformly distributed live loads, 
L^, in Table 1607. 1 are permitted to be reduced in accordance 
with Section 1607.9.1 or 1607.9.2. Roof uniform live loads, 
other than special purpose roofs of Section 1607.11.2.2, are 
permitted to be reduced in accordance with Section 
1607.1 1.2. Roof uniform live loads of special purpose roofs 
are permitted to be reduced in accordance with Section 
1607.9.1 or 1607.9.2. 

1607.9.1 General. Subject to the limitations of Sections 
1607.9.1.1 through 1607.9.1.4, members for which a value 
of ^^Ay-is 400 square feet (37. 16 m^) or more are permitted 
to be designed for a reduced live load in accordance with the 
following equation: 

r \ 

15 



L^L 



0.25 + 



V^^ 



(Equation 16-22) 



T ) 



( 



For SI: L ^ L^ 



where: 



0.25 + 



4.57 



L = Reduced design live load per square foot (meter) of 
area supported by the member. 



14 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



L^ = Unreduced design live load per square foot (meter) of 
area supported by the member (see Table 1607.1). 

Ki^i^ Live load element factor (see Table 1607.9.1). 

Aj = Tributary area, in square feet (square meters). 

L shall not be less than O.SOL^ for members supporting one 
floor and L shall not be less than 0.40L^ for members sup- 
porting two or more floors. 

TABLE 1607.9.1 
LIVE LOAD ELEMENT FACTOR, K^l 



ELEMENT 


Kll 


Interior columns 

Exterior columns without cantilever slabs 


4 
4 


Edge columns with cantilever slabs 


3 


Comer columns with cantilever slabs 
Edge beams without cantilever slabs 
Interior beams 


2 
2 
2 


All other members not identified above including: 
Edge beams with cantilever slabs 
Cantilever beams 
One-way slabs 
Two-way slabs 

Members without provisions for continuous shear 
transfer normal to their span 


1 



1607.9.1.1 One-way slabs. The tributary area, A-p, for 
use in Equation 16-22 for one-way slabs shall not exceed 
an area defined by the slab span times a width normal to 
the span of 1.5 times the slab sp£in. 

1607.9.1.2 Heavy live loads. Live loads that exceed 100 
psf (4.79 kN/m^) shall not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1. The live loads for members supporting two or 
more floors are permitted to be reduced by a 
maximum of 20 percent, but the live load shall 
not be less than L as calculated in Section 
1607.9.1. 

2. For uses other than storage, where approved, 
additional live load reductions shall be permit- 
ted where shown by the registered design pro- 
fessional that a rational approach has been used 
and that such reductions are warranted. 

1607.9.1.3 Passenger vehicle garages. The live loads 
shall not be reduced in passenger vehicle garages. 

Exception: The live loads for members supporting 
two or more floors are permitted to be reduced by a 
maximum of 20 percent, but the live load shall not be 
less than L as calculated in Section 1607.9.1. 

1607.9.1.4 Group A occupancies. Live loads of 100 psf 
(4.79 kN/m^) and at areas where fixed seats are located 
shall not be reduced in Group A occupancies. 

1607.9.1.5 Roof members. Live loads of 100 psf (4.79 
kN/m^) or less shall not be reduced for roof members 
except as specified in Section 1607.11.2. 



1607.9.2 Alternate floor live load reduction. As an alter- 
native to Section 1607.9.1, floor live loads are permitted to 
be reduced in accordance with the following provisions. 
Such reductions shall apply to slab systems, beams, girders, 
colunms, piers, walls and foundations. 

1. A reduction shall not be permitted in Group A occu- 
pancies. 

2. A reduction shall not be permitted where the live load 
exceeds 100 psf (4.79 kN/m^) except that the design 
live load for members supporting two or more floors 
is permitted to be reduced by 20 percent. 

Exception: For uses other than storage, where 
approved, additional live load reductions shall be 
permitted where shown by the registered design 
professional that a rational approach has been used 
and that such reductions are warranted. 

3. A reduction shall not be permitted in passenger vehi- 
cle parking garages except that the live loads for 
members supporting two or more floors are permitted 
to be reduced by a maximum of 20 percent. 

4. For live loads not exceeding 1 00 psf (4.79 kN/m^), the 
design hve load for any structural member supporting 
150 square feet (13.94 m^) or more is permitted to be 
reduced in accordance with Equation 16-23. 

5. For one-way slabs, the area. A, for use in Equation 
16-23 shall not exceed the product of the slab span 
and a width normal to the span of 0.5 times the slab 
span. 



/? = 0.08(A-150) 



(Equation 16-23) 



For SI: /? = 0.861(A- 13.94) 

Such reduction shall not exceed the smallest of: 

1. 40 percent for horizontal members; 

2. 60 percent for vertical members; or 

3. R as determined by the following equation. 

/? = 23. 1(1 +D/4) (Equation 16-24) 

where: 



A 
D 

Lo 
R 



= Area of floor supported by the member, 
square feet (m^). 

= Dead load per square foot (m^) of area sup- 
ported. 

= Unreduced live load per square foot (m^) of 
area supported. 

= Reduction in percent. 

1607.10 Distribution of floor loads. Where uniform floor 
live loads are involved in the design of structural members 
arranged so as to create continuity, the minimum applied 
loads shall be the full dead loads on all spans in combination 
with the floor live loads on spans selected to produce the 
greatest effect at each location under consideration. It shall be 
permitted to reduce floor live loads in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1607.9. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



15 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



1607.11 Roof loads. The structural supports of roofs and mar- 
quees shall be designed to resist wind and, where applicable, 
snow and earthquake loads, in addition to the dead load of con- 
struction and the appropriate live loads as prescribed in this 
section, or as set forth in Table 1607. 1 . The live loads acting on 
a sloping surface shall be assumed to act vertically on the hori- 
zontal projection of that surface. 

1607.11.1 Distribution of roof loads. Where uniform roof 
live loads are reduced to less than 20 psf (0.96 kN/m^) in 
accordance with Section 1607.1 1.2.1 and are applied to the 
design of structural members arranged so as to create conti- 
nuity, the reduced roof live load shall be applied to adjacent 
spans or to alternate spans, whichever produces the most 
unfavorable load effect. See Section 1607.11.2 for reduc- 
tions in minimum roof live loads and Section 7.5 of ASCE 7 
for partial snow loading. 

1607.11.2 Reduction in roof live loads. The minimum uni- 
formly distributed live loads of roofs and marquees, L^, in 
Table 1 607. 1 are permitted to be reduced in accordance with 
Section 1607.11.2.1 or 1607.11.2.2. 

1607.11.2.1 Flat, pitched and curved roofs. Ordinary 
flat, pitched and curved roofs, and awnings and canopies 
other than of fabric construction supported by light- 
weight rigid skeleton structures, are permitted to be 
designed for a reduced roof live load as specified in the 
following equations or other controlling combinations of 
loads in Section 1605, whichever produces the greater 
load. In structures such as greenhouses, where special 
scaffolding is used as a work surface for workers and 
materials during maintenance and repair operations, a 
lower roof load than specified in the following equations 
shall not be used unless approved by the building official. 
Such structures shall be designed for a minimum roof 
live load of 12 psf (0.58 kN/m^). 



(Equation 16-25) 



L, = L^RjR2 
where: 12<L,<20 
For SI: L, = L^;i?2 
where: 0.58 <4< 0.96 

L, = Reduced live load per square foot (m2) of horizon- 
tal projection in pounds per square foot (kN/mj). 

The reduction factors Rj and R2 shall be determined as 
follows: 



Rj = 1 for A, < 200 square feet 
(18.58 m^) 



(Equation 16-26) 



Rj^ 1.2- O.OOIA, for 200 square 

feet <Ai< 600 square feet (Equation 16-27) 

For SI: 1.2-0,011A, for 18.58 square meters<A,<55.74 
square meters 

Rj = 0.6 for At > 600 square feet 

(55.74 m2) (Equation 16-28) 

where: 



Af = Tributary area (span length multiplied by effective 
width) in square feet (m^) supported by any struc- 
tural member, and 

7?2 ^ 1 f or F < 4 (Equation 16-29) 

/?2= 1.2-0.05Ffor4<F< 12 (Equation 16-30) 

R2 = 0,6forF> 12 (Equation 16-31) 

where: 

F = For a sloped roof, the number of inches of rise per 
foot (for SI: F = 0. 1 2 X slope, with slope expressed 
as a percentage), or for an arch or dome, the 
rise-to-span ratio multiplied by 32. 

1607.11.2.2 Special-purpose roofs. Roofs used for 
promenade purposes, roof gardens, assembly purposes 
or other special purposes, and marquees, shall be 
designed for a minimum live load, L^, as specified in 
Table 1607. 1 . Such live loads are permitted to be reduced 
in accordance with Section 1607.9. Live loads of 100 psf 
(4.79 kN/m^) or more at areas of roofs classified as 
Group A occupancies shall not be reduced. 

1607.11.3 Landscaped roofs. Where roofs are to be land- 
scaped, the uniform design live load in the landscaped area 
shall be 20 psf (0.958 kN/m^). The weight of the landscap- 
ing materials shall be considered as dead load and shall be 
computed on the basis of saturation of the soil. 

1607.11.4 Awnings and canopies. Awnings and canopies 
shall be designed for uniform live loads as required in Table 
1607. 1 as well as for snow loads and wind loads as specified 
in Sections 1608 and 1609. 

1607.12 Crane loads. The crane live load shall be the rated 
capacity of the crane. Design loads for the runway beams, 
including connections and support brackets, of moving bridge 
cranes and monorail cranes shall include the maximum wheel 
loads of the crane and the vertical impact, lateral and longitudi- 
nal forces induced by the moving crane. 

1607.12.1 Maximum wheel load. The maximum wheel 
loads shall be the wheel loads produced by the weight of the 
bridge, as applicable, plus the sum of the rated capacity and 
the weight of the trolley with the trolley positioned on its 
runway at the location where the resulting load effect is 
maximum. 

1607.12.2 Vertical impact force. The maximum wheel 
loads of the crane shall be increased by the percentages 
shown below to determine the induced vertical impact or 
vibration force: 

Monorail cranes (powered) 25 percent 

Cab-operated or remotely operated 

bridge cranes (powered) 25 percent 

Pendant-operated bridge cranes 

(powered) lOpercent 

Bridge cranes or monorail cranes with 

hand-geared bridge, trolley and hoist percent 

1607.12.3 Lateral force. The lateral force on crane runway 
beams with electrically powered trolleys shall be calculated 



16 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



as 20 percent of the sum of the rated capacity of the crane 
and the weight of the hoist and trolley. The lateral force shall 
be assumed to act horizontally at the traction surface of a 
runway beam, in either direction perpendicular to the beam, 
and shall be distributed according to the lateral stiffness of 
the runway beam and supporting structure. 

1607.12.4 Longitudinal force. The longitudinal force on 
crane runway beams, except for bridge cranes with 
hand-geared bridges, shall be calculated as 10 percent of the 
maximum wheel loads of the crane. The longitudinal force 
shall be assumed to act horizontally at the traction surface of 
a runway beam, in either direction parallel to the beam. 

1607.13 Interior walls and partitions. Interior walls and par- 
titions that exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in height, including their 
finish materials, shall have adequate strength to resist the loads 
to which they are subjected but not less than a horizontal load of 
5 psf (0.240 kN/m^). 

Exception: Fabric partitions complying with Section 
1607.13.1 shall not be required to resist the minimum hori- 
zontal load of 5 psf (0.24 kN/m^). 

1607.13.1 Fabric partitions. Fabric partitions that exceed 6 
feet (1829 mm) in height, including their finish materials, 
shall have adequate strength to resist the following load con- 
ditions: 

1. A horizontal distributed load of 5 psf (0.24 kN/m^) 
applied to the partition framing. The total area used to 
determine the distributed load shall be the area of the 
fabric face between the framing members to which 
the fabric is attached. The total distributed load shall 



be uniformly applied to such framing members in 
proportion to the length of each member. 

2. A concentrated load of 40 pounds (0. 176 kN) appUed 
to an 8-inch diameter (203 mm) area [50.3 square 
inches (32 452 mm^)] of the fabric face at a height of 
54 inches (1372 mm) above the floor. 



SECTION 1608 
SNOW LOADS 

1608.1 General. Design snow loads shall be determined in 
accordance with Chapter 7 of ASCE 7, but the design roof load 
shall not be less than that determined by Section 1607. 

1608.2 Ground snow loads. The ground snow loads to be used 
in determining the design snow loads for roofs shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with ASCE 7 or Figure 1608.2 for the 
contiguous United States and Table 1608.2 for Alaska. 
Site-specific case studies shall be made in areas designated 
"CS" in Figure 1608.2. Ground snow loads for sites at eleva- 
tions above the limits indicated in Figure 1608.2 and for all 
sites within the CS areas shall be approved. Ground snow load 
determination for such sites shall be based on an extreme value 
statistical analysis of data available in the vicinity of the site 
using a value with a 2-percent annual probability of being 
exceeded (50-year mean recurrence interval). Snow loads are 
zero for Hawaii, except in mountainous regions as approvedby 
the building official. 





TABLE 1608.2 
GROUND SNOW LOADS, p^ , FOR ALASKAN LOCATIONS 




LOCATION 


POUNDS PER 
SQUARE FOOT 


LOCATION 


POUNDS PER 
SQUARE FOOT 


LOCATION 


POUNDS PER 
SQUARE FOOT 


Adak 


30 


Galena 


60 


Petersburg 


150 


Anchorage 


50 


Gulkana 


70 


St. Paul Islands 


40 


Angoon 


70 


Homer 


40 


Seward 


50 


Barrow 


25 


Juneau 


60 


Shemya 


25 


Barter Island 


35 


Kenai 


70 


Sitka 


50 


Bethel 


40 


Kodiak 


30 


Talkeetna 


120 


Big Delta 


50 


Kotzebue 


60 


Unalakleet 


50 


Cold Bay 


25 


McGrath 


70 


Valdez 


160 


Cordova 


100 


Nenana 


80 


Whittier 


300 


Fairbanks 


60 


Nome 


70 


Wrangell 


60 


Fort Yukon 


60 


Palmer 


50 


Yakutat 


150 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/ml 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



17 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




In CS areas, site-specific Case Studies are required to 
establish ground snow loads. Extreme local variations in 
ground snow loads in these areas preclude mapping at 
this scale. 

Numbers in parentheses represent the upper elevation 
limits in feet for the ground snow load values presented 
below. Site -specific case studies are required to estab- 
lish ground snow loads at elevations not covered. 

To convert Ib/sq ft to kNm", multiply by 0.0479. 

To convert feet to meters, multiply by 0.3048. 



J 



100 



200 



300 miles 



FIGURE 1608.2 
GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (psf) 



18 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



(500) 

Wo' 



(900) 




FIGURE 1608.2"Continued 
GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (psf) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



19 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



> 



SECTION 1609 
WIND LOADS 

1609.1 Applications. Buildings, structures and parts thereof 
shall be designed to withstand the minimum wind loads pre- 
scribed herein. Decreases in wind loads shall not be made for 
the effect of shielding by other structures. 

1609,1.1 Determination of wind loads. Wind loads on 
every building or structure shall be determined in accor- 
dance with Chapter 6 of ASCE 7 or provisions of the alter- 
nate all-heights method in Section 1609.6. The type of 
opening protection required, the basic wind speed and the 
exposure category for a site is permitted to be determined in 
accordance with Section 1609 or ASCE 7. Wind shall be 
assumed to come from any horizontal direction and wind 
pressures shall be assumed to act normal to the surface con- 
sidered. 

Exceptions: 

1. Subject to the limitations of Section 1609.1.1.1, 
the provisions of ICC 600 shall be permitted for 
applicable Group R-2 and R-3 buildings. 

2. Subject to the limitations of Section 1609.1.1.1, 
residential structures using the provisions of the 
AF&PA WFCM. 

3. Subject to the limitations of Section 1609.1.1.1, 
residential structures using the provisions of AISI 
S230. 

4. Designs using NAAMM FP 1001. 

5. Designs using TIA-222 for antenna-supporting 
structures and antennas. 

6. Wind tunnel tests in accordance with Section 6.6 
of ASCE 7, subject to the limitations in Section 
1609.1.1.2. 

1609.1.1.1 Applicability. The provisions of ICC 600 are 

applicable only to buildings located within Exposure B 
or C as defined in Section 1609.4. The provisions of ICC 
600, AF&PA WFCM and AISI S230 shall not apply to 
buildings sited on the upper half of an isolated hill, ridge 
or escarpment meeting the following conditions: 

1. The hill, ridge or escarpment is 60 feet (18 288 
nmi) or higher if located in Exposure B or 30 feet 
(9144 mm) or higher if located in Exposure C; 

2. The maximum average slope of the hill exceeds 10 
percent; and 

3. The hill, ridge or escarpment is unobstructed 
upwind by other such topographic features for a dis- 
tance from the high point of 50 times the height of 
the hill or 1 mile (1.61 km), whichever is greater. 

1609.1.1.2 Wind tunnel test limitations. The lower 
limit on pressures for main wind-force-resisting systems 
and components and cladding shall be in accordance 
with Sections 1609.1.1.2.1 and 1609.1.1.2.2. 

1609.1.1.2.1 Lower limits on main wind- force- 
resisting system. Base overturning moments deter- 
mined from wind tunnel testing shall be limited to not 
less than 80 percent of the design base overturning 



moments determined in accordance with Section 6.5 of 
ASCE 7, unless specific testing is performed that dem- 
onstrates it is the aerodynamic coefficient of the build- 
ing, rather than shielding from other structures, that is 
responsible for the lower values. The 80-percent limit 
shall be permitted to be adjusted by the ratio of the 
frame load at critical wind directions as determined 
from wind tunnel testing without specific adjacent 
buildings, but including appropriate upwind rough- 
ness, to that determined in Section 6.5 of ASCE 7. 

1609.1.1.2.2 Lower limits on components and clad- 
ding. The design pressures for components and clad- 
ding on walls or roofs shall be selected as the greater 
of the wind tunnel test results or 80 percent of the 
pressure obtained for Zone 4 for walls and Zone 1 for 
roofs as determined in Section 6.5 of ASCE 7, unless 
specific testing is performed that demonstrates it is 
the aerodynamic coefficient of the building, rather 
than shielding from nearby structures, that is respon- 
sible for the lower values. Alternatively, limited tests 
at a few wind directions without specific adjacent 
buildings, but in the presence of an appropriate 
upwind roughness, shall be permitted to be used to 
demonstrate that the lower pressures are due to the 
shape of the building and not to shielding. 

1609.1.2 Protection of openings. In wind-borne debris 
regions, glazing in buildings shall be impact resistant or pro- 
tected with an impact-resistant covering meeting the require- 
ments of an approved impact-resistant standard or ASTM E 
1996 and ASTM E 1886 referenced herein as follows: 

1 . Glazed openings located within 30 feet (9 144 mm) of 
grade shall meet the requirements of the large missile 
test of ASTM El 996. 

2. Glazed openings located more than 30 feet (9144 
mm) above grade shall meet the provisions of the 
small missile test of ASTM E 1996. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Wood structural panels with a minimum thickness 
of ^/i5 inch (11.1 mm) and maximum panel span of 
8 feet (2438 mm) shall be permitted for opening 
protection in one- and two-story buildings classi- 
fied as Group R-3 or R-4 occupancy. Panels shall 
be precut so that they shall be attached to the fram- 
ing surrounding the opening containing the prod- 
uct with the glazed opening. Panels shall be 
predrilled as required for the anchorage method 
and shall be secured with the attachment hardware 
provided. Attachments shall be designed to resist 
the components and cladding loads determined in 
accordance with the provisions of ASCE 7, with 
corrosion-resistant attachment hardware provided 
and anchors permanently installed on the building. 
Attachment in accordance with Table 1609.1.2 
with corrosion-resistant attachment hardware pro- 
vided and anchors permanently installed on the 
building is permitted for buildings with a mean 
roof height of 45 feet (13 716 mm) or less where 
wind speeds do not exceed 140 mph (63 m/s). 



20 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



2. Glazing in Occupancy Category I buildings as 
defined in Section 1604.5, including greenhouses 
that are occupied for growing plants on a produc- 
tion or research basis, without public access shall 
be permitted to be unprotected. 

3. Glazing in Occupancy Category n, III or IV build- 
ings located over 60 feet (18 288 mm) above the 
ground and over 30 feet (9144 mm) above aggre- 
gate surface roofs located within 1 ,500 feet (458 m) 
of the building shall be permitted to be unprotected. 

1609.1.2.1 Louvers. Louvers protecting intake and 
exhaust ventilation ducts not assumed to be open that are 
located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of grade shall meet 
requirements of an approved impact-resisting standard 
or the large missile test of ASTM E 1996. 

1609.1.2.2 Garage doors. Garage door glazed opening 
protection for wind-borne debris shall meet the require- 
ments of an approved impact-resisting standard or 
ANSI/DASMA115. 

1609.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of Section 1 609, have the meanings shown herein. 

TABLE 1609.1.2 

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS PROTECTION FASTENING 

SCHEDULE FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS^- *»' «^' ^ 



FASTENER 
TYPE 


FASTENER SPACING (inches) 


Panel 

Span 

<4feet 


4feet< 

Panel Span 

< 6 feet 


6feet< 

Panel Span 

<8feet 


No. 8 wood-screw-based anchor 
with 2-inch embedment length 


16 


10 


8 


No. 10 wood- screw-based 
anchor with 2-inch embedment 
length 


16 


12 


9 


V4-inch diameter lag-screw- 
based anchor with 2-inch 
embedment length 


16 


16 


16 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N, 
1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. This table is based on 1 40 mph wind speeds and a 45-foot mean roof height. 

b. Fasteners shall be installed at opposing ends of the wood structural panel. 
Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 1 inch from the edge of the panel. 

c. Anchors shall penetrate through the exterior wall covering with an 
embedment length of 2 inches minimum into the building frame. Fasteners 
shall be located a minimum of 2 V2 inches from the edge of concrete block or 
concrete. 

d. Where panels are attached to masonry or masonry/stucco, they shall be 
attached using vibration-resistant anchors having a minimum ultimate with- 
drawal capacity of 1,500 pounds. 



HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. Areas vulnerable to 
hurricanes defined as: 

1. The U. S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico coasts 
where the basic wind speed is greater than 90 mph (40 
m/s) and 

2. Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands and Ameri- 
can Samoa. 

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. Portions of hurri- 
cane-prone regions that are within 1 mile (1.61 km) of the 
coastal mean high water line where the basic wind speed is 1 10 
mph (48 m/s) or greater; or portions of hurricane -prone 
regions where the basic wind speed is 120 mph (53 m/s) or 
greater; or Hawaii. 

1609.3 Basic wind speed. The basic wind speed, in mph, for 
the determination of the wind loads shall be determined by Fig- 
ure 1609. Basic wind speed for the special wind regions indi- 
cated, near mountainous terrain and near gorges shall be in 
accordance with local jurisdiction requirements. Basic wind 
speeds determined by the local jurisdiction shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 6.5.4 of ASCE 7. 

In nonhurricane-prone regions, when the basic wind speed is 
estimated from regional climatic data, the basic wind speed 
shall be not less than the wind speed associated with an annual 
probability of 0.02 (50-year mean recurrence interval), and the 
estimate shall be adjusted for equivalence to a 3 -second gust 
wind speed at 33 feet (10 m) above ground in Exposure Cate- 
gory C. The data analysis shall be performed in accordance 
with Section 6.5.4.2 of ASCE 7. 

1609.3.1 Wind speed conversion. When required, the 
3-second gust basic wind speeds of Figure 1609 shall be 
converted to fastest-mile wind speeds, V^, using Table 
1609.3.1 or Equation 16-32. 



Vfin = 



(V35-IO.5) 



1.05 



(Equation 16-32) 



where: 



V^s = 3-second gust basic wind speed from Figure 1609. 

1609.4 Exposure category. For each wind direction consid- 
ered, an exposure category that adequately reflects the charac- 
teristics of ground surface irregularities shall be determined for 
the site at which the building or structure is to be constructed. 
Account shall be taken of variations in ground surface rough- 
ness that arise from natural topography and vegetation as well 
as from constructed features. 











TABLE 1609.3.1 
EQUIVALENT BASIC WIND SPEEDS^''' 


c 










^35 


85 


90 


100 


105 


110 


120 


125 


130 


140 


145 


150 


160 


170 


Vm 


71 


76 


85 


90 


95 


104 


109 


114 


123 


128 


133 


142 


152 



For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.44 m/s. 

a. Linear interpolation is permitted. 

b. Vjs is the 3-second gust wind speed (mph). 

c. V^ is the fastest mile wind speed (mph). 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



21 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




-146 -"^^2 



FIGURE 1609 
BASIC WIND SPEED (3-SECOND GUST) 



22 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




90(40) 
100(45) 



130(58) 
140(63) 



130(58) 
140(63) 

150(67) 



90(40) 
100(45) 



130(58) 



110(49) 120(54) 



Location 
HawaH 
Puerto Rico 
Guam 

Virgin Islands 
American Samoa 



V mph (m/s) 
105 (47) 



145 
170 
145 
125 



(65) 
(76) 
(65) 
(56) 



Notes: 

1. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour (m/s) 
at 33 ft (10 m) above ground for Exposure C category. 

2. Linear Interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

3. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind 
speed contour of the coastal area. 

4. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories, and special wind regions 
shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 

FIGURE 1609— continued 
BASIC WIND SPEED (3-SECOND GUST) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



23 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




Illlll Special Wind Region 



100(45) / j 130(58) 
110(49)120(54) 



Notes: 

1. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind 
speeds In mites per iiour (m/s) at 33 ft (10 m) 
above ground for Exposure C category. 

2. Linear Interpolation between wind contours is 
permitted. 

3. islands and coastal areas outside the last 
contour shall use the last wind speed contour 
of the coastal area. 

4. l\/lountainous terrain, gorges, ocean 
promontoriesi and special wind regions shall 
be examined for unusual wind conditions. 



FIGURE 1609-continued 

BASIC WIND SPEED (3-SECOND GUST) 

WESTERN GULF OF MEXICO HURRICANE COASTLINE 



24 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



90(40) 



100(4!^ 

110(49) 

120(54) 
130(58) 




,130(58) 
140(63) 



Speciaf Wind Region 



Notes: 

1. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind 
speeds in miles per hour (m/s) at 33 ft (10 m) 
above ground for Exposure C category. 

2. Linear Interpolation between wind contours Is 
permitted. 

3. Islands and coastal areas outside the last 
contour shall use the last wind speed contour 
of the coastal area. 

4. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean 
promontories, and special wind regions shall 
be examined for unusual wind conditions. 



150(67) 



FIGURE 1609-contlnued 

BASIC WIND SPEED (3-SECOND GUST) 

EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTHEASTERN U.S. HURRICANE COASTLINE 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



25 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




.S^120(S4) 



Special Wind Region 



Notes: 

1. Vaiues are nominal design 3-second gust wind 
speeds in miies per iiour (m/s) at 33 ft (10 m) 
above ground for Exposure C category. 
Linear interpolation between wind contours Is 
permitted. 

Islands and coastal areas outside the last 
contour siiall use the last wind speed contour 
of the coastal area. 

4. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean 
promontories, and special wind regions shall 
be examined for unusual wind conditions. 



FIGURE 1609-continued 

BASIC WIND SPEED (3-SECOND GUST) 

MID AND NORTHERN ATLANTIC HURRICANE COASTLINE 



26 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



1609.4.1 Wind directions and sectors. For each selected 
wind direction at which the wind loads are to be evaluated, 
the exposure of the building or structure shall be determined 
for the two upwind sectors extending 45 degrees (0.79 rad) 
either side of the selected wind direction. The exposures in 
these two sectors shall be determined in accordance with 
Sections 1609.4.2 and 1609,4.3 and the exposure resulting 
in the highest wind loads shall be used to represent winds 
from that direction. 

1609.4.2 Surface roughness categories. A ground surface 
roughness within each 45 -degree (0.79 rad) sector shall be 
determined for a distance upwind of the site as defined in 
Section 1609.4.3 from the categories defined below, for the 
purpose of assigning an exposure category as defined in 
Section 1609.4.3. 

Surface Roughness B. Urban and suburban areas, 
wooded areas or other terrain with numerous closely 
spaced obstructions having the size of single-family 
dwellings or larger. 

Surface Roughness C. Open terrain with scattered 
obstructions having heights generally less than 30 feet 
(9144 mm). This category includes flat open country, 
grasslands, and all water surfaces in hurricane -prone 
regions. 

Surface Roughness D. Flat, unobstructed areas and 
water surfaces outside hurricane-prone regions. This 
category includes smooth mud flats, salt flats and unbro- 
ken ice. 

1609.4.3 Exposure categories. An exposure category shall 
be determined in accordance with the following: 

Exposure B. Exposure B shall apply where the ground 
surface roughness condition, as defined by Surface 
Roughness B, prevails in the upwind direction for a dis- 
tance of at least 2,600 feet (792 m) or 20 times the height 
of the building, whichever is greater. 

Exception: For buildings whose mean roof height is 
less than or equal to 30 feet (9 144 mm), the upwind dis- 
tance is permitted to be reduced to 1 ,500 feet (457 m). 

Exposure C. Exposure C shall apply for all cases where 
Exposures B or D do not apply. 

Exposure D. Exposure D shall apply where the ground 
surface roughness, as defined by Surface Roughness D, 
prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 
5,000 feet (1524 m) or 20 times the height of the build- 
ing, whichever is greater. Exposure D shall extend inland 
from the shorehne for a distance of 600 feet ( 1 83 m) or 20 
times the height of the building, whichever is greater. 

1609.5 Roof systems. 

1609.5.1 Roof deck. The roof deck shall be designed to 
withstand the wind pressures determined in accordance 
with ASCE 7. 



1609.5.2 Roof coverings. 

with Section 1609.5.1. 



Roof coverings shall comply 



tion 1609.5. 1 are permitted to be designed in accordance 
with Section 1609.5.3, 

Asphalt shingles installed over a roof deck complying 
with Section 1609.5.1 shall comply with the wind-resis- 
tance requirements of Section 1507.2.7.1. 

1609.5.3 Rigid tile. Wind loads on rigid tile roof coverings 
shall be determined in accordance with the following equa- 
tion: 



M, = ^,QZ?LLJ1.0-GC,] 



(Equation 16-33) 



For SI: M, = 



q,C,bLL^[lO-GC^] 



1,000 



where: 
b 



Exception: Rigid tile roof coverings that are air perme- 
able and installed over a roof deck complying with Sec- 



Exposed width, feet (mm) of the roof tile. 

Lift coefficient. The lift coefficient for concrete and 
clay tile shall be 0.2 or shall be determined by test in 
accordance with Section 1716.2. 

GCp~ Roof pressure coefficient for each applicable roof 
zone determined from Chapter 6 of ASCE 7. Roof 
coefficients shall not be adjusted for internal pres- 
sure. 

L = Length, feet (mm) of the roof tile. 

L^ = Moment arm, feet (mm) from the axis of rotation to 
the point of uplift on the roof tile. The point of uplift 
shall be taken at 0.76L from the head of the tile and 
the middle of the exposed width. For roof tiles with 
nails or screws (with or without a tail clip), the axis 
of rotation shall be taken as the head of the tile for 
direct deck application or as the top edge of the bat- 
ten for battened applications. For roof tiles fastened 
only by a nail or screw along the side of the tile, the 
axis of rotation shall be determined by testing. For 
roof tiles installed with battens and fastened only by 
a clip near the tail of the tile, the moment arm shall 
be determined about the top edge of the batten with 
consideration given for the point of rotation of the 
tiles based on straight bond or broken bond and the 
tile profile. 

M^ = Aerodynamic uplift moment, feet-pounds (N-mm) 
acting to raise the tail of the tile. 

q^ = Wind velocity pressure, psf (kN/m^) determined 
from Section 6.5.10 of ASCE 7. 

Concrete and clay roof tiles complying with the following 
limitations shall be designed to withstand the aerodynamic 
uplift moment as determined by this section. 

1. The roof tiles shall be either loose laid on battens, 
mechanically fastened, mortar set or adhesive set. 

2. The roof tiles shall be installed on solid sheathing 
which has been designed as components and clad- 
ding, 

3. An underlay ment shall be installed in accordance 
with Chapter 15. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



27 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



4. The tile shall be single lapped interlocking with a 
minimum head lap of not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm). 

5. The length of the tile shall be between 1.0 and 1.75 
feet (305 mm and 533 mm). 

6. The exposed width of the tile shall be between 0.67 
and 1.25 feet (204 mm and 381 mm). 

7 . The maximum thickness of the tail of the tile shall not 
exceed 1.3 inches (33 mm). 

8. Roof tiles using mortar set or adhesive set systems 
shall have at least two-thirds of the tile' s area free of 
mortar or adhesive contact. 

1609.6 Alternate all-heights method. The alternate wind 
design provisions in this section are simplifications of the 
ASCE 7 Method 2— Analytical Procedure. 

1609.6.1 Scope. As an alternative to ASCE 7 Section 6.5, 
the following provisions are permitted to be used to deter- 
mine the wind effects on regularly shaped buildings, or 
other structures that are regularly shaped, which meet all of 
the following conditions: 

1 . The building or other structure is less than or equal to 
75 feet (22 860 mm) in height with a height-to-least- 
width ratio of 4 or less, or the building or other struc- 
ture has a fundamental frequency greater than or 
equal to 1 hertz. 

2. The building or other structure is not sensitive to 
dynamic effects. 

3. The building or other structure is not located on a site 
for which channeling effects or buffeting in the wake 
of upwind obstructions warrant special consideration. 

4. The building shall meet the requirements of a simple 
diaphragm building as defined in ASCE 7 Section 
6.2, where wind loads are only transmitted to the main 
wind-force-resisting system (MWFRS) at the dia- 
phragms. 

5. For open buildings, multispan gable roofs, stepped 
roofs, sawtooth roofs, domed roofs, roofs with slopes 
greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad), sohd free-standing 
walls and sohd signs, and rooftop equipment, apply 
ASCE 7 provisions. 

1609.6.1.1 Modifications. The following modifications 
shall be made to certain subsections in ASCE 7: in Sec- 
tion 1609.6.2, symbols and notations that are specific to 
this section are used in conjunction with the symbols and 
notations in ASCE 7 Section 6.3. 



1609.6.2 Symbols and notations. Coefficients and vari- 
ables used in the alternative all-heights method equations 
are as follows: 

C„^^ = Net-pressure coefficient based on K^ [(G) (C^ - 
(GCp^)], in accordance with Table 1609.6.2(2), 

G = Gust effect factor for rigid structures in accordance 
with ASCE 7 Section 6.5.8.1. 

K^ ~ Wind directionality factor in accordance with 
ASCE 7 Table 6-4, 

P„^, = Design wind pressure to be used in determination 
of wind loads on buildings or other structures or 
their components and cladding, in psf (kN/m^). 

q^ = Wind stagnation pressure in psf (kN/m^) in accor- 
dance with Table 1609.6.2(1). 

1609.6.3 Design equations. When using the alternative 
all-heights method, the MWFRS, and components and clad- 
ding of every structure shall be designed to resist the effects 
of wind pressures on the building envelope in accordance 
with Equation 16-34. 



Pnet-^s^z^netU^zti 



(Equation 16-34) 



Design wind forces for the MWFRS shall not be less than 
10 psf (0.48 kN/m^) multiplied by the area of the structure 
projected on a plane normal to the assumed wind direction 
(see ASCE 7 Section 6.1.4 for criteria). Design net wind 
pressure for components and cladding shall not be less than 
10 psf (0.48 kN/m^) acting in either direction normal to the 
surface. 

1609.6.4 Design procedure. The MWFRS and the compo- 
nents and cladding of every building or other structure shall 
be designed for the pressures calculated using Equation 
16-34. 

1609.6.4.1 Main wind-force-resisting systems. The 

MWFRS shall be investigated for the torsional effects 
identified in ASCE 7 Figure 6-9. 

1609.6.4.2 Determination ofK^ and K^^. Velocity pres- 
sure exposure coefficient, K^, shall be determined in 
accordance with ASCE 7 Section 6.5.6.6 and the topo- 
graphic factor, K^i, shall be determined in accordance 
with ASCE 7 Section 6.5.7. 

1. For the windward side of a structure, K^ and K^ 
shall be based on height z. 

2. For leeward and sidewalls, and for windward and 
leeward roofs, K^^ and K^ shall be based on mean 
roof height h. 



TABLE 1609.6.2(1) 
WIND VELOCITY PRESSURE {q^) AT STANDARD HEIGHT OF 33 FEET^ 



BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


85 


90 


100 


105 


110 


120 


125 


130 


140 


150 


160 


170 


PRESSURE, Q^ (psf) 


18.5 


20.7 


25.6 


28.2 


31.0 


36.9 


40.0 


43.3 


50.2 


57.6 


65.5 


74.0 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mph = 0.44 m/s, 1 psf = 47.88 I^. 
a. For basic wind speeds not shown, use q^ = 0.00256 V^. 



28 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 







TABLE 1609.6.2(2) 
NET PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS 


Cnet^'' 






STRUCTURE OR 
PART THEREOF 


DESCRIPTION 


C„e, FACTOR 


1 . Main wind- 
force-resisting 
frames and systems 


Walls: 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


+ Internal 
pressure 


- Internal 
pressure 


+ Internal 
pressure 


- Internal 
pressure 


Windward wall 


0.43 


0.73 


0.11 


1.05 


Leeward wall 


-0.51 


-0.21 


-0.83 


0.11 


Sidewall 


-0.66 


-0.35 


-0.97 


-0.04 


Parapet wall 


Windward 


1.28 


1.28 


Leeward 


-0.85 


-0.85 


Roofs: 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Wind perpendicular to ridge 


+ Internal 
pressure 


- Internal 
pressure 


+ Internal 
pressure 


- Internal 
pressure 


Leeward roof or flat roof 


-0.66 


-0.35 


-0.97 


-0.04 


Windward roof slopes: 


Slope < 2:12 (10°) 


Condition 1 


-1.09 


-0.79 


-1.41 


-0.47 


Condition 2 


-0.28 


0.02 


-0.60 


0.34 


Slope = 4:12 (18°) 


Condition 1 


-0.73 


-0.42 


-1.04 


-0.11 


Condition 2 


-0.05 


0.25 


-0.37 


0.57 


Slope = 5: 12 (23°) 


Condition 1 


...... 

-0.58 


-0.28 


-0.90 


0.04 


Condition 2 


0.03 


0.34 


-0.29 


0.65 


Slope = 6:12 (27°) 


Condition 1 


-0.47 


-0.16 


-0.78 


0.15 


Condition 2 


0.06 


0.37 


-0.25 


0.68 


Slope = 7:12 (30°) 


Condition 1 


-0.37 


-0.06 


-0.68 


0.25 


Condition 2 


0.07 


0.37 


-0.25 


0.69 


Slope 9:12 (37°) 


Condition 1 


-0.27 


0.04 


-0.58 


0.35 


Condition 2 


0.14 


0.44 


-0.18 


0.76 


Slope 12:12 (45°) 


0.14 


0.44 


-0.18 


0.76 


Wind parallel to ridge and flat roofs 


-1.09 


-0.79 


-1.41 


-0.47 


Nonbuilding Structures: Chimneys, Tanks and Similar Structures: 




h/D 


1 


7 


25 


Square (Wind normal to face) 


0.99 


1.07 


1.53 


Square (Wind on diagonal) 


0.77 


0.84 


1.15 


Hexagonal or Octagonal 


0.81 


0.97 


1.13 


Round 


0.65 


0.81 


0.97 


Open signs and lattice frameworks 


Ratio of solid to gross area 




<0.1 


0.1 to 0.29 


0.3 to 0.7 


Flat 


1.45 


1.30 


1.16 


Round 


0.87 


0.94 


1.08 



(continued) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



29 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 





TABLE 1609.6.2(2)— continued 
NET PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS, C„^?^ ^ 






STRUCTURE OR 
PART THEREOF 


DESCRIPTION 


C„e, FACTOR 


2. Components and 
cladding not in 
areas of disconti- 
nuity — roofs and 
overhangs 


Roof elements and slopes 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Gable or hipped configurations (Zone 1) 






Flat < Slope < 6:12 (27°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-1 IC Zone 1 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.58 


0.89 


1(X) square feet or more 


0.41 


0.72 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.00 


-1.32 


100 square feet or more 


-0.92 


-1.23 


Overhang: Flat < Slope < 6: 12 (27°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-1 IB Zone 1 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.45 


100 square feet or more 


-1.36 


500 square feet or more 


-0.94 


6:12 (27°) < Slope < 12:12 (45°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-llD Zone 1 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.92 


1.23 


100 square feet or more 


0.83 


1.15 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.00 


-1.32 


100 square feet or more 


-0.83 


-1.15 


Monosloped configurations (Zone 1) 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Flat < Slope < 7:12 (30°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-14B Zone 1 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.49 


0.81 


100 square feet or more 


0.41 


0.72 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.26 


-1.57 


100 square feet or more 


-1.09 


-1.40 


Tall flat-topped roofs h > 60' 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Flat < Slope < 2:12 (10°) (Zone 1) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-17 Zone 1 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.34 


-1.66 


500 square feet or more 


-0.92 


-1.23 



(continued) 



30 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 





TABLE 1609.6.2(2)— continued 
NET PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS, C, 


a,b 
let 




STRUCTURE OR 
PART THEREOF 


DESCRIPTION 


^net FACTOR 


3, Components and clad- 
ding in areas of dis- 
continuities — roofs 
and overhangs 


Roof elements and slopes 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Gable or hipped configurations at ridges, eaves and rakes (Zone 2) 


Flat < Slope < 6: 12 (27°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-llC Zone 2 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.58 


0.89 


100 square feet or more 


0.41 


10.72 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.68 


-2.00 


100 square feet or more 


-1.17 


-1.49 


Overhang for Slope Flat < Slope < 6: 12 (27°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-llC Zone 2 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.87 


100 square feet or more 


-1.87 


6:12 (27°) < Slope < 12:12 (45°) Figure 6-llD 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.92 


1.23 


100 square feet or more 


0.83 


1.15 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.17 


-1.49 


100 square feet or more 


-1.00 


-1.32 


Overhang for 6:12 (27°) < Slope < 12: 12 (45°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-1 ID Zone 2 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.70 


500 square feet or more 


-1.53 


Monosloped configurations at ridges, eaves and rakes (Zone 2) 


Flat < Slope < 7: 1 2 (30°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6- 14B Zone 2 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.49 


0.81 


100 square feet or more 


0.41 


0.72 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.51 


-1.83 


100 square feet or more 


-1.43 


-1.74 


Tall flat topped roofs h > 60' 


Enclosed 


Partiaily enclosed 


Flat < Slope < 2:12 (10°) (Zone 2) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-17 Zone 2 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-2.11 


-2.42 


500 square feet or more 


-1.51 


-1.83 


Gable or hipped configurations at comers (Zone 3) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-1 IC Zone 3 


Flat < Slope < 6:12 (27°) 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.58 


0.89 


100 square feet or more 


0.41 


0.72 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-2.53 


-2.85 


100 square feet or more 


-1.85 


-2.17 



(continued) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



31 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 





TABLE 1609.6.2(2)— continued 
NET PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS, C^^?^^ 




STRUCTURE OR 
PART THEREOF 


DESCRIPTION 


C„^t FACTOR 


3. Components and cladding in 
areas of discontinuity — roofs 
and overhangs 
(continued) 


Overhang for Slope Flat < Slope < 6: 12 (27°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-1 IC Zone 3 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-3.15 


100 square feet or more 


-2.13 


6:12 {IT) < 12:12 (45°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-llD Zone 3 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.92 


1.23 


100 square feet or more 


0.83 


1.15 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.17 


-1.49 


100 square feet or more 


-1.00 


-1.32 


Overhang for 6:12 (27°) < Slope < 12:12 (45°) 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.70 


100 square feet or more 


-1.53 


Monosloped Configurations at comers (Zone 3) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-14B Zone 3 


Flat < Slope < 7:12 (30°) 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.49 


0.81 


100 square feet or more 


0.41 


0.72 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-2.62 


-2.93 


100 square feet or more 


-1.85 


-2.17 


Tall flat topped roofs h > 60' 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Flat < Slope < 2:12 (10°) (Zone 3) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-17 Zone 3 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-2.87 


-3.19 


500 square feet or more 


-2.11 


-2.42 


4. Components and cladding not 
in areas of discontinuity — walls 
and parapets 


Wall Elements: h = 60' (Zone 4) Figure 6-1 1 A 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Positive 


10 square feetor less 


1.00 


1.32 


500 square feet or more 


0.75 


1.06 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.09 


-1.40 


500 square feet or more 


-0.83 


-1.15 


Wail Elements: h > 60' (Zone 4) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-17 Zone 4 


Positive 


20 square feet or less 


0.92 


1.23 


500 square feet or more 


0.66 


0.98 


Negative 


20 square feet or less 


-0.92 


-1.23 


500 square feet or more 


-0.75 


-1.06 


Parapet Walls 


Positive 


2,87 


3.19 


Negative 


-1.68 


-2.00 



32 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 







TABLE 1609.6.2(2)— continued 
NET PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS, C, 


a,b 
let 




STRUCTURE OR 
PART THEREOF 


DESCRIPTION 


C„^, FACTOR 


5. Components and cladding 
in areas of discontinuity — 
walls and parapets 


Wall elements: 


h < 60' (Zone 5) Figure 6-1 1 A 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


1.00 


1.32 


500 square feet or more 


0.75 


1.06 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.34 


-1.66 


500 square feet or more 


-0.83 


-1.15 


Wall elements: 


h > 60' (Zone 5) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-17 Zone 4 




Positive 


20 square feet or less 


0.92 


1.23 


500 square feet or more 


0,66 


0.98 


Negative 


20 square feet or less 


-1.68 


-2.00 


500 square feet or more 


-LOO 


-1.32 


Parapet walls 


Positive 


3.64 


3.95 


Negative 


-2.45 


-2.76 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad. 

a. Linear interpolation between values in the table is permitted. 

b. Some C„^, values have been grouped together. Less conservative results may be obtained by applying ASCE 7 provisions. 



1609.6.4.3 Determination of net pressure coefficients, 

C„e,. For the design of the MWFRS and for components 
and cladding, the sum of the internal and external net 
pressure shall be based on the net pressure coefficient, 
C 

1. The pressure coefficient, Q^^, for walls and roofs 
shall be determined from Table 1609.6.2(2). 

2. Where C„^, has more than one value, the more 
severe wind load condition shall be used for 
design. 

1609.6.4.4 Application of wind pressures. When using 
the alternative all-heights method, wind pressures shall 
be applied simultaneously on, and in a direction normal 
to, all building envelope wall and roof surfaces. 

1609.6.4.4.1 Components and cladding. Wind pres- 
sure for each component or cladding element is 
applied as follows using Q^^ values based on the 
effective wind area, A, contained within the zones in 
areas of discontinuity of width and/or length "a," "2a" 
or "4a" at: comers of roofs and walls; edge strips for 
ridges, rakes and eaves; or field areas on walls or roofs 
as indicated in figures in tables in ASCE 7 as refer- 
enced in Table 1609.6.2(2) in accordance with the fol- 
lowing: 

1. Calculated pressures at local discontinuities 
acting over specific edge strips or corner 
boundary areas. 



2. Include "field" (Zone 1, 2 or 4, as applicable) 
pressures applied to areas beyond the bound- 
aries of the areas of discontinuity. 

3. Where applicable, the calculated pressures at 
discontinuities (Zones 2 or 3) shall be com- 
bined with design pressures that apply specifi- 
cally on rakes or eave overhangs. 



SECTION 1610 
SOIL LATERAL LOADS 

1610.1 GeneraL Foundation walls and retaining walls shall be 
designed to resist lateral soil loads. Soil loads specified in Table 
1610.1 shall be used as the minimum design lateral soil loads 
unless determined otherwise by a geotechnical investigation in 
accordance with Section 1803. Foundation walls and other 
walls in which horizontal movement is restricted at the top shall 
be designed for at-rest pressure. Retaining walls free to move 
and rotate at the top shall be permitted to be designed for active 
pressure. Design lateral pressure from surcharge loads shall be 
added to the lateral earth pressure load. Design lateral pressure 
shall be increased if soils at the site are expansive. Foundation 
walls shall be designed to support the weight of the full hydro- 
static pressure of undrained backfill unless a drainage system is 
installed in accordance with Sections 1805.4.2 and 1805.4.3. 

Exception: Foundation walls extending not more than 8 
feet (2438 mm) below grade and laterally supported at the 
top by flexible diaphragms shall be permitted to be designed 
for active pressure. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



33 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



TABLE 1610.1 
LATERAL SOIL LOAD 



DESCRIPTION OF BACKFILL MATERIAL'^ 


UNIFIED SOIL 
CLASSIFICATION 


DESIGN LATERAL SOIL LOAD^ 
(pound per square foot per foot of depth) 


Active pressure 


At-rest pressure 


Well-graded, clean gravels; gravel-sand mixes 


GW 


30 


60 


Poorly graded clean gravels; gravel-sand mixes 


GP 


30 


60 


Silty gravels, poorly graded gravel-sand mixes 


GM 


40 


60 


Clayey gravels, poorly graded gravel-and-clay mixes 


GC 


45 


60 


Well-graded, clean sands; gravelly sand mixes 


sw 


30 


60 


Poorly graded clean sands; sand-gravel mixes 


SP 


30 


60 


Silty sands, poorly graded sand-silt mixes 


SM 


45 


60 


Sand-silt clay mix with plastic fines 


SM-SC 


45 


100 


Clayey sands, poorly graded sand-clay mixes 


SC 


60 


100 


Inorganic silts and clayey silts 


ML 


45 


100 


Mixture of inorganic silt and clay 


ML-CL 


60 


100 


Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity 


CL 


60 


100 


Organic silts and silt clays, low plasticity 


OL 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Inorganic clayey silts, elastic silts 


MH 


Note b 


Noteb 


Inorganic clays of high plasticity 


CH 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Organic clays and silty clays 


OH 


Noteb 


Noteb 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot per foot of depth = 0. 157 kPa/m, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Design lateral soil loads are given for moist conditions for the specified soils at their optimum densities. Actual field conditions shall govern. Submerged or satu- 
rated soil pressures shall include the weight of the buoyant soil plus the hydrostatic loads. 

b. Unsuitable as backfill material. 

c. The definition and classification of soil materials shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2487. 



SECTION 1611 
RAIN LOADS 

1611.1 Design rain loads. Each portion of a roof shall be 
designed to sustain the load of rainwater that will accumulate 
on it if the primary drainage system for that portion is blocked 
plus the uniform load caused by water that rises above the inlet 
of the secondary drainage system at its design flow. The design 
rainfall shall be based on the 100-year hourly rainfall rate indi- 
cated in Figure 1611.1 or on other rainfall rates determined 
from approved local weather data. 



For SI: R = 0.0098(^, + d^) 
where: 



(Equation 16-35) 



= Additional depth of water on the undeflected roof 
above the inlet of secondary drainage system at its 
design flow (i.e., the hydraulic head), in inches (mm). 

= Depth of water on the undeflected roof up to the inlet of 
secondary drainage system when the primary drainage 
system is blocked (i.e., the static head), in inches (mm). 



R - Rain load on the undeflected roof, in psf (kN/mj). 
When the phrase "undeflected roof is used, deflec- 
tions from loads (including dead loads) shall not be 
considered when determining the amount of rain on the 
roof. 

1611.2 Ponding instability. For roofs with a slope less than V4 
inch per foot [1.19 degrees (0.0208 rad)], the design calcula- 
tions shall include verification of adequate stiffness to preclude 
progressive deflection in accordance with Section 8.4 of ASCE 

7. 

1611.3 Controlled drainage. Roofs equipped with hardware 
to control the rate of drainage shall be equipped with a second- 
ary drainage system at a higher elevation that limits accumula- 
tion of water on the roof above that elevation. Such roofs shall 
be designed to sustain the load of rainwater that will accumu- 
late on them to the elevation of the secondary drainage system 
plus the uniform load caused by water that rises above the inlet 
of the secondary drainage system at its design flow determined 
from Section 1611.1. Such roofs shall also be checked for 
ponding instability in accordance with Section 1611.2. 



34 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




4.28^" 



[P] FIGURE 1611.1 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) EASTERN UNITED STATES 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



35 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




[P] FIGURE 1611.1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) CENTRAL UNITED STATES 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC. 



36 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



1 .1 >1 1^ 


i^ /Kg^" 


2 


.^ 




Li ^ 


rk\^ 


^s^ 


;^ 






.5 . -^M^r^.^4~lCp~M ^.^HV^ 


^J^"^ 




L ^ 


ivTl >f n 


^ 


^^J^l 




■A 


5>^j^L„a^ 


J 




f^ 


- V 


V 


L 




y^ 


y«^ 


Jrfl 


1.5'^^^OrAk^^ 


fcr- 




^^^ 


~T 




2Zisd/;\^^ 


^^^ 


=w^ 


-J- 




/ 




/ 


ix-^ r\ 1 






xh/j 


^ 


\ 


V-J*^ 


i 




■^^1! — k^ 

/ :3 y^/ 


w 


W 


flf 


itx 


F^- 




■•■■^-- , W-^ 


/ f/l 


1^ 


iv\t 


W 




1.5 1.5 i.r^ 


> / / 












2 


as 3^ — 


^ 


L^ 


2 


/ 

2.5 





[P] FIGURE 1611.1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) WESTERN UNITED STATES 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



37 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




170° 175» 180° 175° 170" 166=' 160° 165° 150° 146° 1W° 135° 130 



[P] FIGURE 1611.1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) ALASKA 

For SI; 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC. 



38 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 





IS 


E^^?^^ 



0. 





'V^ 




i* 


■^ 


< 
X 

Z 











f*)?^"-^^^^^ IV 




^>^^ 


*^x 


N<^ 






/^ 





[P] FIGURE 1611.1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) HAWAII 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



39 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



SECTION 1612 
FLOOD LOADS 

1612.1 GeneraL Within flood hazard areas as established in 
Section 1612.3, all new construction of buildings, structures 
and portions of buildings and structures, including substantial 
improvement and restoration of substantial damage to build- 
ings and structures, shall be designed and constructed to resist 
the effects of flood hazards and flood loads. For buildings that 
are located in more than one flood hazard area, the provisions 
associated with the most restrictive flood hazard area shall 
apply. 

1612.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this section, have the meanings shown herein. 

BASE FLOOD. The flood having a 1 -percent chance of being 
equaled or exceeded in any given year. 

BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the base 
flood, including wave height, relative to the National Geodetic 
Vertical Datum (NGVD), North American Vertical Datum 
(NAVD) or other datum specified on the Flood Insurance Rate 
Map (FIRM). 

BASEMENT. The portion of a building having its floor 
subgrade (below ground level) on all sides. 

This definition of "Basement" is limited in application to the 
provisions of Section 1612 (see "Basement" in Section 502. 1). 

DESIGN FLOOD. The flood associated with the greater of 
the following two areas: 

1. Area with a flood plain subject to a 1 -percent or greater 
chance of flooding in any year; or 

2. Area designated as a flood hazard area on a commu- 
nity's flood hazard map, or otherwise legally designated. 

DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the 
"design floods including wave height, relative to the datum 
specified on the community's legally designated flood hazard 
map. In areas designated as Zone AG, the design flood eleva- 
tion shall be the elevation of the highest existing grade of the 
building's perimeter plus the depth number (in feet) specified 
on the flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO where 
a depth number is not specified on the map, the depth number 
shall be taken as being equal to 2 feet (610 mm). 

DRY FLOODPROOFING. A combination of design modifi- 
cations that results in a building or structure, including the 
attendant utility and sanitary facihties, being water tight with 
walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and 
with structural components having the capacity to resist loads 
as identified in ASCE 7. 

EXISTING CONSTRUCTION. Any buildings and struc- 
tures for which the "start of construction" commenced before 
the effective date of the community's first flood plain manage- 
ment code, ordinance or standard. "Existing construction" is 
also referred to as "existing structures." 

EXISTING STRUCTURE. See "Existing construction." 



FLOOD or FLOODING. A general and temporary condition 
of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land from: 

1. The overflow of inland or tidal waters. 

2. The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface 
waters from any source. 

FLOOD DAMAGE-RESISTANT MATERL\LS. Any con- 
struction material capable of withstanding direct and pro- 
longed contact with floodwaters without sustaining any 
damage that requires more than cosmetic repair. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The greater of the following two 

areas: 

1. The area within a flood plain subject to a 1 -percent or 
greater chance of flooding in any year. 

2. The area designated as 2l flood hazard area on a commu- 
nity' s flood hazard map, or otherwise legally designated. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH-VELOC- 
ITY WAVE ACTION. Area within the flood hazard area that 
is subject to high- velocity wave action, and shown on a Flood 
Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) or other flood hazard map as Zone 
V,VO,VEorVl-30. 

FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM). An official 
map of a community on which the Federal Emergency Man- 
agement Agency (FEMA) has delineated both the special flood 
hazard areas and the risk premium zones applicable to the com- 
munity. 

FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY. The official report provided 
by the Federal Emergency Management Agency containing the 
Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), the Rood Boundary and 
Floodway Map (FBFM), the water surface elevation of the 
base flood and supporting technical data. 

FLOODWAY. The channel of the river, creek or other water- 
course and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in 
order to discharge the base flood v^iihovX cumulatively increas- 
ing the water surface elevation more than a designated height. 

LOWEST FLOOR. The floor of the lowest enclosed area, 
including basement, but excluding any unfinished or 
flood-resistant enclosure, usable solely for vehicle parking, 
building access or limited storage provided that such enclosure 
is not built so as to render the structure in violation of this sec- 
tion. 

SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The land area subject 
to flood hazards and shown on a Rood Insurance Rate Map or 
other flood hazard map as Zone A, AE, Al-30, A99, AR, AG, 
AH,V,VO,VEorVl-30. 

START OF CONSTRUCTION. The date of issuance for new 
construction and substantial improvements to existing struc- 
tures, provided the actual start of construction, repair, recon- 
struction, rehabilitation, addition, placement or other 
improvement is within 180 days after the date of issuance. The 
actual start of construction means the first placement of perma- 
nent construction of a building (including a manufactured 



40 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



home) on a site, such as the pouring of a slab or footings, instal- 
lation of pilings or construction of columns. 

Permanent construction does not include land preparation 
(such as clearing, excavation, grading or filling), the installa- 
tion of streets or walkways, excavation for a basement, foot- 
ings, piers or foundations, the erection of temporary forms or 
the installation of accessory buildings such as garages or sheds 
not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main building. 
For a substantial improvement, the actual "start of construc- 
tion" means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor or 
other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration 
affects the external dimensions of the building. 

SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. Damage of any origin sustained 
by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the structure to its 
before-damaged condition would equal or exceed 50 percent of 
the market value of the structure before the damage occurred, 

SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. Any repair, reconstruc- 
tion, rehabilitation, addition or improvement of a building or 
structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the 
market value of the structure before the improvement or repair 
is started. If the structure has sustained substantial damage, any 
repairs are considered substantial improvement regardless of 
the actual repair work performed. The term does not, however, 
include either: 

1 . Any project for improvement of a building required to 
correct existing health, sanitary or safety code violations 
identified by the building official and that are the mini- 
mum necessary to assure safe living conditions. 

2. Any alteration of a historic structure provided that the 
alteration will not preclude the structure's continued 
designation as a historic structure. 

1612.3 Establishment of flood hazard areas. To establish 
flood hazard areas, the applicable governing authority shall 
adopt a flood hazard map and supporting data. The flood haz- 
ard map shall include, at a minimum, areas of special flood haz- 
ard as identified by the Federal Emergency Management 
Agency in an engineering report entitled "The Flood Insurance 

Study for [INSERT NAME OF JURISDICTION]," dated [INSERT 

DATE OF ISSUANCE], as amended or revised with the accompa- 
nying Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) and Rood Boundary 
and Flood way Map (FBFM) and related supporting data along 
with any revisions thereto. The adopted flood hazard map and 
supporting data are hereby adopted by reference and declared 
to be part of this section. 

Exception: [OSHPD 2] The flood hazard map shall 
include, at a minimum, areas of special flood hazard as 
identified by the Federal Emergency Management Agency's 
Flood Insurance Study (FIS) adopted by the local authority 
having jurisdiction where the project is located. 

1612.3.1 Design flood elevations. Where design flood ele- 
vations are not included in the flood hazard areas estab- 
lished in Section 1612.3, or where floodways are not 
designated, the building official is authorized to require the 
applicant to: 

1 . Obtain and reasonably utilize any design flood eleva- 
tion and floodway data available from a federal, state 
or other source; or 



2. Determine the design flood elevation and/or 
floodway in accordance with accepted hydrologic 
and hydraulic engineering practices used to define 
special flood hazard areas. Determinations shall be 
undertaken by a registered design professional who 
shall document that the technical methods used 
reflect currently accepted engineering practice. 

1612.3.2 Determination of impacts. In nvo^nnt flood haz- 
ard areas where design flood elevations are specified but 
floodways have not been designated, the applicant shall pro- 
vide a floodway analysis that demonstrates that the pro- 
posed work will not increase the design flood elevation 
more than 1 foot (305 mm) at any point within the jurisdic- 
tion of the applicable governing authority. 

1612.4 Design and construction. The design and construction 
of buildings and structures located in flood hazard areas, 
including flood hazard areas subject to high-velocity wave 
action, shall be in accordance with Chapter 5 of ASCE 7 and 
with ASCE 24. 

1612.5 Flood hazard documentation. The following docu- 
mentation shall be prepared and sealed by a registered design 
professional and submitted to the building official: 

1. For construction in flood hazard areas not subject to 
high- velocity wave action: 

1.1. The elevation of the lowest floor, including the 
basement, as required by the lowest floor eleva- 
tion inspection in Section 110.3.3, Chapter 1, 
Division II. 

1.2. For fully enclosed areas below the design flood 
elevation where provisions to allow for the auto- 
matic entry and exit of floodwaters do not meet 
the minimum requirements in Section 2.6.2.1 of 
ASCE 24, construction documents shall include 
a statement that the design will provide for equal- 
ization of hydrostatic flood forces in accordance 
with Section 2.6.2.2 of ASCE 24. 

1.3. For dry floodproofed nonresidential buildings, 
construction documents shall include a statement 
that the dry floodproofing is designed in accor- 
dance with ASCE 24. 

2. For construction in flood hazard areas subject to 
high- velocity wave action: 

2.1. The elevation of the bottom of the lowest hori- 
zontal structural member as required by the low- 
est floor elevation inspection in Section 110.3.3, 
Chapter 1, Division II. 

2.2. Construction documents shall include a state- 
ment that the building is designed in accordance 
with ASCE 24, including that the pile or column 
foundation and building or structure to be 
attached thereto is designed to be anchored to 
resist flotation, collapse and lateral movement 
due to the effects of wind and flood loads acting 
simultaneously on all building components, and 
other load requirements of Chapter 16. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



41 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



2.3. For breakaway walls designed to resist a nominal 
load of less than 10 psf (0.48 kN/m^) or more than 
20 psf (0.96 kN/m^), construction documents 
shall include a statement that the breakaway wall 
is designed in accordance with ASCE 24. 



SECTION 1613 
EARTHQUAKE LOADS 

1613.1 Scope. Every structure, and portion thereof, including 
nonstructural components that are permanently attached to 
structures and their supports and attachments, shall be 
designed and constructed to resist the effects of earthquake 
motions in accordance with ASCE 7, excluding Chapter 14 and 
Appendix 1 1 A. The seismic design category for a structure is 
permitted to be determined in accordance with Section 1613 or 
ASCE 7. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Detached one- and two- family dwellings, assigned to 
Seismic Design Category A, B or C, or located where 
the mapped short-period spectral response accelera- 
tion, Ss, is less than 0.4 g. 

2. The seismic-force-resisting system of wood-frame 
buildings that conform to the provisions of Section 
2308 are not required to be analyzed as specified in 
this section. [OSHPD 2] Not permitted by OSHPD, 
see Section 2308. 

3. Agricultural storage structures intended only for inci- 
dental human occupancy. 

4. Structures that require special consideration of their 
response characteristics and environment that are not 
addressed by this code or ASCE 7 and for which other 
regulations provide seismic criteria, such as vehicular 
bridges, electrical transmission towers, hydraulic 
structures, buried utility lines and their appurtenances 
and nuclear reactors. 

5. [OSHPD 2] Seismic Design Category shall be in 
accordance with exception to Section 1613.5.6. 

1613.1.1 Scope. [SL] For applications listed in Section 1.12 
regulated by the State Librarian, only the provisions of 
ASCE 7 Table 13.5-1 and Table 1607.1 ^ as amended^ of this 
code shall apply. 

1613.1.2 State-owned buildings. State-owned buildings, 
including those of the University of California, CSU and 
Judicial Council, shall not be constructed where any por- 
tion of the foundation would be within a mapped area of 
earthquake -induced liquefaction oflandsliding or within 50 
feet of a mapped fault rupture hazard as established by Sec- 
tion 1802.7. 

1613.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this section, have the meanings shown herein. 



DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION. The earth- 
quake ground motion that buildings and structures are specifi- 
cally proportioned to resist in Section 1613. 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND 
MOTION. The most severe earthquake effects considered by 
this code. 

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS. For the purposes of determin- 
ing seismic loads in ASCE 7, mechanical systems shall include 
plumbing systems as specified therein. 

ORTHOGONAL. To be in two horizontal directions, at 90 
degrees (1.57 rad) to each other. 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. A classification assigned 
to a structure based on its occupancy category and the severity 
of the design earthquake ground motion at the site. 

SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. That part of the 
structural system that has been considered in the design to pro- 
vide the required resistance to the prescribed seismic forces. 

SITE CLASS. A classification assigned to a site based on the 
types of soils present and their engineering properties as 
defined in Section 1613.5.2. 

SITE COEFFICIENTS, The values of F^ and F, indicated in 
Tables 1613.5.3(1) and 1613.5.3(2), respectively. 

1613.3 Existing buildings. Additions, alterations, repairs or 
change of occupancy of existing buildings shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 34. 

1613.3.1 Existing state buildings. Additions, alterations, 
repairs or change of occupancy category of existing build- 
ings shall be in accordance with Chapter 34. 

1613.4 Special inspections. Where required by Sections 
1705.3 through 1705.3.5, the statement of special inspections 
shall include the special inspections required by Section 
1705.3.6. 

1613.5 Seismic ground motion values. Seismic ground 
motion values shall be determined in accordance with this sec- 
tion. 

1613.5.1 Mapped acceleration parameters. The parame- 
ters S^ and S^ shall be determined from the 0.2 and 1 -second 
spectral response accelerations shown on Figures 1613.5(1) 
through 1613.5(14). Where S^ is less than or equal to 0.04 
and S^ is less than or equal to 0. 15, the structure is permitted 
to be assigned to Seismic Design Category A. 

Exception: [OSHPD 2] Seismic Design Category shall 
be in accordance with exception to Section 1613.5.6. 

1613.5.2 Site class definitions. Based on the site soil prop- 
erties, the site shall be classified as either Site Class A, B, C, 
D, E or F in accordance with Table 1613.5.2. When the soil 
properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the 
site class. Site Class D shall be used unless the building offi- 
cial or geotechnical data determines that Site Class E or F 
soil is likely to be present at the site. 



II 



42 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



TABLE 1613.5.2 
SITE CLASS DEFINITIONS 



SITE 
CLASS 


SOIL PROFILE 
NAME 


AVERAGE PROPERTIES IN TOP 100 feet, SEE SECTION 1613.5.5 


Soil shear wave velocity, v^, (ft/s) 


Standard penetration resistance, 
N 


Soil undrained shear strength, s„ , (psf) 


A 


Hard rock 


V, > 5,000 


N/A 


N/A 


B 


Rock 


2,500 < V, < 5,000 


N/A 


N/A 


C 


Very dense soil and soft rock 


1,200 <v^ < 2,500 


N>50 


5„ > 2,000 


D 


Stiff soil profile 


600 <v, < 1,200 


15<iV<50 


1,000 <5„< 2,000 


E 


Soft soil profile 


V, < 600 


N<15 


5„< 1,000 


E 


— 


Any profile with more than 10 feet of soil having the following characteristics: 

1. Plasticity index P/> 20, 

2. Moisture content w > 40%, and 

3. Undrained shear strength ^„< 500 psf 


F 


— 


Any profile containing soils having one or more of the following characteristics: 

1 . Soils vulnerable to potential failure or collapse under seismic loading such as hquefiable 
soils, quick and highly sensitive clays, collapsible weakly cemented soils. 

2. Peats and/or highly organic clays (i^> 10 feet of peat and/or highly organic clay where 
H - thickness of soil) 

3. Very high plasticity clays {H > 25 feet with plasticity index PI>15) 

4. Very thick soft/medium stiff clays (H > 120 feet) 



TABLE 1613.5.3(1) 
VALUES OF SITE COEFFICIENT F^ ' 



SITE 
CLASS 


IVIAPPED SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION AT SHORT PERIOD 


Ss < 0.25 


S^ = 0.50 


S^ = 0.75 


S5=1.00 


S3 > 1.25 


A 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


B 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


C 


1.2 


1.2 


1.1 


1.0 


1.0 


D 


1.6 


1.4 


1.2 


1.1 


1.0 


E 


2.5 


1.7 


1.2 


0.9 


0.9 


F 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 



a. Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of mapped spectral response acceleration at short period, S^. 

b. Values shall be determined in accordance with Section 11.4.7 of ASCE 7. 

TABLE 1613.5.3(2) 
VALUES OF SITE COEFFICIENT Fy^ 



SITE 
CLASS 


MAPPED SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION AT 1 -SECOND PERIOD 


Si < 0.1 


i?i = 0.2 


Si = 0.3 


S, = 0.4 


Si > 0.5 


A 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


B 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


C 


1.7 


1.6 


1.5 


1.4 


L3 


D 


2.4 


2.0 


1.8 


1.6 


1.5 


E 


3.5 


3.2 


2.8 


2.4 


2.4 


F 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 



a. Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of mapped spectral response acceleration at 1 -second period, 5,. 

b. Values shall be determined in accordance with Section 1 1.4.7 of ASCE 7. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



43 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



1613.5.3 Site coefficients and adjusted maximum con- 
sidered earthquake spectral response acceleration 
parameters. The maximum considered earthquake spectral 
response acceleration for short periods, 5^5, and at 1 -second 
period, S^^i, adjusted for site class effects shall be deter- 
mined by Equations 16-36 and 16-37, respectively: 



^MS ~ ^a^s 



(Equation 16-36) 
(Equation 16-37) 



where: 

F^ = Site coefficient defined in Table 1613.5.3(1). 
= Site coefficient defined in Table 1613.5.3(2). 



Ss 



= The mapped spectral accelerations for short periods 
as determined in Section 1613.5.1. 

Si = The mapped spectral accelerations for a 1 -second 
period as determined in Section 1613.5.1. 

1613.5,4 Design spectral response acceleration parame- 
ters. Five-percent damped design spectral response acceler- 
ation at short periods, 5*^5, and at 1 -second period, 5^^, shall 
be determined from Equations 16-38 and 16-39, respec- 
tively: 



^DS— ^^MS 



^D\ — r.^Ml 



(Equation 16-38) 



(Equation 16-39) 



where: 

Sj^s - The maximum considered earthquake spectral 
response accelerations for short period as deter- 
mined in Section 1613.5.3. 

Sj^i = The maximum considered earthquake spectral 
response accelerations for 1 -second period as 
determined in Section 1613.5.3. 

1613.5.5 Site classification for seismic design. Site classi- 
fication for Site Class C, D or E shall be determined from 
Table 1613.5.5. 

The notations presented below apply to the upper 100 feet 
(30 480 mm) of the site profile. Profiles containing dis- 
tinctly different soil and/or rock layers shall be subdivided 
into those layers designated by a number that ranges from 1 
to n at the bottom where there is a total of n distinct layers in 



the upper 100 feet (30 480 mm). The symbol / then refers to 
any one of the layers between 1 and n, 

where: 

v^, = The shear wave velocity in feet per second (m/s). 

di = The thickness of any layer between and 100 feet 



(30 480 mm). 



where: 



Vs =- 



1=1 
^ di 



(Equation 16-40) 



^ di = 100 feet (30 480 mm) 



A^, is the Standard Penetration Resistance (ASTM D 1586) 
not to exceed 100 blows/foot (328 blows/m) as directly 
measured in the field without corrections. When refusal is 
met for a rock layer, A^, shall be taken as 100 blows/foot (328 
blows/m). 






Ik 



(Equation 16-41) 



where A^, and d^ in Equation 16-41 are for cohesionless soil, 
cohesive soil and rock layers. 



Nch =- 



d. 






(Equation 16-42) 



where: 

m 

1 = 1 

Use di and A^, for cohesionless soil layers only in Equation 

16-42. 

ds = The total thickness of cohesionless soil layers in the 
top 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

m = The number of cohesionless soil layers in the top 100 
feet (30 480 mm). 



TABLE 1613.5.5 
SITECLAS3IFICATI0N« 



SITE CLASS 


_ 

Vs 


NotN,, 


®u 


E 


< 600 ft/s 


<15 


< 1,000 psf 


D 


600 to 1,200 ft/s 


15 to 50 


1,000 to 2,000 psf 


C 


1,200 to 2,500 ft/s 


>50 


> 2,000 



For SI: 1 foot per second = 304.8 mm per second, 1 pound per square foot = (i.0479kN/m^. 

a. If the 5^^ method is used and the N^^and 5„ criteria differ, select the category w ith the softer soils (for example, use Site Class E instead of D). 



44 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



5„, = The undrained shear strength in psf (kPa), not to 
exceed 5,000 psf (240 kPa), ASTM D 2166 or D 
2850. 



Su = 



if 



(Equation 16-43) 



where: 

d^ = The total thickness of cohesive soil layers in the top 
100 feet (30 480 mm). 

k = The number of cohesive soil layers in the top 100 feet 
(30 480 mm). 

PI = The plasticity index, ASTM D 4318. 

w = The moisture content in percent, ASTM D 2216. 

Where a site does not qualify under the criteria for Site 
Class F and there is a total thickness of soft clay greater than 
1 feet (3048 mm) where a soft clay layer is defined hy:s^< 
500 psf (24 kPa), w > 40 percent, and PI > 20, it shall be clas- 
sified as Site Class E. 

The shear wave velocity for rock, Site Class B, shall be 
either measured on site or estimated by a geotechnical engi- 
neer or engineering geologist/seismologist for competent 
rock with moderate fracturing and weathering. Softer and 
more highly fractured and weathered rock shall either be 
measured on site for shear wave velocity or classified as Site 
Class C. 

The hard rock category. Site Class A, shall be supported 
by shear wave velocity measurements either on site or on 
profiles of the same rock type in the same formation with an 
equal or greater degree of weathering and fracturing. Where 
hard rock conditions are known to be continuous to a depth 
of 100 feet (30 480 mm), surficial shear wave velocity mea- 
surements are permitted to be extrapolated to assess v^ . 

The rock categories. Site Classes A and B, shall not be 
used if there is more than 10 feet (3048 mm) of soil between 
the rock surface and the bottom of the spread footing or mat 
foundation. 

1613.5.5.1 Steps for classifying a site. 

1. Check for the four categories of Site Class F 
requiring site-specific evaluation. If the site corre- 
sponds to any of these categories, classify the site 
as Site Class F and conduct a site- specific evalua- 
tion. 

2. Check for the existence of a total thickness of soft 
clay > 10 feet (3048 nmi) where a soft clay layer is 
defined by: 5„< 500 psf (24 kPa), w > 40 percent 
and PI > 20. If these criteria are satisfied, classify 
the site as Site Class E. 

3 . Categorize the site using one of the following three 
methods with v^, N, and s^and computed in all 

cases as specified. 



3.1. v^ for the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) 
(v^ method). 

3.2.iV_for the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) 
(A^method). 

3.3. N^f, for cohesionless soil layers (PI < 20) 
in the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) and aver- 
age, s^ for cohesive soil layers (P/> 20) in 
the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) ( s^ method). 

1613.5.6 Determination of seismic design category. 

Structures classified as Occupancy Category I, II or III that 
are located where the mapped spectral response accelera- 
tion parameter at 1 -second period, 5*;, is greater than or 
equal to 0.75 shall be assigned to Seismic Design Category 
E. Structures classified as Occupancy Category IV that are 
located where the mapped spectral response acceleration 
parameter at 1 -second period, Sj, is greater than or equal to 
0.75 shall be assigned to Seismic Design Category F. All 
other structures shall be assigned to a seismic design cate- 
gory based on their occupancy category and the design 
spectral response acceleration coefficients, Sj^s ^^^ ^di^ 
determined in accordance with Section 1613.5.4 or the site- 
specific procedures of ASCE 7. Each building and structure 
shall be assigned to the more severe seismic design category 
in accordance with Table 1613.5.6(1) or 1613.5.6(2), irre- 
spective of the fundamental period of vibration of the struc- 
ture, r. 

TABLE 1613.5.6(1) 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY BASED ON 

SHORT-PERIOD RESPONSE ACCELERATIONS 



VALUE OF Sos 


OCCUPANCY CATEGORY 


lor II 


111 


IV 


5^5<0.167g 


A 


A 


A 


ai67g<5^5<0.33g 


B 


B 


C 


0.33g<5^5<0.50g 


C 


C 


D 


0.50g<5^5 


D 


D 


D 


TABLE 1613.5.6(2) 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY BASED ON 

1 -SECOND PERIOD RESPONSE ACCELERATION 


VALUE OF Soi 


OCCUPANCY CATEGORY 


lor II 


III 


IV 


Soi < 0.067g 


A 


A 


A 


0.067g<5^;<0.133g 


B 


B 


C 


0.133g<5^;<0.20g 


C 


C 


D 


0.20g< Soi 


D 


D 


D 



Exception: [OSHPD 2] Structures not assigned to seis- 
mic design category E or F above shall be assigned to 
seismic design category D. 

1613.5.6.1 Alternative seismic design category deter- 
mination. Where 5; is less than 0.75, the seismic design 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



45 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



category is permitted to be determined from Table 
1613.5.6(1) alone when all of the following apply: 

1. In each of the two orthogonal directions, the 
approximate fundamental period of the structure, 
Ta, in each of the two orthogonal directions deter- 
mined in accordance with Section 12.8.2.1 of 
ASCE 7, is less than 0.8 T^ determined in accor- 
dance with Section 11.4.5 of ASCE 7. 

2. In each of the two orthogonal directions, the fun- 
damental period of the structure used to calculate 
the story drift is less than T,. 

3. Equation 12.8-2 of ASCE 7 is used to determine 
the seismic response coefficient, Q. 

4. The diaphragms are rigid as defined in Section 
1 2 . 3 . 1 of ASCE 7 or , for diaphragms that are flexi- 
ble, the distances between vertical elements of the 
seismic-force-resisting system do not exceed 40 
feet (12 192 mm). 

Exception: [OSHPD 2] Seismic design category 
I I shall be determined in accordance with exception to 

Section 1613.5 A 

1613.5.6.2 Simplified design procedure. Where the 
alternate simplified design procedure of ASCE 7 is used, 
the seismic design category shall be determined in accor- 
dance with ASCE 7. 

Exception: [OSHPD 2] Seismic design category 
I I shall be determined in accordance with exception to 

Section 1613.5,6, 

1613.6 Alternatives to ASCE 7. The provisions of Section 
1613.6 shall be permitted as alternatives to the relevant provi- 
sions of ASCE 7. 

1613.6.1 Assumption of flexible diaphragm. Add the fol- 
lowing text at the end of Section 12.3. 1. 1 of ASCE 7. 

Diaphragms constructed of wood structural panels or 
untopped steel decking shall also be permitted to be ideal- 
ized as flexible, provided all of the following conditions are 
met: 

1. Toppings of concrete or similar materials are not 
placed over wood structural panel diaphragms except 
for nonstructural toppings no greater than 1 Vj inches 
(38 mm) thick. 

2. Each line of vertical elements of the seis- 
mic-force-resisting system complies with the allow- 
able story drift of Table 12.12-1. 

3. Vertical elements of the seismic-force-resisting sys- 
tem are light-frame walls sheathed with wood struc- 
tural panels rated for shear resistance or steel sheets. 

4. Portions of wood structural panel diaphragms that 
cantilever beyond the vertical elements of the lat- 
eral-force-resisting system are designed in accor- 
dance with Section 4.2.5.2 of AF&PA SDPWS. 

1613.6.2 Additional seismic-force-resisting systems for 
seismically isolated structures. Add the following excep- 
tion to the end of Section 17.5.4.2 of ASCE 7: 



Exception: For isolated structures designed in accor- 
dance with this standard, the Structural System Limita- 
tions and the Building Height Limitations in Table 
12.2-1 for ordinary steel concentrically braced frames 
(OCBFs) as defined in Chapter 1 1 and ordinary moment 
frames (OMFs) as defined in Chapter 1 1 are permitted to 
be taken as 160 feet (48 768 mm) for structures assigned 
to Seismic Design Category D, E or F, provided that the 
following conditions are satisfied: 

1 . The value ofRi as defined in Chapter 17 is taken as 
1. 

2. For OMFs and OCBFs, design is in accordance 
with AISC 341. 

1613.6.3 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprin- 
kler systems designed and installed in accordance with 
NFPA 13 shall be deemed to meet the requirements of Sec- 
tion 13.6.8 of ASCE 7. 

1613.6.4 Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) masonry 
shear wall design coefficients and system limitations. 

Add thefollowing text at the end of Section 12.2.1 of ASCE 
7: 

For ordinary reinforced AAC masonry shear walls used 
in the seismic-force-resisting system of structures, the 
response modification factor, /?, shall be permitted to be 
taken as 2, the deflection amplification factor, C^, shall be 
permitted to be taken as 2 and the system overstrength fac- 
tor, Q„, shall be permitted to be taken as 2V2. Ordinary rein- 
forced AAC masonry shear walls shall not be limited in 
height for buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category B, 
shall be limited in height to 35 feet (10 668 mm) for build- 
ings assigned to Seismic Design Category C and are not per- 
mitted for buildings assigned to Seismic Design Categories 
D, E and F. 

For ordinary plain (unreinforced) AAC masonry shear 
walls used in the seismic-force-resisting system of struc- 
tures, the response modification factor, /?, shall be permitted 
to be taken as 1 V2, the deflection amplification factor, C^, 
shall be permitted to be taken as IV2 and the system 
overstrength factor, Q^, shall be permitted to be taken as 2 Vj. 
Ordinary plain (unreinforced) AAC masonry shear walls 
shall not be limited in height for buildings assigned to Seis- 
mic Design Category B and are not permitted for buildings 
assigned to Seismic Design Categories C, D, E and R 

1613.6.5 Seismic controls for elevators. Seismic switches 
in accordance with Section 8.4.10 of ASME A17.1 shall be 
deemed to comply with Section 13.6.10.3 of ASCE 7. 

1613.6.6 Steel plate shear wall height limits. Modify Sec- 
tion 12.2.5.4 of ASCE 7 to read as follows: 

12.2.5.4 Increased building height limit for steel- 
braced frames, special steel plate shear walls and spe- 
cial reinforced concrete shear walls. The height limits 
in Table 12.2-1 are permitted to be increased from 160 
feet (48 768 mm) to 240 feet (75 152 mm) for structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category D or E and from 
100 feet (30 480 mm) to 160 feet (48 768 nmi) for struc- 
tures assigned to Seismic Design Category F that have 



46 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



steel-braced frames, special steel plate shear walls or 
special reinforced concrete cast-in-place shear walls and 
that meet both of the following requirements: 

1 . The structure shall not have an extreme torsional 
irregularity as defined in Table 12.2-1 (horizontal 
structural irregularity Type lb). 

2. The braced frames or shear walls in any one plane 
shall resist no more than 60 percent of the total 
seismic forces in each direction, neglecting acci- 
dental torsional effects. 

1613.6.7 Minimum distance for building separation. All 

buildings and structures shall be separated from adjoining 
structures. Separations shall allow for the maximum inelas- 
tic response displacement (5^^). 5^^ shall be determined at 
critical locations with consideration for both translational 
and torsional displacements of the structure using Equation 
16-44. 



O Ayr 



(Equation 16-44) 



where: 



Cj = Deflection amphfication factor in Table 12.2-1 of 
ASCE 7. 

5^^ = Maximum displacement defined in Section 12.8.4.3 
of ASCE 7. 

/ = Importance factor in accordance with Section 1 1.5.1 
of ASCE 7. 

Adjacent buildings on the same property shall be sepa- 
rated by a distance not less than bj^j, determined by Equa- 
tion 16-45. 



^MT^ii^Mlf -^i^MlY 



(Equation 16-45) 



where: 

^Af/j ^M2 = The maximum inelastic response displace- 
ments of the adjacent buildings in accordance 
with Equation 16-44. 

Where a structure adjoins a property line not common to a 
public way, the structure shall also be set back from the 
property line by not less than the maximum inelastic 
response displacement, 5^^, of that structure. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Smaller separations or property line setbacks shall 
be permitted when justified by rational analyses. 

2. Buildings and structures assigned to Seismic 
Design Category A, B or C. 

1613.6.8 HVAC ductwork with Ip = 1.5. Seismic supports 
are not required for HVAC ductwork with /p = 1.5 if either of 
the following conditions is met for the full length of each 
duct run: 

1. HVAC ducts are suspended from hangers 12 inches 
(305 mm) or less in length with hangers detailed to 
avoid significant bending of the hangers and their 
attachments, or 



2. HVAC ducts have a cross-sectional area of less than 6 
square feet (0.557 m^). 

1613.6.9 Exceptions for nonstructural components, 

[BSC] Replace ASCE 7 Section 13.13 by the following 
items: 

Exemptions: The following nonstructural components 
are exempt from the requirements of this section: 

1. Furniture (except storage cabinets as noted in 
Table 13.5-1. 

2. Temporary or moveable equipment. 

3. Architectural components in Seismic Design Cate- 
gory B other than parapets supported by bearing 
walls or shear walls, provided that the component 
importance factor I p, is equal to 1.0. 

4. Mechanical and electrical components in Seismic 
Design Category B, 

5. Mechanical and electrical components in Seismic 
Design Category C, provided that the component 
importance factor, Ip, is equal to 1.0. 

6. Mechanical and electrical components in Seismic 
Design Category D, E or F where all of the follow- 
ing apply: 

a. The component importance factor, Ip, is 
equal to 1.0; 

b. The component is positively attached to the 
structure; 

c. Flexible connections are provided between 
the component and associated ductwork, 
piping and conduit; and either: 

i. The component weighs 400 lb (1780 
N) or less and has a center of mass 
located 4 ft (1.22 m) or less above the 
adjacent floor level; or 

a. The component weighs 20 lb (89 N) or 
less, or, in the case of a distributed 
system, 5 lb/ft (73 N/m) or less. 

1613.6.10 Exceptions for nonstructural components, 

[BSC] Replace Items 4 and 5 of ASCE 7 Section 13.1.4 with 
the following items. 

4, Mechanical and electrical components in Seismic 
Design Category D, EorF where all of the following 
apply: 

a. The component importance factor, Ip, is equal 
to 1.0; 

b. The component is positively attached to the 
structure; 

c. Flexible connections are provided between the 
component and associated ductwork, piping 
and conduit; and either: 

i. The component weights 400 lb (1 780 N) 
or less and has a center of mass located 4 
ft (1,22 m) or less above adjacent floor 
level. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



47 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



a. The component weights 20 lb (89 N) or 
less, or, in the case of a distributed sys- 
tem, 5 lb/ft (73N/m) or less. 

1613.7 ASCE 7, Section 11.7.5. Modify ASCE 7, Section 
1 1.7,5 to read as follows: 

11.7.5 Anchorage of walls. Walls shall be anchored to the 
roof and all floors and members that provide lateral support 
for the wall or that are supported by the wall. The anchorage 
shall provide a direct connection between the walls and the 
roof or floor construction. The connections shall be capable 
of resisting the forces specified in Section 11.7.3 applied 
horizontally, substituted for E in load combinations of Sec- 
tion 2.3 or 2.4. 



SECTION 1614 
STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY 

1614.1 General. Buildings classified as high-rise buildings in 
accordance with Section 403 and assigned to Occupancy Cate- 
gory in or IV shall comply with the requirements of this sec- 
tion. Frame structures shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 1614.3. Bearing wall structures shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 1614.4. 

1614.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of Section 1614, have the meanings shown herein. 

BEARING WALL STRUCTURE. A building or other struc- 
ture in which vertical loads from floors and roofs are primarily 
supported by walls. 

FRAME STRUCTURE. A building or other structure in 
which vertical loads from floors and roofs are primarily sup- 
ported by columns. 

1614.3 Frame structures. Frame structures shall comply with 
the requirements of this section. 

1614.3.1 Concrete frame structures. Frame structures 
constructed primarily of reinforced or prestressed concrete, 
either cast-in-place or precast, or a combination of these, 
shall conform to the requirements of ACI 318 Sections 7.13, 
13.3.8.5, 13.3.8.6, 16.5, 18.12.6, 18.12.7 and 18.12.8 as 
applicable. Where ACI 318 requires that nonprestressed 
reinforcing or prestressing steel pass through the region 
bounded by the longitudinal column reinforcement, that 
reinforcing or prestressing steel shall have a minimum nom- 
inal tensile strength equal to two-thirds of the required 
one-way vertical strength of the connection of the floor or 
roof system to the column in each direction of beam or slab 
reinforcement passing through the column. 

Exception: Where concrete slabs with continuous rein- 
forcing having an area not less than 0.001 5 times the con- 
crete area in each of two orthogonal directions are 
present and are either monolithic with or equivalently 
bonded to beams, girders or colunms, the longitudinal 
reinforcing or prestressing steel passing through the col- 
umn reinforcement shall have a nominal tensile strength 
of one-third of the required one-way vertical strength of 
the connection of the floor or roof system to the column 
in each direction of beam or slab reinforcement passing 
through the colunm. 



1614.3.2 Structural steel, open web steel joist or joist 
girder, or composite steel and concrete frame structures. 

Frame structures constructed with a structural steel frame or 
a frame composed of open web steeljoists, joist girders with 
or without other structural steel elements or a frame com- 
posed of composite steel or composite steeljoists and rein- 
forced concrete elements shall conform to the requirements 
of this section. 

1614.3.2.1 Columns. Each column splice shall have the 
minimum design strength in tension to transfer the 
design dead and live load tributary to the column 
between the splice and the splice or base immediately 
below. 

1614.3.2.2 Beams. End connections of all beams and 
girders shall have a minimum nominal axial tensile 
strength equal to the required vertical shear strength for 
allowable stress design (ASD) or two-thirds of the 
required shear strength for load and resistance factor 
design (LRfTD) but not less than 10 kips (45 kN). For the 
purpose of this section, the shear force and the axial ten- 
sile force need not be considered to act simultaneously. 

Exception: Where beams, girders, open web joist and 
joist girders support a concrete slab or concrete slab 
on metal deck that is attached to the beam or girder 
with not less than Vg-inch-diameter (9.5 mm) headed 
shear studs, at a spacing of not more than 12 inches 
(305 nrni) on center, averaged over the length of the 
member, or other attachment having equivalent shear 
strength, and the slab contains continuous distributed 
reinforcement in each of two orthogonal directions 
with an area not less than 0.0015 times the concrete 
area, the nominal axial tension strength of the end 
connection shall be permitted to be taken as half the 
required vertical shear strength for ASD or one-third 
of the required shear strength for LRFD, but not less 
than 10 kips (45 kN). 

1614.4 Bearing wall structures. Bearing wall structures shall 
have vertical ties in all load-bearing walls and longitudinal ties, 
transverse ties and perimeter ties at each floor level in accor- 
dance with this section and as shown in Figure 1614.4. 

1614.4.1 Concrete wall structures. Precast bearing wall 
structures constructed solely of reinforced or prestressed 
concrete, or combinations of these shall conform to the 
requirements of Sections 7.13, 13.3.8.5 and 16.5 of ACI 
318. 

1614.4.2 Other bearing wall structures. Ties in bearing 
wall structures other than those covered in Section 1614.4. 1 
shall conform to this section. 

1614.4.2.1 Longitudinal ties. Longitudinal ties shall 
consist of continuous reinforcement in slabs; continuous 
or spliced decks or sheathing; continuous or spliced 
members framing to, within or across walls; or connec- 
tions of continuous framing members to walls. Longitu- 
dinal ties shall extend across interior load-bearing walls 
and shall connect to exterior load-bearing walls and shall 
be spaced at not greater than 10 feet (3038 mm) on cen- 
ter. Ties shall have a minimum nominal tensile strength, 



48 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



Tj, given by Equation 16-46. For ASD the minimum 
nominal tensile strength shall be permitted to be taken as 
1.5 times the allowable tensile stress times the area of the 
tie. 



Tt=wLS <ajS 
where: 



(Equation 16-46) 



w 



a. 



= The span of the horizontal element in the direction 
of the tie, between bearing walls, feet (m). 

= The weight per unit area of the floor or roof in the 
span being tied to or across the wall, psf (N/m^). 

= The spacing between ties, feet (m). 

= A coefficient with a value of 1 ,500 pounds per foot 
(2.25 kN/m) for masonry bearing wall structures 
and a value of 375 pounds per foot (0.6 kN/m) for 
structures with bearing walls of cold-formed steel 
light-frame construction. 

1614.4.2.2 Transverse ties. Transverse ties shall consist 
of continuous reinforcement in slabs; continuous or 
spliced decks or sheathing; continuous or spliced mem- 
bers framing to, within or across walls; or connections of 
continuous framing members to walls. Transverse ties 
shall be placed no farther apart than the spacing of load- 
bearing walls. Transverse ties shall have minimum nomi- 
nal tensile strength Tj^ given by Equation 16-46. For 
ASD the minimum nominal tensile strength shall be per- 
mitted to be taken as 1 .5 times the allowable tensile stress 
times the area of the tie. 

1614.4.2.3 Perimeter ties. Perimeter ties shall consist of 
continuous reinforcement in slabs; continuous or spliced 
decks or sheathing; continuous or spliced members 
framing to, within or across walls; or connections of con- 
tinuous framing members to walls. Ties around the per- 
imeter of each floor and roof shall be located within 4 



feet (1219 mm) of the edge and shall provide a nominal 
strength in tension not less than T^, given by Equation 
16-47. For ASD the minimum nominal tensile strength 
shall be permitted to be taken as 1.5 times the allowable 
tensile stress times the area of the tie. 



r^=200w<|Jr 

For SI: 

r, = 90.7vy<P, 



(Equation 16-47) 



where: 

w = 



As defined in Section 1614.4.2.1. 

A coefficient with a value of 16,000 pounds 
(7200 kN) for structures with masonry bearing 
walls and a value of 4,000 pounds (1300 kN) for 
structures with bearing walls of cold-formed 
steel light-frame construction. 



1614.4.2.4 Vertical ties. Vertical ties shall consist of 
continuous or spliced reinforcing, continuous or spliced 
members, wall sheathing or other engineered systems. 
Vertical tension ties shall be provided in bearing walls 
and shall be continuous over the height of the building. 
The minimum nominal tensile strength for vertical ties 
within a bearing wall shall be equal to the weight of the 
wall within that story plus the weight of the diaphragm 
tributary to the wall in the story below. No fewer than two 
ties shall be provided for each wall. The strength of each 
tie need not exceed 3,000 pounds per foot (450 kN/m) of 
wall tributary to the tie for walls of masonry construction 
or 750 pounds per foot (140 kN/m) of wall tributary to 
the tie for walls of cold-formed steel light-frame con- 
struction. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



49 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




FIGURE 1613.5(1) 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES OF 

0.2 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



50 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




FIGURE 1613.5(1)— continued 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES OF 

0.2 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



51 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




vtasionsofthisinapaiidotheis. Documentation, giidded 
values, and Aic/M'O coverages used to mafce the maps 
are also available. 

The Califtnnia portion of the map was produced jointly 
with the Calilbmia Geological Survey. 

Map pnepared by U.S. Geological Survey. 



- Region 1 is shown enlai^ged in figure 1 61 3.5(4) 

- Region 2 is strawn enlarged in figure 1 61 3.5(6) 

- Region 3 is shown enlarged in figure 1 61 3.5(3) 

- Re^on 4 is shown enlaiged in figure 1 61 3.5(9) 



FIGURE 1613.5(2) 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES 

OF 1.0 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



52 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




1 00 100 200 300 400 500 6 00 KILOMETERS 

M M M 1 I I 1 I ZU 



FIGURE 1613.5(2)— continued 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES 

OF 1.0 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



53 



en 

•1^ 



ro 

o 

o 
O 

> 



O 
33 

Z 
> 

w 

c 
l- 
g 

z 

Q 
O 
O 
O 

m 







H 

u 

c 
o 



33 

> 

r- 

D 
m 

CO 

O 



FIGURE 1613.5(3) 
MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR REGION 1 OF 0.2 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



o 
o 
O 

> 



O 

D 

Z 

> 
01 

c 



o 
o 
o 
o 
m 



ConUmr intervals, % g 



Note ccaaiouis are iiregdarfy spaced 



Areas with a constant spectral 
respcw6eacceteiad(HiofI50% g 



Point vsim of specteil Ji^ponse 
acceleratic " 

of^vity. 



Contouis of spectra] respcsise 
acceleration ex|»essed as a jaeicera 
of gravity. Hactmres point in 
direction of ttecneasing values. 



Locations of feults (see DISCUSSION). 
Tte number on the fault is to 
median spectral lesponse acceleration 
times 1 .5, expaessed as a perc«it of 



DISCUSSION 

A One shown as a fault location is the piBJection to the earth's 
sujfeie of the edge of the fault rapture aiea iocalfid closest to 
die earth's surface. OnlytfiepotticHioftheiaultusedin 
stetertiBning design values is shown. Ihsmrnifeei-onthefaultisthe 
detendnistic median s^tral response acceleration times 1 ,5, The 
vai ues on the fault portion shown may be used for inteipolation 
ptuposes. 

Selected contotiis Dsax feults have been deleted for clarity, in 
these i«stancffi, interpolation amy bft done usiag feult values and the 
nearest adjacent contour. 

Refer to the nmj of ?Haxinium Considered EaidiquakB Qiound 
MsMionfortheContermiiwus United States of (12 .">ec Spectral 
Response Acceleration (R^ire 1 61 3.^1 )) foradc£tional discussion 
and references. 




FIGURE 1613.5(3)— continued 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR REGION 1 OF 

0.2 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



CO 

H 
3) 

C 

o 

H 
C 

> 

r 

o 
m 

CO 

o 



o 



o 

> 



O 

Z 
> 
CD 

C 




21 

c 
o 

H 
C 

> 

r- 

o 
m 

CO 

o 



o 
o 
O 

D 

m 



FIGURE 1613.5(4) 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR REGION 1 OF 

1.0 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



• • 



o 
O 



\ \l\ A 



Contour intervals, % g 



Note contDtus arc inegulady spaced 



Aieas nith a cotBtanl spectral 
icsponse acceleration of 60% g 



Ftoint value of spectral response 
acceleration exptesscd as a peicei 
of gravity 



Contoius of spectral response 
acceleration ejqnessed as a peiceid 
of gravity. Hachmes point in 
diiectiaa of decieasing values. 



Locations of faults (see DISCUSSION). 
The number on the fault is tte 
median spectral [espouse acceleration 
timas 1 .5, expressed as a peucentof 
gravity. 



DISCUSSION 

A line shown as a fault location is the projection to ^ earth's 
surface of the edge of tfie &ult nqituie area located closest to 
the earth' ssufiice. Only the portion ofthe fault used in 
deteimining design values is sbown The number on tls fault is the 
deterministic median spectral response acceleration times 1.5, The 
values on the &ult portion shown may be used for inteipolation 



Selected contouisnearfaults have been deleted for clarity. In 
these instances, interpolation may be done using feult values and the 
nearest adjacent contour. 

Refer 10 the map of Maximum Considefed Earthquake Gfotmd 
Motion for the Comemiinous United States of 1 ,0 sec Spectral 
Response Acceleration (Rgure 1 61 3.5(2)) f ' ' " ' ' 
and lefciences, 




H 

c 
o 



FIGURE 1613.5(4)— continued 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR REGION 1 OF 

1.0 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



33 

> 

|- 

O 

m 

CO 

o 



lO 

o 
o 
O 

> 



O 
3) 

Z 

> 
C 




I I I I : 



Eiqplanation 
Contour intervals, % g 



55 

C 

o 



> 

a 
m 

CO 

z 



Nole contoiKS are inegulariy spaced 

+ 



R)U]t value of spectral nesponse 
acceleration ex;«Essed as a pcicent 
of gravity 



Contoins of spectral response 
acceleiation e^aessed as a peicrait 
of gravity. Hachunss point in 
direction of decreasing values. 



Refer to the map of Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground 
Motion for the Contemiinous United States of a2 sec Spectral 
Response Acceleration (Hguie 1 61 3.5(1 )) for discission and 




100 KILOMETERS 



Index map showing location of study atea 



o 
o 
o 

a 
m 



FIGURE 1613.5(5) 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR REGION 2 OF 

0.2 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



o 
O 

> 

■n 
O 

z 
> 

CD 

C 



o 
o 
o 
a 
m 




100 

I I 



100 KILOMETERS 



Explanation 
Contour intervals, % g 



Note contouis are iiiegulariy spaced 



Point value of spectra] lesponse 
acceleration expressed as a percent 
of gravity 



Contouis of spectra] response 
acceleration expressed as a percent 
of gravity, Hachures point in 
diiecdon of decreasing values. 



Refer to the map of Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground 
Motion for the Qinternunous United States of 1 .0 sec Spectral 
Response Acceleration (Rguie 1 61 3.5(2)) for discussion and 




Index map showing location of study aiea 



CJI 



FIGURE 1613.5(6) 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR REGION 2 OF 

1.0 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



C/> 

H 

c 
c 

> 

r- 

a 
m 
(n 

Q 

Z 



o 



o 
O 

> 



O 
33 

Z 

> 

m 



a 
z 
o 
o 
o 

D 

m 




100 KILOMETERS 



CtHitotir into-vals, % g 



Note contDinsaieinegulariy spaced 



Aieas \Mth a constant spectral 
iBsponse acceleiatbn of 1 S0% g 



PouA value of spectral response 
acceleration exjnessed as a percent 
of gravity 



ConlDuis of spectral response 
acceleration expessed as a percent 
ofgiavi^. Hactnnes point in 
diKction of decicasing values. 



Refer to the map of Maximuni Consideied Eaitfaquake Gmund 
Motion for the Contemdiious United States of 0l2 sec Spectral 
Response Acceleration (Rgme 1 61 3.5(1 )) for discussion and 




Index map showing location of study area 



FIGURE 1613.5(7) 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR REGION 3 OF 

0.2 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% PERCENT OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



53 
3) 

C 

o 

H 
C 
D 

> 

r- 

a 
m 

o 



lO 

o 

o 
O 

> 



O 

Z 
> 
00 



o 
o 
o 

a 
m 




H I ^31 



100 KILOMETCRS 



Contour intervals, % g 



aie inegulaily spaced 

I Areas with a ctmstaitt spectral 



Paint value of spectral lesponse 
acceleration eJquressed as a peicent 
of gravity 



Contoius of spectral response 
acceleration expressed as aperct 
of gravity. Haouires point in 
diiection of ctecieasing values. 



Refer to the map of Maximum Considered Earthquake Giound 
Motion for tiie Conterminous United States of 1 .0 sec Spectral 
Response Acceleration (Figure 1 61 3.5(2)) for discussion and 




Pl^iinp 1 fti Q Rffl\ Index map showing location of study area 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR REGION 3 OF 
1.0 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



H 
3J 

C 

o 

H 
C 
J) 

> 

I" 

o 
m 

CO 

o 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




1.0 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING) 



+ 

6.2 



Explanation 

Point value of spectral response 
acceleration expressed as a peicent 
of gravity 



Contoms of spectral lesponse 
acceleration expiessed as a peicent 
of gravity, Hachuies point in 
diiecdon of decreasing values. 



DISCUSSION 

Refer to the maps of Maximum ConsideiedEaithqualQe Ground 
Motion for the Q>ntenninous United States of Q2 and 1 .0 sec 
Spectral Response Acceleratian (Hgures 1 61 3.5(1 ) and 1 61 3.5(2)) 
for discussion and refeiences. 



100 KILOMETERS 




Index map showing location of study aiea 



FIGURE 1613.5(9) 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR REGION 4 OF 

0.2 AND 1.0 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



62 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




Contoiir intervals, % g 



-200- 
-175- 
-150- 
-125- 
-100- 
-90- 
-80- 
-70- 
-60- 
-50- 
-40- 
-35- 
-30- 
-25- 
-20- 
-15- 
-10- 



Note contousaie 
ineculailv scaced 

0.2 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING) 

160° 

Contour intervals, % g 

150 

125 

100- 

90- 

75- 

60- 

50- 



-25- 
-20- 
-15- 
-10- 




1.0 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING) 



^ Paict value of spectral nsponse 

f-j acceleration expiessed as a percent 

'^^ of gravity 



ContDuis of spectral iBspcmse 
acceleration expitcssed as a percent 
of gravity. Hachuies point in 
diiection of decnsasing values. 



DISCUSSION 

The accderation values c»n!Duied on this tnap aie for the random hcnizontal 
component of acceleratioa Fardesignpmposes, the lefeience site conditicm 
for lie map is to be taken as Site Class B. 

The two aieas shown as zone boundaries aie the projection to the eaitli's 
sutface of horizontal niptuiejdanes at 9 km depth. Spectral accelerations 
aieconstantwithtnthe boundaries of the zones. The number on the boundary 
and inside the zone is the median spectral response acceleration times 1 .5. 

Leyendecker, Rrankel, and Rukstates (2001 , 2004) have prepaied a CI>-ROM 
that contains software to allow detemtination of Site Class B map values by 
Mtude-longitude, The softwaie on the CD contains site coefficients that 
allow the userto adjust mapvaluesfbrdifierentSiteClasses. Additional 
maps at different scales aie also included on the CD. The CD was piepored 
using tlie same data as (hat used to prepare the Maximum Considered Eaithquake 
GfDund Motion maps. 

TTie National Seismic Hazard Mappng Pnsject Web Site, 
http //eqhazmapB. usgs.gov, contains electronic veraions of this map 
andotheis. Documentation, gridded values, and Aic/INTO coverages used 
to make the maps are also av^lahle. 

Map prepBied by U.S. Gedogtcal Survey. 



Areas with a constant spectra] 
response acceleration of 1 50% g 



m 



(se 

The number on the boundaiy and 
inside the zone is the median 
spectral response acceleration 
times l.S, expressed as a 
percent of gravity. 



Areas with a constant spectral 
response acceleration of 60% g 



m 



Localioiis of detemtinistic zone 
boundaries (see DISCUSSION> 
The number on the boundaiy and 
inside the zone is the median 
spectral RspfflBe acceleration 
times 1 .5, expressed as a 
petcent of gravity. 



200 KILOMETERS 



Building Seismic Safety Council 200*, NEHRP Reconnnended Provisions for Seismic 
RegulatioiB for New Buildings and other Structures, E^ 1 - Provisions, FEMA 450l 

Building Seismic Safety Council 2004, NEHRP Reconrnended Provisions for Seismic 
Regulations for New Buildings and other Structures, Part 2 - Cwnnientaiy, FEMA 45Q 

Klein, P., Frankel, A., Muellei; C, Wesson, R and Okubo, P., 2001 , Seismic hazaid 
in Hawaii high rate of lai«e earthcnskes and piobabilistic gtound-motion maps. 
Bull Seism Soc. Am, v. M, j^ 479^98. 

Klein, F., Frankel, A., MueUei; C. Wesson, R and Okubo. R, 1 99S, Seismic-Hazard Maps 
fe Hawaii, Sheet 2 -2% PtobahilityofExceedance in 50 Yeare for Rak Horizontal 
Acceleration and Horizontal Spectral Response Acceleration for a2, 0.3, and 1 .0 Second 
ftriods U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investi^an Series 1-2724, scale 1 :2,000l,00a 

Leyendecker, E, Frankel, A., and Rukstales, K., 2001 , Seismic Design Ruameteis, US. 
Geological Survey Open-File Report 01 -437. 

Leyendecker, E., Firankel, A., aixl Rukstales, K., 2004, Seismic Design Puameleis, U.S. 



u: 



[Seismic mzard Majqnng Project Web Site, http /ABqhazinap6.u5gs.gov, 
L Geological Survey. 



FIGURE 1613.5(10) 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR HAWAII OF 

0.2 AND 1.0 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



63 



lO 

o 



O 

> 

-n 
O 
X 

z 
> 
w 

c 

I- 
o 




£3 

3} 

C 

o 

H 
C 

> 

r- 
o 
m 

(0 

O 

z 



Building Seismic Safety Council 2004, NHIRP Recoiimieiided PtovisicHis for Seismic 
' s for New Buildings and other StmctuEs, I^ 1 -nDvisions,FEMA450L 
g Seismic Safety Council 2004, NEHRP ReconunEaded Provisions for Seismic 

Regulations for New Building and other Structuns, F^ 2 - Commenlaiy, FEMA 45Q 
LeyendeekEr, E, Rankel, A., and Rukstales, K., 20Q1 , Seismic Etesign ftiamcteis, U.S. 

Geological Survey Open-file Report 01 -437, 
Leyendecker, E, Ranfcel, A., and Rukstales, K., 2004, Seismic Design Ptouneteis, U.S. 

Geological Survey Opcn-Rle Report (in piogiessX 
National Seismic Hazard Mapping Roject Web Site, http/^et^iazmaps. usgs.gov, 

U. S. Geological Survey. 
Wesson, R., Frankel, A., Mueller, C, and Hannsen. S., 1 999, Prohahilistic Seismic Hazard 

Maps of Alaska, U.S Geoloacal Survey Open-Hie Rgiott 99-36 
Wesson. R, Frankel, A, Mueller, C, and Hannsen, S., 1 998, Seismic-Hazaid Maps for 

Alaska and die Aleutian Islands, Sheet 2 -2% Probability ofExceedarKc in 50 Years 

for Peak Horizontal Acceleration and Horizontal Spectral Response Acceleration for 0l2, 

a 3, and 1 .0 Second Periods US. Gcolopcal Survey Geologic Investigalion Series 1-2679, 

scale l:7,50a00Q 



L 



750 KILOMETERS 



o 
o 
o 

a 
m 



FIGURE 1613.5(11) 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR ALASKA OF 

0.2 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



to 

o 



O 

> 



O 

13 

Z 

> 

C 
f- 
D 

Z 

o 
o 
o 

a 
m 




Bmlding Seismic Safety Council 2004, NEHRP RecommeiKted Provisions for Seismic 

Regulations for New Buildings and other Stnictiires, ftit 1 - Provisions, FEMA 450L 
Building Seismic Safety Council 2004, NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic 

Regulations for New Buildings and other Stnicturcs, Part 2 - Commentaiy, FEMA 45Q 
Leyendecker, E, Frankel, A., and Rukstales, K., 2001 , Seismic Design Rarameteis, US. 

Geological Survey Open-File Report 01 -437, 
Ley^ndaker, E, I^uikel, A., and Rukstales, K,, 2004, Seismic Design Parameters, U.S. 

Geological Survey Open-File Report (in progress). 
National Seismic Hazard Mapping ftoject Web Site, httpc//eqhazmaps.i]sgs.gov, 

U. S. Geological Survey. 
Wesson, R, Frankel, A, Muellei; C, and Haraisen, S., 1 999, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard 

Maps of Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey Open-Hie Repmt 99-36. 
Wesson, R, Franlffil, A., Mueller, Q, and Haimsen, S., 1 998, Seismic-lfezanl Maps for 

Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, Sheet 2 - 2% Probability of Exceedance in 50 Yeais 

for Peak Horizontal Acceleration and Horizontal Spectml Response Acceleration for 0.2, 

03, and 1.0 Second Psriods U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigation Series 1-2679, 

scale 1:7,500,000 



^, 



750 KILOMETERS 



CJI 



FIGURE 1613.5(12) 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR ALASKA OF 

1.0 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



CO 

H 
JJ 

C 

o 

H 
C 
J} 

> 

r- 

a 
m 

CO 

O 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




0.2 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING) 



C<Hitour intervals, % g 

150 

125 

100 

90 

60 

40 

30 

20 




1.0 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING) 



+ 

6.2 



10 

10 



Paint value of spectral response 

acceleration expiessed as a peicent 
ofgjavity 



Contouis of spectral response 
acceleration expressed as a percent 
of gravity. Hachures point in 
direction of decreasing values. 



DISCUSSION 

The acceleration values contoured on this map are for the random horizontal 
ccHiqxinent of acceleration. Por design purposes, the reference site condition 
for the niap is to be taken as Site Class B. 

Leyendeckei; Franfcel, and Rukstales (2001 , 2004) have prepared a CD-ROM 
that contains software to allow detemiination of Site Class B map values by 
latitiide'longitiid& The software on the CD contains site coefficients that 
allow die user to adjust map values for different Site Qasses. Additional maps 
at different scales are also included on the CD. lite CD was prepared using die 
sane data as diatused to prepare the Maximum Considered Eardiquake Ground 
Motion maps. 

The National Seismic Hazard Mappbg Ptoject Web Site, 
tdtp//eqhazmaps.usgs.gov, caotains electtonic veisioiis of this map 
andothets. Documentadon, ^dded values, and Arc/INFO coverages used 
to make the maps are also available. 

Map prepared by U.S. Geological Survey. 



KILOMETERS 



Building Seismic Safety Council 2004, NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic 

Regulations for New Buildings and other Structures, I^ 1 - Provisions, FEMA 45Q 
Building Seismic Safety Council 2004, NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic 

Regulations for New Building? and other Structures, ftit 2 - Commentary, FEMA 450i 
Leymdeclcer, E, Frankel, A, and Rukstales, K., 2001 , Seismic Design I^iaraeteis, U.S. 

Geological Survey Open-File Report 01 -437. 
Leyendecker, E, Piankel, A, and Rukstales, K., 2004, Seismic Design Ratameteis, U.S. 

Geological Survey Opm-Rle Report (in progress). 
Mueller; C, Rankel, A., I^teisea M, and Leyendeckiei; E, 2003, Documentation for 

2003 uses Seismic Hazard Maps for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, US. 

Geolo^cal Survey Open-Rle Report 03-379. 
Muellei; C, Franfcel, A.. Pcteisen, M, and Leyendecker, E, 2004, Seismic-Hazaid Maps 

for Pierto Rico and the US. Vii^ Island, Sheet 2 - 2% Plobability of 

Exoeedance in 50 Years for Fsak Horizontal Acceleration and Honzontal Spectral 

Response Acceleration for 0l2, Q3, and 1 .0 Second ftriods U.S. Geological Survey 

Geologic Investigadon Series (in progress). 
National Seismic Hazard Mappng Pttjject Web SitCj htqx /Aeqhazmapa.usgs. gov, 

U.S. Geologicai Survey. 



FIGURE 1613.5(13) 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR PUERTO RICO, CULEBRA, VIEQUES, ST. THOMAS, 

ST. JOHN AND ST. CROIX OF 0,2 AND 1,0 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



66 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



150% g 



GUAM 
(UNITED STATES) 



r\ 



..^^ 



DISCUSSION 

LeyeiKieck»;Bank£!, and Rukstales (2001, 2094) have pcep^a€1>-R0M (hat contains 
software to allow detominatinn of Site Class B de^ values by either Mtwte-longitiKte or 
»pcoda The softwanj cm the CT)cotaaim site coeffidcmsffiat allow the user to ad^ 
map values for diffieiBntSiteCaasses, 

Nfap ptepaiBd by US. Geologjcal Survey. 



100% g 






/' TUTUILA 
/ , (UNITED STATES) 



a2 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING) 



^cg 



/"\ 



x;y 



J::^ 



GUAM 
(UNITED STATES) 



REFERE^^iCES 

Building Seismic Safety Council ^)04, NBKRP Recommeodbd IVtn^^ons forSmcmc Kegulatioas 

for New Buildin£^ and other Structtaes,!^] -Plovtsioie,FEMA45Q. 
Building Seismic Safety Council 2004, NEHRPaecommencbd Ptovjsions fw Seismic ReguktkMU 

for New BiuJdu^ and otherSmxmjnes, F^ 2 - GommndBiy, FEMA 4S(X 
Leyendecker, E, mnkel, A. and Rakstales, K., 20tM , Seisone Design I^ratnetws, US. Geolo©cal 

SurweyC^«n-Eile Report 01 -437. 
Leyendecker. E, Bunkel, A. and Rulst^es, K, :KXM, SeisiiHC Des^ Ruani«e«s, MS. Geological 

Survey O^it-Rle Reprat (in [xogjssssjL 
National Seismic Hazanl Mailing Ptoject Wd» Site, httpi//eqha2mapfiLiB^gt3rv, 

US. Geotogjcal Sorwy. 



•'o% 






/ TUTUILA 
./ (UNITED STATES) 



144P45' K5*0(yE ITt'Off 11 

10 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING) 



25 KItOMETERS 



FIGURE 1613.5(14) 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR GUAM ANDTUTUILLA OF 

0.2 AND 1.0 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



67 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




T = Transverse 
L = Longitudinal 
V = Vertical 
P = Perimeter 



FIGURE 1614.4 
LONGITUDINAL, PERIMETER, TRANSVERSE AND VERTICAL TIES 



68 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



^ 



SECTION 1615 
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS [DSA-SS/CC] 

161 5 J Construction documents, 

1615 A A Additional requirements for construction docu- 
ments are included in Sections 4-210 and 4-317 of the 
Building Standards Administrative Code (Part 7, Title 24, 
C.CR). 

1615.1.2 Connections, Connections that resist design seis- 
mic forces shall be designed and detailed on the design 
drawings. 

1615.1.3 Construction procedures. Where unusual erec- 
tion or construction procedures are considered essential by 
the project structural engineer or architect in order to 
accomplish the intent of the design or influence the design, 
such procedure shall be indicated on the plans or in the 
specifications. 

1615.2 General design requirements, 
1615,2,1 Lateral load deflections, 

1615.2.1.1 Horizontal diaphragms. The maximum 
span-width ratio for any roof or floor diaphragm shall 
not exceed those given in Table 2305.2 or Table 4.2,4 of 
AF 6c PA SDPWS for wood sheathed diaphragms. For 
other diaphragms, test data and design calculations 
acceptable to the enforcement agency shall be submitted 
and approved for span-width ratios. 

1615.2.1.2 Veneers. The deflection shall not exceed the 
limits in Section 1405.10 for veneered walls, anchored 
veneers and adhered veneers over 1 inch (25 mm) thick, 
including the mortar backing. 

1615.2.1.3 Occupancy Category of buildings and other 
structures. Occupancy Category IV includes structures 
as defined in C.CR, Title 24, Part 1, Section 4-207 and 
all structures required for their continuous operation or 
access/egress. 

1615.3 Load combinations, 

1615.3.1 Stability, When checking stability under the provi- 
sions of Section 1605.1.1 using allowable stress design, the 
factor of safety for soil bearing values shall not be less than 
the overstrength factor of the structures supported. 

1615.4 Roof dead loads. The design dead load shall provide 
for the weight of at least one additional roof covering in addi- 
tion to other applicable loadings if the new roof covering is 
permitted to be applied over the original roofing without its 
removal, in accordance with Section 1510. 

1615.5 Live loads. 

1615.5.1 Modifications to Table 1607,1. 

1615.5.1,1 Item 4. Assembly areas and theaters. The 

following minimum loads for stage accessories apply: 

1. Gridirons and fly galleries: 75 pounds per square 
foot uniform live load. 

2. Loft block wells: 250 pounds per lineal foot verti- 
cal load and lateral load. 



3. Head block wells and sheave beams: 250 pounds 
per lineal foot vertical load and lateral load. Head 
block wells and sheave beams shall be designed 
for all tributary loft block well loads. Sheave 
blocks shall be designed with a safety factor of five. 

4. Scenery beams where there is no gridiron: 300 
pounds per lineal foot vertical load and lateral 
load. 

5. Ceiling framing over stages shall be designed for a 
uniform live load of 20 pounds per square foot. 
For members supporting a tributary area of 200 
square feet or more, this additional load may be 
reduced to 15 pounds per square foot (0.72 
kN/m^). 

The minimum uniform live load for a press box floor or 
accessible roof with railing is 100 psf 

1615.5.1.2 Item 22. Libraries. The minimum vertical 
design live load shall be as follows: 

Paper media: 

12-inch-deep (305 mm) shelf- 33 pounds per lin- 
eal foot (482 N/m) 

15 -inch-deep (381 mm) shelf- 41 pounds per lin- 
eal foot (598 N/m), or 

33 pounds per cubic foot (51 83 N/m ) per total vol- 
ume of the rack or cabinet, whichever is less. 

Film media: 

18-inch-deep (457 mm) shelf- 100 pounds per lin- 
eal foot (1459 N/m), or 

50 pounds per cubic foot (7853 N/rn) per total vol- 
ume of the rack or cabinet, whichever is less. 

Other media: 

20 pounds per cubic foot (311 N/m^) or 20 pounds 
per square foot (958 Pa), whichever is less, but not 
less than actual loads. 

1615.5.1.3 Item 25. Office buildings. The minimum ver- 
tical design live load shall conform to Section 
1615.5.1.2. 

1615.5.1.4 Item 28, Reviewing stands, grandstands and 
bleachers. The minimum uniform live load for a press 
box floor or accessible roof with railing is 100 psf. 

1615.5.1.5 Item 40. Yards and terraces, pedestrians. 

Item 40 applies to pedestrian bridges and walkways that 
are not subjected to uncontrolled vehicle access. 

1615.5.1.6 Item 41. Storage racks and wall-hung cabi- 
nets. The minimum vertical design live load shall con- 
form to Section 1615.5.1.2. 

1615.5.2 Uncovered open-frame roof structures. Uncov- 
ered open-frame roof structures shall be designed for a ver- 
tical live load of not less than 10 pounds per square foot 
(0.48 kN/rn^) of the total area encompassed by the frame- 
work. 



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1615.6 Determination of snow loads. The ground snow load or 
the design snow load for roofs shall conform with the adopted 
ordinance of the city^ county, or city and county in which the 
project site is located, and shall be approved by DSA. 

1615.7 Wind loads, 

1615.7.1 Special wind regions. The basic wind speed for 
projects located in special wind regions as defined in Figure 
1609 shall conform with the adopted ordinance of the city, 
county, or city and county in which the project site is 
located, and shall be approved by DSA-SS/CC. 

1615.7.2 Story drift for wind loads. The calculated story 
drift due to wind pressures shall not exceed 0.005 times the 
story height for buildings less than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in 
height or 0,004 times the story height for buildings 65 feet 
(19 812 mm) or greater in height, 

1615.8 Establishment of flood hazard areas. Flood hazard 
maps shall include, at a minimum, areas of special flood haz- 
ard as identified by the Federal Emergency Management 
Agency 's Flood Insurance Study (FIS) adopted by the local 
authority having jurisdiction where the project is located, as 
amended or revised with the accompanying Flood Insurance 
Rate Map (FIRM) and Flood Boundary and Floodway Map 
(FBFM) and related supporting data along with any revisions 
thereto, 

1615.9 Earthquake loads, 

1615.9.1 Seismic design category. The seismic design cate- 
gory for a structure shall be determined in accordance with 
Section 1613, 

1615.9.2 Definitions, In addition to the definitions in Sec- 
tion 1613.2, the following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this section, have the meanings shown herein. 

ACTIVE EARTHQUAKE FAULT, A fault that has been the 
source of earthquakes or is recognized as a potential source 
of earthquakes, including those that have exhibited surface 
displacement within Holocene time (about 11,000 years) as 
determined by California Geological Survey (CGS) under 
the Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act, those 
included as type A or type B faults for the U.S. Geological 
Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Maps, and faults 
considered to have been active in Holocene time by an 
authoritative source, federal, state or local governmental 
agency, 

BASE, The level at which the horizontal seismic ground 
motions are considered to be imparted to the structure or the 
level at which the structure as a dynamic vibrator is sup- 
ported. This level does not necessarily coincide with the 
ground level. 

DISTANCE FROM AN ACTIVE EARTHQUAKE 

FAULT, Distance measured from the nearest point of the 
building to the closest edge ofan Alquist-Priolo Earthquake 
fault zone for an active fault, if such a map exists, or to the 
closest mapped splay of the fault, 

IRREGULAR STRUCTURE. A structure designed as hav- 
ing one or more plan or vertical irregularities per ASCE 7 
Section 12.3. 



NEXT GENERATION ATTENUATION (NGA). Attenua- 
tion relations used for the 2008 United States Geological 
Survey (USGS) seismic hazards maps (for the Western 
United States) or their equivalent as determined by the 
enforcement agency. 

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS, Floor or roof diaphragms, 
decking, joists, slabs, beams, or girders, columns, bearing 
walls, retaining walls, masonry or concrete nonbearing 
walls exceeding one story in height, foundations, shear 
walls or other lateral-force-resisting members, and any 
other elements necessary to the vertical and lateral strength 
or stability of either the building as a whole or any of its 
parts, including connection between such elements. 

1615.9.3 Mapped acceleration parameters. Seismic 
Design Category shall be determined in accordance with 
Section 1613,5.6. 

1615.9.4 Determination of seismic design category. Struc- 
tures not assigned to Seismic Design Category E or F in 
accordance with Section 1613.5 shall be assigned to Seis- 
mic Design Category D. 

1615.9.4.1 Alternative seismic design category determi- 
nation. The alternative Seismic Design Category deter- 
mination procedure of Section 1613,5.6.1 is not 
permitted by DSA-SS/CC. 

1615.9.4.2 Simplified design procedure. The simplified 
design procedure of Section 1613,5.6.2 is not permitted 
by DSA-SS/CC 

1615.9.5 Automatic sprinkler systems. The allowable val- 
ues for design of anchors, hangers and bracing elements 
shall be determined in accordance with material chapters of 
this code in lieu of those in NFPA 13. 

1615.9.6 Anchorage of walls. The modification of ASCE 7, 
Section 11.7.5 in Section 1613,7 not adopted by DSA-SS/ 
CC 

1615,10 Modifications to ASCE 7, The text of ASCE 7 shall be 
modified as indicated in Sections 1615,10.1 through 
1615,10.26. 

1615.10.1 ASCE 7, Section 11,1, Modify ASCE 7 Section 
11,1 by adding Section 11.1.5 as follows : 

11,1,5 Structural design criteria. Where design reviews 
are required in ASCE 7, Chapters 16, 17 or 18, the 
ground motion, analysis and design methods, material 
assumptions and acceptance criteria proposed by the 
engineer shall be submitted to the enforcement agency in 
the form of structural design criteria for approval. 

1615.10.2 ASCE 7, Section 11,4,7, Modify ASCE 7 Section 

11.4.7 as follows: 

11,4,7 Site-specific ground motion procedures. The 

site-specific ground motion procedure set forth in ASCE 
7 Chapter 21 as modified in Section 1803 A. 6 of this code 
is permitted to be used to determine ground motion for 
any structure. 

Unless otherwise approved, the site-specific proce- 
dure per ASCE 7 Chapter 21 as modified by Section 



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I803A.6 of this code shall be used where any of the fol- 
lowing conditions apply: 

1) A site response analysis shall be performed per 
Section 21,1 and a ground motion hazard analysis 
shall be performed in accordance with Section 
21.2 for the following structures: 

a) Structure located in Type E soils and 
mapped MCE spectral acceleration at short 
periods (SJ exceeds 2.0g. 

b) Structures located in Type F soils. 
Exception: 

1) Where S^ is less than 0.20g, use of 
Type E soil profile shall be permitted. 

2) Where exception to Section 20.3.1 is 
applicable except for base isolated 
buildings. 

2) A ground motion hazard analysis shall be per- 
formed in accordance with Section 21.2 when: 

a) A time history response analysis of the 
building is performed as part of the design. 

b) The building site is located in an area identi- 
fied in Section 4-3 17(e) of the California 
Administrative Code (Part 7, Title 24, 
C.C.R). 

c) For seismically isolated structures and for 
structures with damping systems. 

1615 JO J ASCE 7, Table 12.2 -1, Modify ASCE 7 Table 
12.2-1 as follows: 

A. BEARING WALL SYSTEMS 

14. Light-framed walls with shear panels of all other 
materials - Not permitted by DSA-SS/CC. 

B, BUILDING FRAME SYSTEMS 

24. Light-framed walls with shear panels of all other 
materials - Not permitted by DSA-SS/CC. 

Exception: 

1) Systems listed in this section can be used as an 
alternative system when pre-approved by the 
enforcement agency. 

2) Rooftop or other supported structures not 
exceeding two stories in height and 10 percent 
of the total structure weight can use the systems 
in this section when designed as components 
per ASCE 7 Chapter 13. 

3) Systems listed in this section can be used for 
seismically isolated buildings when permitted 
by Section 1613.6.2. 

1615.10.4 ASCE 7, Section 12.2.3.L Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 12.2.3.1 by adding the following additional require- 



ments for a two stage equivalent lateral force procedure or 
modal response spectrum procedure: 

e. Where design of elements of the upper portion is gov- 
erned by special seismic load combinations, the spe- 
cial loads shall be considered in the design of the 
lower portions. 

1615.10.5 ASCE 7, Section 12.3.3. Modify ASCE 7 Section 
12.3.3.1 as follows: 

12.3.3.1 Prohibited horizontal and vertical irregulari- 
ties for Seismic Design Categories D through E Struc- 
tures assigned to Seismic Design Category EorF having 
horizontal structural irregularity Type lb of Table 12.3-1 
or vertical structural irregularities Type lb, 5a or 5b of 
Table 12.3-2 shall not be permitted. Structures assigned 
to Seismic Design Category D having vertical irregular- 
ity Type lb or 5b of Table 12.3-2 shall not be permitted. 

1615.10.6 ASCE 7, Section 12.7.2. Modify ASCE 7 Section 
12.7.2 by adding Item 5 to read as follows: 

5. Where buildings provide lateral support for walls 
retaining earth, and the exterior grades on opposite 
sides of the building differ by more than 6 feet (1829 
mm), the load combination of the seismic increment of 
earth pressure due to earthquake acting on the higher 
side, as determined by a Geotechnical engineer quali- 
fied in soils engineering, plus the difference in earth 
pressures shall be added to the lateral forces pro- 
vided in this section. 

1615.10.7 ASCE 7, Section 12.8.7. Modify ASCE 7 Section 
12.8.7 by replacing Equation 12.8-16 as follows: 



d=- 



VhC, 



(12.8-16) 



1615.10.8 ASCE 7, Section 12.9.4. Replace ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 12.9.4 as follows: 

12.9.4 Scaling design values of combined response. 

Modal base shear shall not be less than the base shear 
calculated using the equivalent lateral force procedure 
of Section 12.8. 

1615.10.9 ASCE 7, Section 12.13.1. Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 12.13.1 by adding Section 12.13.1.1 as follows: 

12.13.1.1 Foundations and superstructure-to-founda- 
tion connections. The foundation shall be capable of 
transmitting the design base shear and the overturning 
forces from the structure into the supporting soil. Stabil- 
ity against overturning and sliding shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 1605.1.1. 

In addition, the foundation and the connection of the 
superstructure elements to the foundation shall have the 
strength to resist, in addition to gravity loads, the lesser 
of the following seismic loads: 

1. The strength of the superstructure elements 



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2. The maximum forces that would occur in the fully 
yielded structural system 

3. Forces from the Load Combinations with 
overstrength factor in accordance with ASCE 7 
Section 12.43.2 

Exceptions: 

1. Where referenced standards specify the 
use of higher design loads. 

2. When it can be demonstrated that inelas- 
tic deformation of the foundation and 
superstructure-to-foundation connection 
will not result in a weak story or cause 
collapse of the structure. 

3. Where basic structural system consists of 
light-framed walls with shear panels. 

Where the computation of the seismic overturning 
moment is by the equivalent lateral-force method or the 
modal analysis method, reduction in overturning moment 
permitted by Section 12.13.4 of ASCE 7 may be used. 

Where moment resistance is assumed at the base of the 
superstructure elements, the rotation andflexural defor- 
mation of the foundation as well as deformation of the 
superstructure-to-foundation connection shall be consid- 
ered in the drift and deformation compatibility analyses. 

1615.10.10 ASCE 7, Section 13.1.4. Replace ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 13.1.4 by the following: 

1 3. L4 Exemptions. The following nonstructural compo- 
nents are exempt from the requirements of this section: 

1. Furniture (except storage cabinets as noted in 
Table 13.5-1), 

2. Temporary or moveable equipment. 
Exceptions: 

1) Equipment shall be anchored if it is perma- 
nently attached to the building utility ser- 
vices such as electricity, gas, or water. For 
the purposes of this requirement, "perma- 
nently attached'' shall include all electrical 
connections except three-prong plugs for 
duplex receptacles. 

2) The enforcement agency shall be permitted 
to require temporary attachments for mov- 
able equipment which is usually stationed in 
one place and heavier than 400 pounds, 
when they are not in use for a period longer 
than 8 hours at a time, 

3. Mechanical and electrical components in Seismic 
Design Categories D, E or F where all of the fol- 
lowing apply: 

a. The component is positively attached to the 
structure; 

b. Flexible connections are provided between 
the component and associated ductwork, 
piping and conduit; and either: 



i. The component weighs 400 lb (1780 
N) or less and has a center of mass 
located 4 ft (1.22 m) or less above the 
adjacent floor or roof level; 

Exception: Special Certification 
Requirements for Designated Seis- 
mic Systems in accordance with 
Section 13,2.2 shall apply. 

or 

a. The component weighs 20 lb (89 N) or 
less or, in the case of a distributed sys- 
tem, 5 lb/ft (73 N/m) or less. 

Exception: The enforcement 
agency shall be permitted to 
require attachments for equipment 
with hazardous contents to be 
shown on construction documents 
irrespective of weight. 

1615.10.11 ASCE 7, Section 13.3.2. Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 13.3.2 by adding the following: 

The seismic relative displacements to be used in design 
of displacement sensitive nonstructural components is 
Dp 1 instead of Dp, where Dp is given by Equations 13.3-5 
to 13,3-8 and 1 is the building importance factor given in 
Section 11,5. 

1615.10.12 ASCE 7, Section 13.4.5. Replace ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 13.4.5 by the following: 

13.4.5 Power actuated fasteners. Power actuated fasten- 
ers in concrete shall not be used for gravity tension loads 
exceeding 100 lb (445 N) in Seismic Design Categories 
D, E or F unless approved for seismic loading. Power 
actuated fasteners in steel are permitted in Seismic 
Design Category D,EorF if the gravity tension load on 
any fastener does not exceed 250 lbs (1123 N) unless 
approved for seismic loading. Power actuated fasteners 
in masonry are not permitted unless approved for seismic 
loading. 

1615.10.13 ASCE 7, Section 13.5.6. Replace ASCE 7, Sec- 
tion 13.5.6 by the following: 

13.5.6 Suspended ceilings. Suspended ceilings shall be 
in accordance with this section. 

13.5.6.1 Seismic forces. The weight of the ceiling, Wp, 
shall include the ceiling grid; ceiling tiles or panels; 
light fixtures if attached to, clipped to, or laterally sup- 
ported by the ceiling grid; and other components that are 
laterally supported by the ceiling. Wp shall be taken as 
not less than 4psf(19 N/m^). 

The seismic force, Fp, shall be transmitted through the 
ceiling attachments to the building structural elements 
or the ceiling- structure boundary, 

13.5.6.2 Industry standard construction for acoustical 
tile or lay-in panel ceilings. Unless designed in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 580 Section 5,2.8.8, or seismically 
qualified in accordance with Sections 13,2.5 or 13.2.6, 



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acoustical tile or lay-in panel ceilings shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with this section. 

13.5.6.2.1 Seismic Design Categories D through F. 

Acoustical tile or lay-in panel ceilings in Seismic Design 
Categories A E and F shall be designed and installed in 
accordance with ASTM C 635, ASTM C 636, andASTM 
E 580, Section 5 - Seismic Design Categories D, E and F 
as modified by this section. 

13.5.6.2.2 Modification to ASTM E 580. Modify ASTM 
E 580 by the following: 

1. Exitways. Lay -in ceiling assemblies in exitways of 
hospitals and essential services buildings shall be 
installed with a main runner or cross runner sur- 
rounding all sides of each piece of tile, board or 
panel and each light fixture or grille. A cross run- 
ner that supports another cross runner shall be 
considered as a main runner for the purpose of 
structural classification. Splices or intersections 
of such runners shall be attached with through 
connectors such as pop rivets, screws, pins, plates 
with end tabs or other approved connectors. 

2. Corridors and lobbies. Expansion joints shall be 
provided in the ceiling at intersections of corridors 
and at junctions of corridors and lobbies or other 
similar areas. 

3. Lay-in panels. Metal panels and panels weighing 
more than V2 pounds per square foot (24 N/m^) 
other than acoustical tiles shall be positively 
attached to the ceiling suspension runners. 

4. Lateral force bracing. Lateral force bracing is 
required for all ceiling areas except that they shall 
be permitted to be omitted in rooms with fioor 
areas up to 144 square feet when perimeter sup- 
port in accordance with ASTM E 580 Sections 
5.2.2 and 5,23 are provided and perimeter walls 
are designed to carry the ceiling lateral forces. 

5. Ceiling fixtures. Fixtures installed in acoustical tile 
or lay-in panel ceilings shall be mounted in a man- 
ner that will not compromise ceiling performance. 

All recessed or drop-in light fixtures and grilles 
shall be supported directly from the fixture housing 
to the structure above with a minimum of two 
12-gage wires located at diagonally opposite cor- 
ners. Leveling and positioning of fixtures may be 
provided by the ceiling grid. Fixture support wires 
may be slightly loose to allow the fixture to seat in 
the grid system. Fixtures shall not be supported 
from main runners or cross runners if the weight of 
the fixtures causes the total dead load to exceed the 
deflection capability of the ceiling suspension sys- 
tem. 

Fixtures shall not be installed so that the main 
runners or cross runners will be eccentrically 
loaded. 

Surface-mounted fixtures shall be attached to 
the main runner with at least two positive clamp- 



ing devices made of material with a minimum of 14 
gage. Rotational spring catches do not comply. A 
12-gage suspension wire shall be attached to each 
clamping device and to the structure above. 

6. Partitions. Where the suspended ceiling system is 
required to provide lateral support for the perma- 
nent or relocatable partitions, the connection of the 
partition to the ceiling system, the ceiling system 
members and their connections, and the lateral 
force bracing shall be designed to support the reac- 
tion force of the partition from prescribed loads 
applied perpendicular to the face of the partition. 
Partition connectors, the suspended ceiling system 
and the lateral-force bracing shall all be engi- 
neered to suit the individual partition application 
and shall be shown or defined in the drawings or 
specifications. 

1615.10.14 ASCE 7, Section 13.6.5. Modify ASCE 7, Sec- 
tion 13.6.5 by deleting Item ^6 in Section 13.6.5.5 and add- 
ing Section 13.6.5.6 as follows: 

13.6.5.6 Conduit, cable tray, and other electrical distri- 
bution systems (raceways). Raceways shall be designed 
for seismic forces and seismic relative displacements as 
required in Section 13.3. Conduit greater than 2.5 inches 
(64 mm) trade size and attached to panels, cabinets or 
other equipment subject to seismic relative displace- 
ment. Dp, shall be provided with flexible connections or 
designed for seismic forces and seismic relative dis- 
placements as required in Section 13.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Design for the seismic forces and relative dis- 
placements of Section 13.3 shall not be 
required for raceways where either: 

a. Trapeze assemblies are used to support 
raceways and the total weight of the race- 
way supported by trapeze assemblies is 
less than 10 lb/ft (146 N/m), or 

b. The raceway is supported by hangers and 
each hanger in the raceway run is 12 in. 
(305 mm) or less in length from the race- 
way support point to the supporting 
structure. Where rod hangers are used, 
they shall be equipped with swivels to 
prevent inelastic bending in the rod. 

2. Design for the seismic forces and relative dis- 
placements of Section 13.3 shall not be 
required for conduit, regardless of the value of 
Ip, where the conduit is less than 2.5 in. (64 
mm) trade size. 

1615.10.15 ASCE 7, Section 13.6.7. Replace ASCE 7, Sec- 
tion 13.6.7 by the following: 

13.6.7 Ductwork. HVAC and other ductwork shall be 
designed for seismic forces and seismic relative dis- 
placements as required in Section 13.3. Ductwork 
designed to carry toxic, highly toxic or explosive gases, 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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or used for smoke control shall be designed and braced 
without considering the exceptions noted below. 

Exceptions: 

1, Design for the seismic forces and relative dis- 
placements of Section 13.3 shall not be 
required for ductwork where either: 

a. Trapeze assemblies are used to support 
ductwork and the total weight of the 
ductwork supported by trapeze assem- 
blies is less than 10 lb/ft (146 N/m); or 

b. The ductwork is supported by hangers 
and each hanger in the duct run is 12 in. 
(305 mm) or less in length from the duct 
support point to the supporting structure. 
Where rod hangers are used, they shall 
be equipped with swivels to prevent 
inelastic bending in the rod. 

2. Design for the seismic forces and relative dis- 
placements of Section 13.3 shall not be 
required where provisions are made to avoid 
impact with larger ducts or mechanical compo- 
nents or to protect the ducts in the event of such 
impact; and HVAC ducts have a cross- sec- 
tional area of6ft^ (0.557 m^) or less, or weigh 
10 lb/ft (146 N/m) or less. 

HVAC duct systems fabricated and installed in accor- 
dance with standards approved by the authority having 
jurisdiction shall be deemed to meet the lateral bracing 
requirements of this section. 

Components that are installed in-line with the duct 
system and have an operating weight greater than 75 lb 
(334 N)y such as fans y heat exchangers and humidifiers, 
shall be supported and laterally braced independent of 
the duct system, and such braces shall meet the force 
requirements of Section 13.3.1. Appurtenances such as 
dampers, louvers and diffuse rs shall be positively 
attached with mechanical fasteners. Unbraced piping 
attached to in-line equipment shall be provided with ade- 
quate flexibility to accommodate the seismic relative dis- 
placements. 

1615:10.16 ASCE 7, Section 13,6.8. Replace ASCE 7, Sec- 
tion 13.6.8 by the following: 

13.6.8 Piping systems. Unless otherwise noted in this 
section, piping systems shall be designed for the seismic 
forces and seismic relative displacements of Section 
13.3. ASME pressure piping systems shall satisfy the 
requirements of Section 13.6.8.1. Fire protection sprin- 
kler piping shall satisfy the requirements of Section 
13.68.2. Elevator system piping shall satisfy the require- 
ments of Section 13.6.10. 

Where other applicable material standards or recog- 
nized design bases are not used, piping design including 
consideration of service loads shall be based on the fol- 
lowing allowable stresses: 



a. For piping constructed with ductile materials 
(e.g., steel, aluminum or copper), 90 percent of the 
minimum specified yield strength. 

b. For threaded connections in piping constructed 
with ductile materials, 70 percent of the minimum 
specified yield strength. 

c. For piping constructed with nonductile materials 
(e.g., cast iron or ceramics), 10 percent of the 
material minimum specified tensile strength. 

d. For threaded connections in piping constructed 
with nonductile materials, 8 percent of the mate- 
rial minimum specified tensile strength. 

Piping not detailed to accommodate the seismic rela- 
tive displacements at connections to other components 
shall be provided with connections having sufficient flex- 
ibility to avoid failure of the connection between the 
components. 

13.6.8.1 ASME Pressure piping systems. Pressure piping 
systems, including their supports, designed and constructed 
in accordance with ASME B 31 shall be deemed to meet the 
force, displacement and other requirements of this section. 
In lieu of specific force and displacement requirements pro- 
vided in ASME B 31, the force and displacement require- 
ments of Section 13.3 shall be used. 

13.6.8.2 Fire protection sprinkler piping systems. Fire pro- 
tection sprinkler piping designed and constructed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13 shall be deemed to meet the force and 
displacement requirements of this section. The exceptions of 
Section 13.6.8.3 shall not apply. 

Exception: Pipe hangers, bracing and anchor capacities 
shall be determined in accordance with material chap- 
ters of the California Building Code, in lieu of using 
those in NFPA 13. The force and displacement require- 
ments of Section 13.3 or those in the NFPA 13 may be 
used for design. 

13.6.8.3 Exceptions. Design of piping systems and attach- 
ments for the seismic forces and relative displacements of 
Section 13.3 shall not be required where one of the follow- 
ing conditions apply: 

1. Trapeze assemblies are used to support piping 
whereby no single pipe exceeds the limits set forth in 
3a. or b. below and the total weight of the piping sup- 
ported by the trapeze assemblies is less than 10 lb/ft 
(146 N/m). 

2. The piping is supported by hangers and each hanger 
in the pipingrun is 12 in. (305 mm) or less in length 
from the top of the pipe to the supporting structure. 
Where pipes are supported on a trapeze, the trapeze 
shall be supported by hangers having a length of 12 
in. (305 mm) or less. Where rod hangers are used, 
they shall be equipped with swivels, eye nuts or other 
devices to prevent bending in the rod. 



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3. Piping having an Rp in Table 13.6-1 of 4.5 or greater 
is used and provisions are made to avoid impact with 
other structural or nonstructural components or to 
protect the piping in the event of such impact and 
where the following size requirements are satisfied: 

a. For Seismic Design Categories D, E or F and 
values oflp greater than one, the nominal pipe 
size shall be 1 inch (25 mm) or less, 

b. For Seismic Design Categories D,EorF where 
Ip = 1.0 the nominal pipe size shall be 3 inches 
(80 mm) or less. 

The exceptions above shall not apply to elevator piping. 

13,6,8.4 Other piping systems. Piping not designed and 
constructed in accordance with ASME B 31 or NFPA 13 
shall comply with the requirements of Section 13.6.11. 

1615.10.17 ASCE 7, Section 13,6,10.1, Modify ASCE 7 
Section 13.6.10.1 by adding Section 13. 6.10.1.1 as follows : 

13.6.10.1,1 Elevators guide rail support. The design of 
guide rail support bracket fastenings and the support- 
ing structural framing shall use the weight of the coun- 
terweight or maximum weight of the car plus not more 
than 40 percent of its rated load. The seismic forces 
shall be assumed to be distributed one-third to the top 
guiding members and two-thirds to the bottom guiding 
members of cars and counterweights, unless other sub- 
stantiating data are provided. In addition to the 
requirements of ASCE 7 Section 13.6.10.1, the mini- 
mum seismic forces shall be 0.5 g acting in any horizon- 
tal direction. 

1615.10.18 ASCE 7, Section 13,6.10,4, Replace ASCE 7 
Section 13.6.10.4 as follows : 

13,6,10,4 Retainer plates. Retainer plates are required at 
the top and bottom of the car and counterweight, except 
where safety devices acceptable to the enforcement 
agency are provided which meet all requirements of the 
retainer plates, including full engagement of the machined 
portion of the rail The design of the car, cab stabilizers, 
counterweight guide rails and counterweight frames for 
seismic forces shall be based on the following require- 
ments: 

L The seismic force shall be computed per the 
requirements of ASCE 7 Section 13.6.10.1. The 
minimum horizontal acceleration shall be 0.5gfor 
all buildings. 

2. Wp shall equal the weight of the counterweight or 
the maximum weight of the car plus not less than 
40 percent of its rated load. 

3. With the car or counterweight located in the most 
adverse position, the stress in the rail shall not 
exceed the limitations specified in these regula- 



tions, nor shall the deflection of the rail relative to 
its supports exceed the deflection listed below: 



BAIL SIZE 

(weight per foot 

of length, 

pounds) 


WIDTH OF 

MACHINED 

SURFACE 

(inches) 


ALLOWABLE 

RAIL 

DEFLECTION 

(inches) 


8 


l'/4 


0.20 


11 


1^/2 


0.30 


12 


1% 


0.40 


15 


l''/32 


0.50 


18^/2 


l'%2 


0.50 


22^/, 


2 


0.50 


30 


2% 


0.50 



For Sf: 1 inch - 25 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, J pound = 0.454 kg 

Note: Deflection limitations are given to maintain a consistent factor of safety 

against disengagement of retainer plates from the guide rails during an 

earthquake. 

4. Where guide rails are continuous over supports 
and rail joints are within 2 feet (610 mm) of their 
supporting brackets, a simple span may be 
assumed. 

5. The use of spreader brackets is allowed. 

6. Cab stabilizers and counterweight frames shall be 
designed to withstand computed lateral load with 
a minimum horizontal acceleration of 0.5 g. 

1615.10.19 ASCE 7, Section 16,1.3.2. Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 16.1.3.2 by the following: 

Where next generation attenuation relations are used in 
accordance with CBC Section 1802A.6.2, each pair of 
motion shall be scaled such that for each period between 
0.2T and 1.5T, the average of the SRSS spectra from all 
horizontal component pairs does not fall below the cor- 
responding ordinate of the maximum considered earth- 
quake (MCE) response spectrum determined using NGA 
relations. 

At sites within 5 km of an active fault that controls the 
hazard, each pair of components shall be rotated to the 
fault-normal and fault-parallel direction of the causative 
fault, and shall be scaled so that average of the fault-nor- 
mal components is not be less than the MCE response 
spectrum for each period between 0.2T and 1.5T. 

1615.10.20 ASCE 7, SecHon 16.1.4. Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 16.1.4 by the following: 

For each ground motion analyzed, the individual 
response parameters shall be multiplied by the following 
scalar quantities: 

a. Force response parameters shall be multiplied by 
I/R, where I is the importance factor determined in 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



75 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



accordance with Section 11.5.1, and R is the 
Response Modification Coefficient selected in 
accordance with Section 12,2.1. 

b. Drift quantities shall be multiplied by C^/R, where 
Q is the deflection amplification factor specified 
in Table 12.2-1. 

The distribution of horizontal shear shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 12.8.4. 

1615.10.21 ASCE 7, Section 16.2,4. Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 16.2.4 by the following: 

a) Where site is located within 3.1 miles (5 km) of an 
active fault at least seven ground motions shall be 
analyzed and response parameters shall be based on 
larger of the average of the maximum response with 
ground motions applied as follows: 

1. Each of the ground motions shall have their 
maximum component at the fundamental 
period aligned in one direction. 

2. Each of the ground motion's maximum compo- 
nent shall be rotated orthogonal to the previous 
analysis direction. 

b) Where site is located more than 3.1 miles (5 km) from 
an active fault at least 10 ground motions shall be 
analyzed. The ground motions shall be applied such 
that one-half shall have their maximum component 
aligned in one direction and the other half aligned in 
the orthogonal direction. The average of the maxi- 
mum response of all the analyses shall be used for 
design. 

1615.10.22 ASCE 7, Section 17.2.1. Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 17.2.1 by adding the following: 

The importance factor, Ip, for parts and portions of a seis- 
mically isolated building shall be the same as that required 
for a fixed-base building of the same occupancy category. 

1615.10.23 ASCE 7 Section 17.2.4.7. Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 17.2.4.7 by adding the following: 

The effects of uplift and/or rocking shall be explicitly 
accounted for in the analysis and in the testing of the isola- 
tor units. 

1615.10.24 ASCE 7, Section 17.2.5.2. Modify ASCE 7, Sec- 
tion 17.2.5.2 by adding the following: 

The separation requirements for the building above the 
isolation system and adjacent buildings shall be the sum 
of the factored displacements for each building. The fac- 
tors to be used in determining separations shall be: 

1. For seismically isolated buildings, the deforma- 
tion resulting from the analyses using the maxi- 
mum considered earthquake unmodified by Rj. 

2. For fixed based buildings, C^ times the elastic 
deformations resulting from an equivalent static 
analysis using the seismic base shear computed 
via ASCE 7 Section 12.8. 



1615.10.25 ASCE 7, Section 17.3.2. Modify ASCE 7, Sec- 
tion 17.3.2 by adding the following: 

Where next generation attenuation relations are used in 
accordance with Section 1803A.6.2, each pair of motion 
shall be scaled such that for each period between 0.5T^ 
and 1.25Ti^ (Where T^ and T^ are defined in Section 
17.5.3), the average of the SRSS spectra from all hori- 
zontal component pairs does not fall below the corre- 
sponding ordinate of the maximum considered 
earthquake (MCE) response spectrum determined using 
NGA relations. 

At sites within 5 km of an active fault that controls the 
hazard, each pair of components shall be rotated to the 
fault-normal and fault-parallel direction of the causative 
fault, and shall be scaled so that average of the fault-nor- 
mal components is not be less than the MCE response 
spectrum for each period between 0.5Tf^ and 1.25Tj^. 

1615.10.26 ASCE 7, Section 21.4. Replace ASCE 7, Sec- 
tion 21.4 by the following: 

21.4 Design Acceleration Parameters. Where the 

site-specific procedure is used to determine the design 
ground motion in accordance with Section 21.3, the 
parameter Sps shall be taken as the spectral acceleration, 
Sa, obtained from the site-specific spectra at a period of 
0.2 sec, except that it shall not be taken less than 90 per- 
cent of the peak spectral acceleration, S^, at any period 
larger than 0.2 second. The parameter Sq] shall be taken 
as the greater of the spectral acceleration, S^ at a period 
of 1 sec or two times the spectral acceleration, S^, at a 
period of 2 sec. 

For use with the Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure, 
the site specific spectral acceleration, S^ at T shall be 
permitted to replace Sj^j/T in Equation 12.8-3 and 
SdiT[/P in Equation 12.8-4. The parameter Sqs calcu- 
lated per this section shall be permitted to be used in 
Equations 12.8-2 and 12.8-5. The mapped value of Sj 
shall be used in Equation 12.8-6. The parameters S^^ 
and S^i shall be taken as 1.5 times S^s (^^d S^^, respec- 
tively. The values so obtained shall not be less than 80 
percent of the values determined in accordance with Sec- 
tion 11.4. 3 for S^s ^^d Sf^j and Section 11.4. 4 for Sps cind 
Sdi- 



76 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 16A - STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


SB 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 














X 




X 






X 


















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 










































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 






























Chapter/Section 










































1607A.7.2 












X 









































































2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



77 



78 201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 164 

STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



SECTION 16014 
GENERAL 

1601A.1 Scope, The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
structural design of buildings, structures and portions thereof 
regulated by this code. 

1601 A, 1,1 Application, The scope of application of Chap- 
ter 16A is as follows: 

1. Applications listed in Section 1.9,2,1, regulated by 
the Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety 
(DSA-SS). These applications include public elemen- 
tary and secondary schools, community colleges and 
state-owned or state-leased essential services build- 
ings. 

II 2. Applications listed in Sections 1,10.1 and 1.10.4, reg- 

ulated by the Office of Statewide Health Planning and 
Development (OSHPD). These applications include 
hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, intermediate care 
facilities, and correctional treatment centers. 

Exception: [OSHPD 2] Single-story Type V 
skilled nursing or intermediate care facilities uti- 
lizing wood-frame or light- steel-frame construc- 
tion as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 
129725, which shall comply with Chapter 16 and 
any applicable amendments therein. 

1601 A, 1.2 Amendments in this chapter, DSA-SS and 
OSHPD adopt this chapter and all amendments. 

Exception: Amendments adopted by only one agency 
appear in this chapter preceded with the appropriate 
acronym of the adopting agency, as follows: 

1, Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety: 

[DSA-SS] - For applications listed in Section 
I I 1.9.2.1. 

2. Office of Statewide Health Planning and Develop- 
ment: 

[OSHPD 1] - For applications listed in Section 
I I 1,10,1. 

[OSHPD 4] - For applications listed in Section 
I I 1,10,4. 

1601 A,2 References, All referenced codes and standards 
listed in Chapter 35 shall include all the modifications con- 
tained in this code to referenced standards. In the event of 
any discrepancy between this code and a referenced stan- 
I I dard, refer to Section 1.1.7. 

1601A.3 Enforcement agency approval In addition to the 
requirements of California Code of Regulations (C.CR.) 
Title 24, Parts 1 and 2, any aspect of project design, construc- 
tion, quality assurance or quality control programs for which 
this code requires approval by the design professional are 
also subject to approval by the enforcement agency. 



SECTION 16024 
DEFINITIONS AND NOTATIONS 

1602A. 1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter, have the meanings shown herein. 

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. A method of proportion- 
ing structural members, such that elastically computed stresses 
produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed spec- 
ified allowable stresses (also called "working stress design"). ^ 

ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM. [OSHPD 1 & 4] Alternative mate- 
rials, design and methods of construction in accordance with 
Section 104.11, Section 11.1.4 ofASCE 7 or structural design < 
criteria as approved by the enforcement agency, 

DEAD LOADS. The weight of materials of construction 
incorporated into the building, including but not limited to 
walls, floors, roofs, ceihngs, stairways, built-in partitions, fin- 
ishes, cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural 
and structural items, and the weight of fixed service equipment, 
such as cranes, plumbing stacks and risers, electrical feeders, 
heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems and 
automatic sprinkler systems. ^ 

DESIGN STRENGTH. The product of the nominal strength 
and a resistance factor (or strength reduction factor). 

DIAPHRAGM. A horizontal or sloped system acting to trans- 
mit lateral forces to the vertical-resisting elements. When the 
term "diaphragm" is used, it shall include horizontal bracing 
systems. 

Diaphragm, blocked. In light-frame construction, a dia- 
phragm in which all sheathing edges not occurring on a 
framing member are supported on and fastened to blocking. 

Diaphragm boundary. In light- frame construction, a loca- 
tion where shear is transferred into or out of the diaphragm 
sheathing. Transfer is either to a boundary element or to 
another force-resisting element. 

Diaphragm chord. A diaphragm boundary element per- 
pendicular to the applied load that is assumed to take axial 
stresses due to the diaphragm moment. 

Diaphragm flexible. A diaphragm is flexible for the pur- 
pose of distribution of story shear and torsional moment 
where so indicated in Section 12.3. 1 ofASCE 7, as modified 
in Section 1613A.6.1. 

Diaphragm, rigid. A diaphragm is rigid for the purpose of 
distribution of story shear and torsional moment when the 
lateral deformation of the diaphragm is less than or equal to 
two times the average story drift. 

DURATION OF LOAD. The period of continuous applica- 
tion of a given load, or the aggregate of periods of intermittent 
applications of the same load. 

ENFORCEMENT AGENT, That individual within the agency 
or organization charged with responsibility for agency or 
organization compliance with the requirements of this code. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



79 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



Used interchangeably with ''Building Official" and ''Code 
Official:' 

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES. Buildings and other structures 
that are intended to remain operational in the event of extreme 
environmental loading from flood, wind, snow or earthquakes. 

FABRIC PARTITION. A partition consisting of a finished sur- 
face made of fabric, without a continuous rigid backing, that is 
directly attached to a framing system in which the vertical fram- 
ing members are spaced greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. 

FACTORED LOAD. The product of a nominal load and a load 
factor, 

GUARD. See Section 1002.1. 

HOSPITAL BUILDING. Any building defined in Section 
129725, Health and Safety Code, 

IMPACT LOAD. The load resulting from moving machinery, 
elevators, crane ways, vehicles and other similar forces and 
kinetic loads, pressure and possible surcharge from fixed or 
moving loads. 

LIMIT STATE. A condition beyond which a structure or 
member becomes unfit for service and is judged to be no longer 
useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to 
be unsafe (strength limit state). 

LIVE LOADS. Those loads produced by the use and occu- 
pancy of the building or other structure and do not include con- 
struction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, 
rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load. 

LIVE LOADS (ROOF). Those loads produced (1) during 
maintenance by workers, equipment and materials; and (2) 
during the life of the structure by movable objects such as 
planters and by people. 

LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). A 

method of proportioning structural members and their connec- 
tions using load and resistance factors such that no applicable 
limit state is reached when the structure is subjected to appro- 
priate load combinations. The term "LRFD" is used in the 
design of steel and wood structures. 

LOAD EFFECTS. Forces and deformations produced in 
structural members by the appUed loads. 

LOAD FACTOR. A factor that accounts for deviations of the 
actual load from the nominal load, for uncertainties in the analy- 
sis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the proba- 
bility that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously. 

LOADS. Forces or other actions that result from the weight of 
building materials, occupants and their possessions, environ- 
mental effects, differential movement and restrained dimen- 
sional changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which 
variations over time are rare or of small magnitude, such as 
dead loads. All other loads are variable loads (see also '''Nomi- 
nal loads''). 

NOMINAL LOADS. The magnitudes of the loads specified in 
this chapter (dead, live, soil, wind, snow, rain, flood and earth- 
quake). 

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY. A category used to determine 
structural requirements based on occupancy. 



OTHER STRUCTURES. Structures, other than buildings, 
for which loads are specified in this chapter. 

PANEL (PART OF A STRUCTURE). The section of a floor, 
wall or roof comprised between the supporting frame of two 
adjacent rows of columns and girders or column bands of floor 
or roof construction. 

RESISTANCE FACTOR. A factor that accounts for devia- 
tions of the actual strength from the nominal strength and the 
manner and consequences of failure (also called "strength 
reduction factor"). 

STRENGTH, NOMINAL. The capacity of a structure or 
member to resist the effects of loads, as determined by compu- 
tations using specified material strengths and dimensions and 
equations derived from accepted principles of structural 
mechanics or by field tests or laboratory tests of scaled models, 
allowing for modeling effects and differences between labora- 
tory and field conditions. 

STRENGTH, REQUIRED. Strength of a member, cross sec- 
tion or connection required to resist factored loads or related 
internal moments and forces in such combinations as stipulated 
by these provisions. 

STRENGTH DESIGN. A method of proportioning structural 
members such that the computed forces produced in the mem- 
bers by factored loads do not exceed the member design 
strength [also called '''load and resistance factor design'' 
(LRFD)]. The term "strength design" is used in the design of 
concrete and masonry structural elements. 

VEHICLE BARRIER SYSTEM. A system of building com- 
ponents near open sides of a garage floor or ramp or building 
walls that act as restraints for vehicles. 

NOTATIONS. 

D = Dead load. 

E = Combined effect of horizontal and vertical 
earthquake induced forces as defined in Section 
12.4.2ofASCE7. 

F = Load due to fluids with well-defined pressures and 
maximum heights. 

F^ = Flood load in accordance with Chapter 5 of ASCE 7. 

H = Load due to lateral earth pressures, ground water 
pressure or pressure of bulk materials. 

L = Live load, except roof live load, including any per- 
mitted live load reduction. 

L^ = Roof live load including any permitted live load 
reduction. 

R = Rain load. 

S = Snow load. 

T = Self- straining force arising from contraction or 
expansion resulting from temperature change, 
shrinkage, moisture change, creep in component 
materials, movement due to differential settlement 
or combinations thereof. 

W = Load due to wind pressure. 



80 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



SECTION 1603>» 
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 

1603A.1 General. Construction documents shall show the 
size, section and relative locations of structural members with 
floor levels, column centers and offsets dimensioned. The 
design loads and other information pertinent to the structural 
design required by Sections 1603A.1.1 through 1603A.1.9 
shall be indicated on the construction documents. 

Exception: Construction documents for buildings con- 
structed in accordance with the conventional light-frame 
construction provisions of Section 2308 shall indicate the 
following structural design information: 

1 . Floor and roof live loads. 

2. Ground snow load, P^. 

3. Basic wind speed (3 -second gust), miles per hour 
(mph) (km/hr) and wind exposure. 

4. Seismic design category and site class. 

5. Rood design data, if located in flood hazard areas 
established in Section 1612A.3. 

6. Design load-bearing values of soils. 

[DSA-SS] Additional requirements are included in Section 
4-2 10 and 4-31 7 of the California Administrative Code (Part 7, 
Title 24, C.CM 

[OSHPD 1] Additional requirements are included in Section 
7-115 and 7-125 of the California Administrative Code (Part 7, 
Title 24, C.CR). 

1603A.1.1 Floor live load. The uniformly distributed, con- 
centrated and impact floor live load used in the design shall be 
indicated for floor areas. Use of live load reduction in accor- 
dance with Section 1607A.9 shall be indicated for each type 
of live load used in the design. 

1603A.1.2 Roof live load. The roof live load used in the 
design shall be indicated for roof areas (Section 1607 A. 11). 

1603A.1.3 Roof snow load. The ground snow load, P^, shall 
be indicated. In areas where the ground snow load, P^, exceeds 
10 pounds per square foot (psf) (0.479 kN/m^), the following 
additional information shall also be provided, regardless of 
whether snow loads govern the design of the roof: 

1 . Flat-roof snow load, Pf. 

2. Snow exposure factor, Q. 

3. Snow load importance factor, 7. 

4. Thermal factor, Q. 

1603A.1.4 Wind design data. The following information 
related to wind loads shall be shown, regardless of whether 
wind loads govern the design of the lateral-force-resisting 
system of the building: 

1. Basic wind speed (3-second gust), miles per hour 

(km/hr). 

2. Wind importance factor, 7, and occupancy category. 

3. Wind exposure. Where more than one wind exposure 
is utilized, the wind exposure and applicable wind 
direction shall be indicated. 



4. The applicable internal pressure coefficient. 

5. Components and cladding. The design wind pres- 
sures in terms of psf (kN/m^) to be used for the design 
of exterior component and cladding materials not spe- 
cifically designed by the registered design profes- 
sional. 

1603A.1.5 Earthquake design data. The following infor- 
mation related to seismic loads shall be shown, regardless of 
whether seismic loads govern the design of the lat- 
eral-force-resisting system of the building: 

1 . Seismic importance factor, 7, and occupancy cate- 
gory. 

2. Mapped spectral response accelerations, S^ and Si. 

3. Site class, 

4. Spectral response coefficients, S^s ^^^ ^di- 

5. Seismic design category. 

6. Basic seismic-force-resisting system(s), 

7. Design base shear. 

8. Seismic response coefficient(s), Q. 

9. Response modification factor(s), 7?. 
10. Analysis procedure used. 

77. Applicable horizontal structural irregularities. 

12. Applicable vertical structural irregularities. 

1603AA,5A Connections, Connections that resist 
design seismic forces shall be designed and detailed on 
the design drawings. 

1603A.1.6 Geotechnical information. The design load- 
bearing values of soils shall be shown on the construction 
documents. 

1603A. 1.7 Flood design data. For buildings located in whole 
or in part in flood hazard areas as established in Section 
1 6 1 2A. 3 , the documentation pertaining to design, if required in 
Section 1612A.5, shall be included and the following informa- 
tion, referenced to the datum on the conmiunity's Rood Insur- 
ance Rate Map (FIRM), shall be shown, regardless of whether 
flood loads govern the design of the building: 

1. In flood hazard areas not subject to high- velocity 
wave action, the elevation of the proposed lowest 
floor, including the basement. 

2. In flood hazard areas not subject to high-velocity 
wave action, the elevation to which any nonresiden- 
tial building will be dry floodproofed. 

3. In flood hazard areas subject to high-velocity wave 
action, the proposed elevation of the bottom of the 
lowest horizontal structural member of the lowest 
floor, including the basement. 

1603A.1.8 Special loads. Special loads that are appUcable 
to the design of the building, structure or portions thereof 
shall be indicated along with the specified section of this 
code that addresses the special loading condition. 

1603A.1.9 Systems and components requiring special 
inspections for seismic resistance. Construction docu- 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



81 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



11 



ments or specifications shall be prepared for those systems 
and components requiring special inspection for seismic 
resistance as specified in Section 1707.1 by the registered 
design professional responsible for their design and shall be 
submitted for approval in accordance with Section 107.1. 
Reference to seismic standards in lieu of detailed drawings 
is acceptable. 

1603A.U0 Construction procedures. Where unusual 
erection or construction procedures are considered essen- 
tial by the project structural engineer or architect in order to 
accomplish the intent of the design or influence the design, 
such procedure shall be indicated on the construction docu- 
ments. 



SECTION 1604>!l 
GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 

1604A.1 General. Building, structures and parts thereof shall 
be designed and constructed in accordance with strength 
design, load and resistance factor design, allowable stress 
design, empirical design or conventional construction meth- 
ods, as permitted by the applicable material chapters. 

1604A.2 Strength. Buildings and other structures, and parts 
thereof, shall be designed and constructed to support safely the 
factored loads in load combinations defined in this code with- 
out exceeding the appropriate strength limit states for the mate- 
rials of construction. Alternatively, buildings and other 
structures, and parts thereof, shall be designed and constructed 
to support safely the nominal loads in load combinations 
defined in this code without exceeding the appropriate speci- 
fied allowable stresses for the materials of construction. 

Loads and forces for occupancies or uses not covered in this 
chapter shall be subject to the approval of the building official. 

1604A.3 Serviceability. Structural systems and members 
thereof shall be designed to have adequate stiffness to limit 
deflections and lateral drift. See Section 12.12.1 of ASCE 7 for 
drift limits applicable to earthquake loading. 

1604A.3.1 Deflections. The deflections of structural mem- 
bers shall not exceed the more restrictive of the Umitations 
I I of Sections 1604A.3.2 through 1604A.3.6 or that permitted 
by Table 1604A.3. 

1604A.3.2 Reinforced concrete. The deflection of rein- 
forced concrete structural members shall not exceed that 
permitted by ACI 318. 

1604A.3.3 Steel. The deflection of steel structural members 
shall not exceed that permitted by AISC 360, AISI SlOO, 
ASCE 3, ASCE 8, SJI CJ-l.O, SJI JG-1.1, SJI K-1.1 or SJI 
LH/DLH-1.1, as applicable. 

1604A.3.4 Masonry. The deflection of masonry structural 
members shall not exceed that permitted by TMS 402/ACI 
530/ASCE 5. 

1604A.3.5 Aluminum. The deflection of aluminum struc- 
tural members shall not exceed that permitted by AA 
ADMl. 

1604A.3.6 Limits. Deflection of structural members over 
span, /, shall not exceed that permitted by Table 1604A.3. 



1604A,3.7 Horizontal diaphragms. The maximum span- 
width ratio for any roof or floor diaphragm shall not exceed 
those given in Table 4.2.4 ofAF & PA SDPWS or ICC-ES 
AC 43 unless test data and design calculations acceptable 
to the enforcement agency are submitted and approved for 
the use of other span-width ratios. Concrete diaphragm 
shall not exceed span-width ratios for equivalent composite 
floor diaphragm in ICC-ES AC 43, 

1604 A3, 8 Deflections* Deflection criteria for materials not 
specified shall be developed by the project architect or struc- 
tural engineer in a manner consistent with the provisions of 
this section and approved by the enforcement agency. 

TABLE 16044.3 
DEFLECTION LIMITS^' ^^ ^' ^^ ' 



II 



CONSTRUCTION 


L 


SorW^ 


D+L^'9 


Roof members:^ 

Supporting plaster ceiling 
Supporting nonplaster ceiling 
Not supporting ceiling 


1/360 
1/240 
//ISO 


1/360 
1/240 
//ISO 


1/240 
//ISO 
//120 


Floor members 


//360 


— 


1/240 


Exterior walls and interior partitions: 

With brittle finishes 

With flexible finishes 
Veneered walls, anchored veneers and 
adhered veneers over 1 inch (25 mm) 
thick, including the mortar backing 


— 


1/240 

1/120 

Section 

1405.10 


~ 


Farm buildings 


— 


— 


//ISO 


Greenhouses 




— 


//1 20 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. For structural roofing and siding made of formed metal sheets, the total load 
deflection shall not exceed //60. For secondary roof structural members sup- 
porting formed metal roofing, the live load deflection shall not exceed //1 50. 
For secondary wall members supporting formed metal siding, the design 
wind load deflection shall not exceed //90. For roofs, this exception only 
applies when the metal sheets have no roof covering. 

b. Interior partitions not exceeding 6 feet in height and flexible, folding and 
portable partitions are not governed by the provisions of this section. The 
deflection criterion for interior partitions is based on the horizontal load 
defined in Section 1607A.13. 

c. See Section 2403 for glass supports. 

d. For wood structural members having a moisture content of less than 16 per- 
cent at time of installation and used under dry conditions, the deflection 
resulting from L + 0.5Z) is permitted to be substituted for the deflection 
resulting from L + D. 

e. The above deflections do not ensure against ponding. Roofs that do not have 
sufficient slope or camber to assure adequate drainage shall be investigated 
for ponding. See Section 161 1 A for rain and ponding requirements and Sec- 
tion 1503.4 for roof drainage requirements. 

f. The wind load is permitted to be taken as 0.7 times the "component and clad- 
ding" loads for the purpose of determining deflection limits herein. 

g. For steel structural members, the dead load shall be talsen as zero. 

h. For aluminum structural members or aluminum panels used in skylights and 
sloped glazing framing, roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, 
not supporting edge of glass or aluminum sandwich panels, the total load 
deflection shall not exceed //60. For continuous aluminum structural mem- 
bers supporting edge of glass, the total load deflecfion shall not exceed //1 75 
for each glass lite or //60 for the entire length of the member, whichever is 
more stringent. For aluminum sandwich panels used in roofs or walls of sun- 
room additions or patio covers, the total load deflection shall not exceed 
//1 20. 

i. For cantilever members, / shall be taken as twice the length of the cantilever. 



82 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



1604A.4 Analysis* Load effects on structural members and 
their connections shall be determined by methods of structural 
analysis that take into account equilibrium, general stability, 
geometric compatibility and both short- and long-term mate- 
rial properties. 

Members that tend to accumulate residual deformations 
under repeated service loads shall have included in their analy- 
sis the added eccentricities expected to occur during their ser- 
vice life. 

Any system or method of construction to be used shall be 
based on a rational analysis in accordance with well-estab- 
lished principles of mechanics. Such analysis shall result in a 
system that provides a complete load path capable of transfer- 
ring loads from their point of origin to the load-resisting ele- 
ments. 

The total lateral force shall be distributed to the various verti- 
cal elements of the lateral-force-resisting system in proportion 
to their rigidities, considering the rigidity of the horizontal 
bracing system or diaphragm. Rigid elements assumed not to 
be a part of the lateral-force-resisting system are permitted to 
be incorporated into buildings provided their effect on the 
action of the system is considered and provided for in the 
design. Except where diaphragms are flexible, or are permitted 
to be analyzed as flexible, provisions shall be made for the 
increased forces induced on resisting elements of the structural 
system resulting from torsion due to eccentricity between the 
center of application of the lateral forces and the center of rigid- 
ity of the lateral-force-resisting system. 

Every structure shall be designed to resist the overturning 
effects caused by the lateral forces specified in this chapter. See 
Section 1609 A for wind loads, Section 161 OA for lateral soil 
loads and Section 1613 A for earthquake loads. 

1604A.5 Occupancy category. Each building and structure 
shall be assigned an occupancy category in accordance with 
Table 1604A.5. 

1604A.5.1 Multiple occupancies. Where a building or 
structure is occupied by two or more occupancies not 
included in the same occupancy category, it shall be 
assigned the classification of the highest occupancy cate- 
gory corresponding to the various occupancies. Where 
buildings or structures have two or more portions that are 
structurally separated, each portion shall be separately clas- 
sified. Where a separated portion of a building or structure 
provides required access to, required egress from or shares 
life safety components with another portion having a higher 
occupancy category, both portions shall be assigned to the 
higher occupancy category. 

1604A.6 In-situ load tests. The building official is authorized 
to require an engineering analysis or a load test, or both, of any 
construction whenever there is reason to question the safety of 
the construction for the intended occupancy. Engineering anal- 
ysis and load tests shall be conducted in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1714. 

1604A.7 Preconstruction load tests. Materials and methods 
of construction that are not capable of being designed by 
approved engineering analysis or that do not comply with the 



applicable material design standards listed in Chapter 35, or 
alternative test procedures in accordance with Section 1712A, 
shall be load tested in accordance with Section 1715A. 

1604A.8 Anchorage. 

1604A.8.1 General. Anchorage of the roof to walls and col- 
umns, and of walls and columns to foundations, shall be 
provided to resist the uplift and sliding forces that result 
from the application of the prescribed loads. 

1604A.8.2 Walls. Walls shall be anchored to floors, roofs 
and other structural elements that provide lateral support for 
the wall. Such anchorage shall provide a positive direct con- 
nection capable of resisting the horizontal forces specified 
in this chapter but not less than the minimum strength 
design horizontal force specified in Section 1 1.7.3 of ASCE 
7, substituted for "£7* in the load combinations of Section 
1605 A. 2 or 1605 A. 3. Concrete and masonry walls shall be 
designed to resist bending between anchors where the 
anchor spacing exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm). Required 
anchors in masonry walls of hollow units or cavity walls 
shall be embedded in a reinforced grouted structural ele- 
ment of the wall. See Sections 1609 A for wind design 
requirements and 161 3 A for earthquake design require- 
ments, 

1604A.8.3 Decks. Where supported by attachment to an 
exterior wall, decks shall be positively anchored to the pri- 
mary structure and designed for both vertical and lateral 
loads as applicable. Such attachment shall not be accom- 
plished by the use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal. 
Where positive connection to the primary building structure 
cannot be verified during inspection, decks shall be 
self-supporting. Connections of decks with cantilevered 
framing members to exterior walls or other framing mem- 
bers shall be designed for both of the following: 

1. The reactions resulting from the dead load and live 
load specified in Table 1607A.1, or the snow load 
specified in Section 1608 A, in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1605 A, acting on all portions of the deck. 

2. The reactions resulting from the dead load and live 
load specified in Table 1607A.1, or the snow load 
specified in Section 1608 A, in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1605 A, acting on the cantilevered portion of the 
deck, and no live load or snow load on the remaining 
portion of the deck. 

1604A.9 Counteracting structural actions. Structural mem- 
bers, systems, components and cladding shall be designed to 
resist forces due to earthquake and wind, with consideration of 
overturning, sliding and uplift. Continuous load paths shall be 
provided for transmitting these forces to the foundation. Where 
sliding is used to isolate the elements, the effects of friction 
between sliding elements shall be included as a force. 

1604A.10 Wind and seismic detailing. Lateral-force-resist- 
ing systems shall meet seismic detailing requirements and limi- 
tations prescribed in this code and ASCE 7, excluding Chapter 
14 and Appendix 1 1 A, even when wind load effects are greater 
than seismic load effects. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



83 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



TABLE 16044.5 
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY OF BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES 



> 

II 



II 



OCCUPANCY 
CATEGORY 


NATURE OF OCCUPANCY 


I 


Buildings and other structures that represent a low hazard to human life in the event of failure, including but not limited to: 

• Agricultural facilities. 

• Certain temporary facilities. 

• Minor storage facilities. 


n 


Buildings and other structures except those listed in Occupancy Categories I, III and IV 


in 


Buildings and other structures that represent a substantial hazard to human life in the event of failure, including but not 
hmited to: 

• Buildings and other structures whose primary occupancy is public assembly with an occupant load greater than 300. 

• Buildings and other structures containing elementary school, secondary school or day care facilities with an occupant 
load greater than 250. 

• Buildings and other structures containing adult education facilities, such as colleges and universities with an occupant 
load greater than 500. 

• Group 1-3 occupancies. 

• Any other occupancy with an occupant load greater than 5,000^. 

• Power-generating stations, water treatment facihties for potable water, waste water treatment facihties and other pub- 
lic utility facilities not included in Occupancy Category IV. 

• Buildings and other structures not included in Occupancy Category IV containing sufficient quantities of toxic or ex- 
plosive substances to be dangerous to the public if released. 


IV 


Buildings and other structures designated as essential facilities, including but not limited to: 

• [OSHPD 1&4] Hospital Buildings as defined in C. CR. Title 24, Part 1, Section 7-111 and all structures required for 
their continuous operation or access/egress, 

• Fire, rescue, ambulance and police stations and emergency vehicle garages. 

• Designated earthquake, hurricane or other emergency shelters. 

• Designated emergency preparedness, communications and operations centers and other facilities required for emer- 
gency response [DSA-SS] as defined in C. C.R. Title 24, Part 1, Section 4-207 and all structures required for their con- 
tinuous operation or access/egress. 

• Power-generating stations and other public utility facilities required as emergency backup facihties for Occupancy 
Category IV structures. 

• Structures containing highly toxic materials as defined by Section 307 where the quantity of the material exceeds the 
maximum allowable quantities of Table 307.1(2). 

• Aviation control towers, air traffic control centers and emergency aircraft hangars. 

• Buildings and other structures having critical national defense functions. 

• Water storage facilities and pump structures required to maintain water pressure for fire suppression. 



a. For purposes of occupant load calculation, occupancies required by Table 1004. 1 . 1 to use gross floor area calculations shall be permitted to use net floor areas to 
determine the total occupant load. 



SECTION 16054 
LOAD COMBINATIONS 

1605A.1 General. Buildings and other structures and portions 
thereof shall be designed to resist: 

1. The load combinations specified in Section 1605A.2, 
1605A3.1orl605A3.2, 

2. The load combinations specified in Chapters 18 through 

23, and 

3. The load combinations with overs trength factor speci- 
fied in Section 12.4.3.2 of ASCE 7 where required by 
Section 12.2.5.2, 12.3.3.3 or 12.10.2.1 of ASCE 7. With 
the simplified procedure of ASCE 7 Section 12.14, the 
load combinations with overstrength factor of Section 
12.14.3.2 of ASCE 7 shall be used. 

Applicable loads shall be considered, including both earth- 
quake and wind, in accordance with the specified load combi- 



nations. Each load combination shall also be investigated with 
one or more of the variable loads set to zero. 

Where the load combinations with overstrength factor in 
Section 12.4.3.2 of ASCE 7 apply, they shall be used as fol- 
lows: 

1. The basic combinations for strength design with 
overstrength factor in lieu of Equations 16A-5 and 16A-7 
in Section 1605A.2.1. 

2. The basic combinations for allowable stress design with 
overstrength factor in lieu of Equations 16A-12, 16A-13 
and 16A-15 in Section 1605A.3.1. 

3. The basic combinations for allowable stress design with 
overstrength factor in lieu of Equations 16A-20 and 
16A-21 in Section 1605A.3.2. 

1605A.1.1 Stability. Regardless of which load combina- 
tions are used to design for strength, where overall structure 



84 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



Stability (such as stability against overturning, sliding, or 
buoyancy) is being verified, use of the load combinations 
specified in Section 1605A.2 or 1605A.3 shall be permitted. 
Where the load combinations specified in Section 1605A.2 
are used, strength reduction factors applicable to soil resis- 
tance shall be provided by a registered design professional. 
The stability of retaining walls shall be verified in accor- 
dance with Section 1807A.2.3. When using allowable stress 
design, factor of safety for soil bearing values shall not be 
less than the overstrength factor of the structures supported. 

1605A.2 Load combinations using strength design or load 
and resistance factor design. 

1605A.2.1 Basic load combinations. Where strength 
design or load and resistance factor design is used, struc- 
tures and portions thereof shall resist the most critical 
effects from the following combinations of factored loads: 



1.4(D + F) 

1.2(D + F+D+1.6(L + iiO + 
Q.5{L,orSorR) 



(Equation 16A-1) 



(Equation 16A -2) 
(Equation 16A -3) 
(Equation 16A -4) 
(Equation 16A-5) 
(Equation 16A-6) 
(Equation 16A-7) 



L2D + 1 .6(4 or 5 or 7?) + {f,L or 0.8 W) 

1.2D+1.6W+/iL+0.5(L,or5ori?) 

1.2D+1.0^+/iL+/25 

0.9Z)+1.6W+1.6// 

0.9D+\.0E+\.m 

where: 

/i = 1 for floors in places of pubhc assembly, for live loads 
in excess of 100 pounds per square foot (4.79 kN/m^), 
and for parking garage live load, and 

= 0.5 for other Hve loads. 

f^ = 0.7 for roof configurations (such as saw tooth) that do 
not shed snow off the structure, and 

= 0.2 for other roof configurations. 

Exception: Where other factored load combinations are 
specifically required by the provisions of this code, such 
combinations shall take precedence. 

1605A.2.2 Flood loads. Where flood loads, F^, are to be 
considered in the design, the load combinations of Section 
2.3.3 of ASCE 7 shall be used. 

1605A.3 Load combinations using allowable stress design. 

1605A.3.1 Basic load combinations. Where allowable 
stress design (working stress design), as permitted by this 
code, is used, structures and portions thereof shall resist the 
most critical effects resulting from the following combina- 
tions of loads: 



D+H+F-^L-s-T 

D + H+F+{L,ovSorR) 

D + // + F + 0.75(L + D + 
0.75(L,or5ori?) 



(Equation 16A-8) 

(Equation 16A-9) 

(Equation 16A-10) 

(Equation 16A-11) 



D + H+F+{WoxQ.lE) 

D + H + F + 0.75( W or 0.1 E) + 
0.75L + 0.75(L,or^or/?) 

0.6D + W+/f 

0.6D + 0.7F+// 

Exceptions: 



(Equation 16A-12) 

(Equation 16A-13) 
(Equation 16A-14) 
(Equation 16A-15) 



1 . Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof 
Hve load or with more than three-fourths of the 
snow load or one-half of the wind load. 

2. Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf ( 1 .44 kN/m^) or less 
and roof live loads of 30 psf or less need not be 
combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof 
snow loads exceed 30 psf (1 .44 kN/m^), 20 percent 
shall be combined with seismic loads. 

1605A.3.1.1 Stress increases. Increases in allowable 
stresses specified in the appropriate material chapter or 
the referenced standards shall not be used with the load 
combinations of Section 1605A.3.1, except that 
increases shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 
23. 

1605A.3.1.2 Flood loads. Where flood loads, F^, are to 
be considered in design, the load combinations of Sec- 
tion 2.4.2 of ASCE 7 shall be used. 

1605A.3.2 Alternative basic load combinations. In lieu of the 
basic load combinations specified in Section 1605A.3.1, struc- 
tures and portions thereof shall be permitted to be designed for 
the most critical effects resulting from the following combina- 
tions. When using these alternative basic load combinations 
that include wind or seismic loads, allowable stresses are per- 
mitted to be increased or load combinations reduced where 
permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced 
standards. For load combinations that include the counteract- 
ing effects of dead and wind loads, only two-thirds of the mini- 
mum dead load likely to be in place during a design wind event 
shall be used. Where wind loads are calculated in accordance 
with Chapter 6 of ASCE 7, the coefficient (O in the following 
equations shall be taken as 1 .3. For other wind loads, co shall be 
taken as 1. When using these alternative load combinations to 
evaluate sliding, overturning and soil bearing at the soil- struc- 
ture interface, the reduction of foundation overturning from 
Section 12. 13.4 in ASCE 7 shall not be used. When using these 
alternative basic load combinations for proportioning founda- 
tions for loadings, which include seismic loads, the vertical 
seismic load effect, E^, m Equation 12.4-4 of ASCE 7 is permit- 
ted to be taken equal to zero. 



D + L-\-iL,ovS or R) 
D+L + (coW) 
D+L^(oW+S/2 
Z)+L-H5-hC0W2 

z)-hl+5-^£:/L4 



(Equation 16A- 16) 
(Equation 16A-17) 
(Equation 16A-18) 
(Equation 16A-19) 
(Equation 16A-20) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



85 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



0.9D + E/L4 



(Equation 16A-21) 



TABLE 16074.1 



Exceptions: 

1 . Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live 
loads or with more than three-fourths of the snow load 
or one-half of the wind load. 

2. Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf ( 1 .44 kN/m^) or less and 
roof live loads of 30 psf or less need not be combined 
with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads 
exceed 30 psf (1 .44 kN/m^), 20 percent shall be com- 
bined with seismic loads. 

1605A. 3.2.1 Other loads. Where F, // or Tare to be con- 
sidered in the design, each appUcable load shall be added 
to the combinations specified in Section 1605A.3.2. 

1605 A A Heliports and helistops. Heliport and helistop land- 
ing areas shall be designed for the following loads, combined 
in accordance with Section 1605 A: 

1. Dead load, D, plus the gross weight of the helicopter, Df^, 
plus snow load, 5. 

2. Dead load, D, plus two single concentrated impact loads, 
L, approximately 8 feet (2438 mm) apart applied any- 
where on the touchdown pad (representing each of the 
helicopter's two main landing gear, whether skid type or 
wheeled type), having a magnitude of 0.75 times the 
gross weight of the helicopter. Both loads acting together 
total 1.5 times the gross weight of the helicopter. 

3. Deadload, A plus auniform live load, L, of 100 psf (4.79 

kN/m2). 

SECTION 16064 
DEAD LOADS 

1606A.1 General. Dead loads are those loads defined in Sec- 
tion 1 602A. 1 . Dead loads shall be considered permanent loads. 

1606A.2 Design dead load. For purposes of design, the actual 
weights of materials of construction and fixed service equip- 
ment shall be used. In the absence of definite information, val- 
ues used shall be subject to the approval of the building official. 

1606A3 Roof dead loads. The design dead load shall provide 
for the weight of at least one additional roof covering in addi- 
tion to other applicable loadings if the new roof covering is 
permitted to be applied over the original roofing without its 
removal, in accordance with Section 1510, 

SECTION 16074 
LIVE LOADS 

1607A.1 General. Live loads are those loads defined in Sec- 
tion 1602A.1. 

1607A.2 Loads not specified. For occupancies or uses not des- 
ignated in Table 1607A. 1, the live load shall be determined in 
accordance with a method approved by the building official. 

1607A.3 Uniform live loads. The live loads used in the design 
of buildings and other structures shall be the maximum loads 
expected by the intended use or occupancy but shall in no case 
be less than the minimum uniformly distributed unit loads 
required by Table 1607A. 1. 



MINIMUM CONCENTRATED LIVE L0ADS9 


OCCUPANCY OR USE 


UNIFORM 
(psf) 


CONCENTRATED 
(lbs.) 


1. Apartments (see residential) 


— 


— 


2. Access floor systems 
Office use 
Computer use 


50 
100 


2,000 
2,000 


3. Armories and drill rooms 


150 


— 


4. Assembly areas and theaters'*'^ 
Fixed seats (fastened to floor) 
Follow spot, projections and control 

rooms 
Lobbies 
Movable seats 
Stages and platforms 
Other assembly areas 


60 

50 
100 
100 
125 
100 


— 


5. Balconies (exterior) and decks^ 


Same as 

occupancy 

served 


— 


6. Bowling alleys 


75 


— 


7. Catwalks 


40 


300 


8. Cornices 


60 


— 


9. Corridors, except as otherwise indicated 


100 


— 


10. Dance halls and ballrooms 


100 


— 


11. Dining rooms and restaurants 


100 


— 


12. Dwellings (see residential) 


— 


— 


13. Elevator machine room grating 
(on area of 4 in^) 




300 


14. Finish light floor plate construction 
(on area of 1 in^) 


— 


200 


15. Fire escapes 

On single-family dweUings only 


100 
40 


— 


16. Garages (passenger vehicles only) 
Trucks and buses 


40 Note a 
See Section 1607A.6 


17. Grandstands 

(see stadium and arena bleachers) 


— 


— 


18. Gynmasiums,^ main floors and balconies 


100 


— 


19. Handrails, guards and grab bars 


See Section 1607A.7 


20. Hospitals 

Corridors above first floor 
Operating rooms, laboratories 
Patient rooms 
Mechanical and electrical equipment 

areas including open areas around 

equipment 
Storage 

Light 

Heavy 
Dining Area (not used for assembly) 
Kitchen and serving areas 


100 
60 
40 
50 

125 
250 
100 
50 


1,000 
1,000 
1,000 

1,000 
1,000 



(continued) 



86 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



TABLE 16074.1— continued 
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS, L^, 
MINIMUM CONCENTRATED LIVE LOADS^ 



AND 



TABLE 1607A.1— continued 
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS, L^ AND I 
MINIMUM CONCENTRATED LIVE LOADS^ 



OCCUPANCY OR USE 


UNIFORM 
(psf) 


CONCENTRATED 
(lbs.) 


21. Hotels (see residential) 






22. Libraries'" 

Corridors above first floor 
Reading rooms 
Stack rooms 


80 
60 
ISO'' 


1,000 
1,000 
1,000 


23. Manufacturing 
Heavy 
Light 


250 
125 


3,000 
2,000 


24. Marquees 


75 


— 


25. Office buildings'" 

Corridors above first floor 

File and computer rooms shall be 
designed for heavier loads based 
on anticipated occupancy 

Lobbies and first-floor corridors 

Offices 


80 

100 
50 


2,000 

2,000 
2,000 


26. Penal institutions 

. Cell blocks 

Corridors 


40 
100 


— 


27. Residential 

One- and two-family dwellings 
Uninhabitable attics without storage^ 
Uninhabitable attics with limited 

storage^'-'''' 
Habitable attics and sleeping areas 
All other areas 
Hotels and multifamily dwellings 
Private rooms and corridors 

serving them 
Public rooms and corridors serving 
them 


10 
20 

30 
40 

40 

100 


— 


28. Reviewing stands, grandstands and 
bleachers^ 


Note c 


29. Roofs 

All roof surfaces subject to maintenance 

workers 
Awnings and canopies 

Fabric construction supported by a 

lightweight rigid skeleton structure 

All other construction 

Ordinary flat, pitched, and curved roofs 

Primary roof members, exposed to a 

work floor 

Single panel point of lower chord of 
roof trusses or any point along 
primary structural members 
supporting roofs: 

Over manufacturing, storage 
warehouses, and repair 
garages 
All other occupancies 
Roofs used for other special purposes 
Roofs used for promenade purposes 
Roofs used for roof gardens or 
assembly purposes 


5 

nonreducible 

20 

20 

Notel 
60 
100 


300 

2,000 

300 

Notel 


30. Schools'" 

Classrooms 

Corridors above first floor 

First-floor corridors 


40^ 
80 
100 


1,000 
1,000 
1,000 



OCCUPANCY OR USE 


UNIFORM 
(psf) 


CONCENTRATED 
(lbs.) 


31. Scuttles, skylight ribs and accessible 
ceilings 




200 


32. Sidewalks, vehicular driveways and 
yards, subject to trucking 


250^ 


8,000^ 


33. Skating rinks 


100 


— 


34. Stadiums and arenas 
Bleachers^ 
Fixed seats (fastened to floor) 


100^= 
60^ 


— 


35. Stairs and exits 

One- and two-family dwellings 
All other 


40 
100 


Notef 


36. Storage warehouses 

(shall be designed for heavier loads if 
required for anticipated storage) 
Heavy 
Light 


250 
125 




37. Stores 

Retail 
First floor 
Upper floors 

Wholesale, all floors 


100 
75 
125 


1,000 
1,000 
1,000 


38. Vehicle barrier systems 


See Section 1607A.7.3 


39. Walkways and elevated platforms 
(other than exitways) 


60 


— 


40. Yards and terraces, pedestrians^ 


100 


— 


41. Storage racks and wall-hung cabinets. 


Total 
loads"" 


— 



continued 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm^, 
1 square foot = 0.0929 m', 

1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m', 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 
1 pound per cubic foot = 16 kgAn^ 

a. Floors in garages or portions of buildings used for the storage of motor vehicles shall be 
designed for the uniformly distributed live loads of Table 1607A. 1 or the following con- 
centrated loads: (1) for garages restricted to passenger vehicles accommodating not 
more than nine passengers, 3,000 pounds acting on an area of 4.5 inches by 4.5 inches; 
(2) for mechanical parking structures without slab or deck which are used for storing 
passenger vehicles only, 2,250 pounds per wheel. 

b. The loading applies to stack room floors that support nonmobile, double-faced library 
bookstacks, subject to the following limitations: 

1. The nominal bookstack unit height shall not exceed 90 inches; 

2. The nominal shelf depth shall not exceed 12 inches for each face; and 

3. Parallel rows of double-faced bookstacks shall be separated by aisles not less 
than 36 inches wide. 

c. Design in accordance with ICC 300. 

d. Other uniform loads in accordance with an approved method which contains provisions 
for truck loadings shall also be considered where appropriate. 

e. The concentrated wheel load shall be applied on an area of 4.5 inches by 4.5 inches. 

f . Minimum concentrated load on stair treads (on area of 4 square inches) is 300 pounds. 

g. Where snow loads occur that are in excess of the design conditions, the structure shall 
be designed to support the loads due to the increased loads caused by drift buildup or a 
greater snow design determined by the building official (see Section 1608 A). For spe- 
cial-purpose roofs, see Section 1607A.1 1 .2.2. 

h. See Section 1604A.8.3 for decks attached to exterior walls. 

i. Attics without storage are those where the maximum clear height between the joist and 
rafter is less than 42 inches, or where there are not two or more adjacent trusses with the 
same web configuration capable of containing a rectangle 42 inches high by 2 feet 
wide, or greater, located within the plane of the truss. For attics without storage, this live 
load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirements. 

j. For attics with limited storage and constructed with trusses, this five load need only be 
applied to those portions of the bottom chord where there are two or more adjacent 
trusses with the same web configuration capable of containing a rectangle 42 inches 
high by 2 feet wide or greater, located within the plane of the truss. The rectangle shall 
fit between the top of the bottom chord and the bottom of any other truss member, pro- 
vided that each of the following criteria is met: 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



87 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



i. The attic area is accessible by a pull-down stairway or framed opening in accor- 
dance with Section 1209.2, and 
ii. The truss shall have a bottom chord pitch less than 2: 12. 
iii. Bottom chords of trusses shall be designed for the greater of actual imposed dead 
load or 10 psf, uniformly distributed over the entire span, 
k. Attic spaces served by a fixed stair shall be designed to support the minimum live load 

specified for habitable attics and sleeping rooms. 
1. Roofs used for other special purposes shall be designed for appropriate loads as 

approved by the building official. 
m. The minimum vertical design live load shall be as follows: 
Paper media: 

12~inch-deep shelf 33 pounds per lineal foot 

} 5-inch-deep shelf 41 pounds per lineal foot, or 

3 3 pounds per cubic foot per total volume of the rack or cabinet, whichever is less. 
Film media: 

18-inch-deep shelf 100 pounds per lineal foot, or 

50 pounds per cubic foot per total volume of the rack or cabinet, whichever is less. 
Other media: 

20 pounds per cubicfoot or 20 pounds per square foot, whichever is less, but not less 
than actual loads, 
n. [DSA-SSJ The following minimum loads for stage accessories apply: 

1. Gridirons and fly galleries: 75 pounds per square foot uniform live load. 

2. Loft block wells: 250 pounds per lineal foot vertical load and lateral load. 

3. Head block wells and sheave beams: 250 pounds per lineal foot vertical loadand 
lateral load. Head block wells and sheave beams shall be designed for all tribu- 
tary loft block well loads. Sheave blocks shall be designed with a safety factor of 
five. 

4. Scenery beams where there is no gridiron: 300 pounds per lineal foot vertical 
load and lateral load. 

5. Ceiling framing over stages shall be designed for a uniform live load of 20 
pounds per square foot. For members supporting a tributary area of 200 square 
feet or more, this additional loadmay be reduced to 15 pounds per square foot. 

o. [DSA-SSl The minimum uniform live load for classroom occupancies is 50 psf 

p. [DSA-SS] The minimum uniform live load for a press box floor or accessible roof with 

railing is 100 psf 
q. [DSA -SS] Item 40 applies to pedestrian bridges and walkways that are not subjected to 

uncontrolled vehicle access. 

1607A.4 Concentrated loads. Floors and other similar sur- 
faces shall be designed to support the uniformly distributed live 
loads prescribed in Section 1607A.3 or the concentrated load, 
in pounds (kilonewtons), given in Table 1607A.1, whichever 
produces the greater load effects. Unless otherwise specified, 
the indicated concentration shall be assumed to be uniformly 
distributed over an area 2V2 feet by 2V2 feet [6V4 square feet 
(0.58 m^)] and shall be located so as to produce the maximum 
load effects in the structural members. 

1607A.5 Partition loads. In office buildings and in other 
buildings where partition locations are subject to change, pro- 
visions for partition weight shall be made, whether or not parti- 
tions are shown on the construction documents, unless the 
specified live load exceeds 80 psf (3.83 kN/m^). The partition 
load shall not be less than a uniformly distributed live load of 
15psf(0.74kN/m^). 

1607A.6 Truck and bus garages. Minimum live loads for 
garages having trucks or buses shall be as specified in Table 
1607 A.6, but shall not be less than 50 psf (2.40 kN/m^), unless 
other loads are specifically justified and approved by the build- 
if^g official. Actual loads shall be used where they are greater 
than the loads specified in the table. 

1607A.6.1 Truck and bus garage live load application. 

The concentrated load and uniform load shall be uniformly 
distributed over a 10-foot (3048 mm) width on a line normal 
to the centerline of the lane placed within a 12-foot- wide 
(3658 mm) lane. The loads shall be placed within their indi- 
vidual lanes so as to produce the maximum stress in each 
structural member. Single spans shall be designed for the 
uniform load in Table 1607 A. 6 and one simultaneous con- 
centrated load positioned to produce the maximum effect. 



Multiple spans shall be designed for the uniform load in 
Table 1607 A.6 on the spans and two simultaneous concen- 
trated loads in two spans positioned to produce the maxi- 
mum negative moment effect. Multiple span design loads, 
for other effects, shall be the same as for single spans. 

TABLE 1607A.6 
UNIFORM AND CONCENTRATED LOADS 



LOADING 
CLASS^ 


UNIFORM LOAD 

(pounds/linear 

foot of lane) 


CONCENTRATED LOAD 
(pounds)'' 


For moment 
design 


For shear 
design 


H20-44 and HS20-44 


640 


18,000 


26,000 


H15-44andHSI5-44 


480 


13,500 


19,500 



For SI: 1 pound per linear foot = 0.01459 kN/m, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 
1 ton = 8.90 kN. 

a. An H loading class designates a two-axle truck with a semitrailer. An HS 
loading class designates a tractor truck with a semitrailer. The numbers fol- 
lowing the letter classification indicate the gross weight in tons of the stan- 
dard truck and the year the loadings were instituted. 

b. See Section 1607 A.6. 1 for the loading of multiple spans. 

1607A,7 Loads on handrails, guards, grab bars, shower 
seats^ dressing room bench seats and vehicle barrier 
systems. Handrails, guards, grab bars, accessible seats, accessi- 
ble benches and vehicle barrier systems shall be designed and 
constructed to the structural loading conditions set forth in this 
section. 

1607A.7.1 Handrails and guards. Handrails and guards 
shall be designed to resist a load of 50 pounds per linear foot 
(plf) (0.73 kN/m) applied in any direction at the top and to 
transfer this load through the supports to the structure. Glass 
handrail assemblies and guards shall also comply with Sec- 
tion 2407. 

Exceptions: 

1 . For one- and two-family dwellings, only the single 
concentrated load required by Section 
1607A.7.L1 shall be applied. 

2. In Group 1-3, F, H and S occupancies, for areas that 
are not accessible to the general public and that 
have an occupant load less than 50, the minimum 
load shall be 20 pounds per foot (0.29 kN/m). 

1607A.7,1.1 Concentrated load. Handrails and guards 
shall be able to resist a single concentrated load of 200 
pounds (0.89 kN), applied in any direction at any point 
along the top, and to transfer this load through the supports 
to the structure. This load need not be assumed to act con- 
currently with the loads specified in Section 1607A.7.1. 

1607A.7.1.2 Components. Intermediate rails (all those 
except the handrail), balusters and panel fillers shall be 
designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load 
of 50 pounds (0.22 kN) on an area equal to 1 square foot 
(0.093 m^), including openings and space between rails. 
Reactions due to this loading are not required to be super- 
imposed with those of Section 1607A.7.1 or 1607A.7.1.1. 

1607A.7.2 Grab bars, shower seats and dressing room 
bench seats. Grab bars, shower seats and dressing room 
bench seat systems shall be designed to resist a single concen- 
trated load of 250 pounds (1.11 kN) applied in any direction 



*• 



88 



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STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



at any point. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 1127 AA, 
and Chapter IIB, Sections 1115BJ.2 and 11 17B, 8, for grab 
bars, shower seats and dressing room bench seatSy as appli- 
cable. 

1607A.7.3 Vehicle barrier systems. Vehicle barrier systems 
for passenger vehicles shall be designed to resist a single load 
of 6,000 pounds (26.70 kN) applied horizontally in any direc- 
tion to the barrier system and shall have anchorage or attach- 
ment capable of transmitting this load to the structure. For 
design of the system, two loading conditions shall be ana- 
lyzed. The first condition shall apply the load at a height of 1 
foot, 6 inches (457 mm) above the floor or ramp surface. The 
second loading condition shall apply the load at 2 feet, 3 
inches (686 mm) above the floor or ramp surface. The more 
severe load condition shall govern the design of the barrier 
restraint system. The load shall be assumed to act on an area 
not to exceed 1 square foot (0.0929 m^), and is not required to 
be assumed to act concurrently with any handrail or guard 
loadings specified in Section 1 607 A.7.1. Garages accommo- 
dating trucks and buses shall be designed in accordance with 
an approved method that contains provisions for traffic rail- 
ings. 

1607A.8 Impact loads. The live loads specified in Section 
1607A.3 include allowance for impact conditions. Provisions 
shall be made in the structural design for uses and loads that 
involve unusual vibration and impact forces. 

1607A.8.1 Elevators. Elevator loads shall be increased by 
100 percent for impact and the structural supports shall be 
designed within the limits of deflection prescribed by 
ASMEA17.1. 

1607A.8.2 Machinery. For the purpose of design, the weight 
of machinery and moving loads shall be increased as follows 
to allow for impact: (1) elevator machinery, 100 percent; (2) 
light machinery, shaft- or motor-driven, 20 percent; (3) recip- 
rocating machinery or power-driven units, 50 percent; (4) 
hangers for floors or balconies, 33 percent. Percentages shall 
be increased where specified by the manufacturer. 

1607A.9 Reduction in live loads. Except for uniform live 
loads at roofs, all other minimum uniformly distributed live 
loads, L^, in Table 1607A.1 are permitted to be reduced in 
accordance with Section 1607A.9.1 or 1607A.9.2. Roof uni- 
form live loads, other than special purpose roofs of Section 
1607A. 11.2.2, are permitted to be reduced in accordance with 
Section 1607A.11.2. Roof uniform live loads of special pur- 
pose roofs are permitted to be reduced in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1607A.9.1 or 1607A.9.2. 

1607A.9.1 General. Subject to the limitations of Sections 
1607A.9.1.1 through 1607A,9.1.4, members for which a 
value of Ki^A-j- is 400 square feet (37. 1 6 m^) or more are per- 
mitted to be designed for a reduced live load in accordance 
with the following equation: 



/ 



L = L 



0.25 -h 



15 



V 



V^^ 



r J 



(Equation 16A-22) 



For SI: L = L I 0.25-H 



4.57 



^|K^ 



T ) 



where: 

L - Reduced design live load per square foot (meter) of 
area supported by the member. 

L^ = Unreduced design live load per square foot (meter) of 
area supported by the member (see Table 1607A.1). 

Kjjj=^ Live load element factor (see Table 1607A.9.1). 

Aj - Tributary area, in square feet (square meters). 

L shall not be less than 0,50L^ for members supporting one 
floor and L shall not be less than 0.40L^ for members sup- 
porting two or more floors. 

TABLE 1607y\.9.1 
LIVE LOAD ELEMENT FACTOR, Ki_^ 



ELEMENT 


/c,, 


Interior columns 

Exterior columns without cantilever slabs 


4 
4 


Edge columns with cantilever slabs 


3 


Comer columns with cantilever slabs 
Edge beams without cantilever slabs 
Interior beams 


2 
2 
2 


All other members not identified above including: 
Edge beams with cantilever slabs 
Cantilever beams 
One-way slabs 
Two-way slabs 

Members without provisions for continuous shear 
transfer normal to their span 


1 



1607A.9.1.1 One-way slabs. The tributary area, A^, for 
use in Equation 16A-22 for one-way slabs shall not 
exceed an area defined by the slab span times a width 
normal to the span of 1.5 times the slab span. 

1607A.9.1.2 Heavy live loads. Live loads that exceed 
100 psf (4.79 kN/m^) shall not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1. The live loads for members supporting two or 
more floors are permitted to be reduced by a max- 
imum of 20 percent, but the Hve load shall not be 
less than L as calculated in Section 1607A.9.1. 

2. For uses other than storage, where approved, 
additional live load reductions shall be permit- 
ted where shown by the registered design pro- 
fessional that a rational approach has been used 
and that such reductions are warranted. 

1607A.9.1.3 Passenger vehicle garages. The live loads 
shall not be reduced in passenger vehicle garages. 

Exception: The live loads for members supporting 
two or more floors are permitted to be reduced by a 
maximum of 20 percent, but the Hve load shall not be 
less than L as calculated in Section 1607A.9.1. 

1607A.9.1.4 Group A occupancies. Live loads of 100 
psf (4.79 kN/m^) and at areas where fixed seats are 
located shall not be reduced in Group A occupancies. 

1607A. 9.1.5 Roof members. Live loads of 100 psf (4.79 
kN/m^) or less shall not be reduced for roof members 
except as specified in Section 1607A. 1 1.2. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



89 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



1607A. 9.2 Alternate floor live load reduction. As an alter- 
native to Section 1 607A.9. 1 , floor live loads are permitted to 
be reduced in accordance with the following provisions. 
Such reductions shall apply to slab systems, beams, girders, 
colunms, piers, walls and foundations. 

1 . A reduction shall not be permitted in Group A occu- 
pancies. 

2. A reduction shall not be permitted where the live load 
exceeds 100 psf (4.79 kN/m^) except that the design 
live load for members supporting two or more floors 
is permitted to be reduced by 20 percent. 

Exception: For uses other than storage, where 
approved, additional live load reductions shall be 
permitted where shown by the registered design 
professional that a rational approach has been used 
and that such reductions are warranted. 

3. A reduction shall not be permitted in passenger vehi- 
cle parking garages except that the live loads for 
members supporting two or more floors are permitted 
to be reduced by a maximum of 20 percent. 

4. For live loads not exceeding 100 psf (4.79 kN/m^), the 
design live load for any structural member supporting 
150 square feet (13.94 m^) or more is permitted to be 
reduced in accordance with Equation 16A-23. 

5. For one-way slabs, the area, A, for use in Equation 
16A-23 shall not exceed the product of the slab span and 
a width normal to the span of 0.5 times the slab span. 



i? = 0.08(A-150) 



(Equation 16A-23) 



For SI: i? = 0.861(A- 13.94) 

Such reduction shall not exceed the smallest of: 

1 . 40 percent for horizontal members; 

2. 60 percent for vertical members; or 

3. /? as determined by the following equation. 



/? = 23.1(l+D/4) 
where: 



(Equation 16A-24) 



A = Area of floor supported by the member, 
square feet (m^). 

D = Dead load per square foot (m^) of area sup- 
ported. 

L^ = Unreduced live load per square foot (m^) of 
area supported. 

R = Reduction in percent. 

1607A. 10 Distribution of floor loads. Where uniform floor 
live loads are involved in the design of structural members 
arranged so as to create continuity, the minimum applied loads 
shall be the full dead loads on all spans in combination with the 
floor live loads on spans selected to produce the greatest effect 
at each location under consideration. It shall be permitted to 
reduce floor live loads in accordance with Section 1607A.9. 

1607A.11 Roof loads. The structural supports of roofs and 
marquees shall be designed to resist wind and, where applica- 
ble, snow and earthquake loads, in addition to the dead load of 
construction and the appropriate live loads as prescribed in this 



section, or as set forth in Table 1607A. 1. The live loads acting 
on a sloping surface shall be assumed to act vertically on the 
horizontal projection of that surface. 

1607A.11.1 Distribution of roof loads. Where uniform 
roof live loads are reduced to less than 20 psf (0.96 kN/m^) 
in accordance with Section 1607A. 1 1 .2. 1 and are applied to 
the design of structural members arranged so as to create 
continuity, the reduced roof live load shall be applied to 
adjacent spans or to alternate spans, whichever produces the 
most unfavorable load effect. See Section 1607A.11.2 for 
reductions in minimum roof live loads and Section 7.5 of 
ASCE 7 for partial snow loading. 

1607A.11.2 Reduction in roof live loads. The minimum 
uniformly distributed live loads of roofs and marquees, L^, 
in Table 1607A. 1 are permitted to be reduced in accordance 
with Section 1607A. 11.2.1 or 1607A, 11.2.2. 

1607A. 11.2.1 Flat, pitched and curved roofs. Ordinary 
flat, pitched and curved roofs, and awnings and canopies 
other than of fabric construction supported by hghtweight 
rigid skeleton structures, are permitted to be designed for a 
reduced roof live load as specified in the following equa- 
tions or other controlling combinations of loads in Section 
1605 A, whichever produces the greater load. 

In structures such as greenhouses, where special scaf- 
folding is used as a work surface for workers and materi- 
als during maintenance and repair operations, a lower 
roof load than specified in the following equations shall 
not be used unless approved by the building official. 
Such structures shall be designed for a minimum roof 
live load of 12 psf (0.58 kN/m^). 



L^ = L^RjR2 



(Equation 16A-25) 



where: 12 < L, < 20 

For SI: L, = LJljRz 

where: 0.58 <L,< 0.96 

L^ = Reduced live load per square foot (mj) of horizon- 
tal projection in pounds per square foot (kN/m2). 

The reduction factors Rj and R2 shall be determined as 
follows: 

Rj ^ 1 for A, < 200 square feet 

(18.58 m2) (Equation 16A-26) 

Rj = l2~ O.OOIA, for 200 square 

feet <Af< 600 square feet (Equation 16A -27) 

For SI: 1. 2 - 0.0 1 lA, for 18.58 square meters < A, < 55. 74 
square meters 

Rj = 0.6 for A, > 600 square feet 

(55.74 m^) (Equation 16A-28) 

where: 

A^ = Tributary area (span length multiplied by effective 
width) in square feet (m^) supported by any struc- 
tural member, and 

/?2= 1 forF<4 (Equation 16A-29) 

/?3=1.2-0.05Ffor4<F<12 (Equation 16A -30) 



90 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



R2 = 0.6 for F > 1 2 (Equation 16A-31) 

where: 

F = For a sloped roof, the number of inches of rise per 
foot (for SI: F= 0.12 X slope, with slope expressed 
as a percentage), or for an arch or dome, the 
rise-to-span ratio multiplied by 32. 

1607A. 11.2.2 Special-purpose roofs. Roofs used for 
promenade purposes, roof gardens, assembly purposes 
or other special purposes, and marquees, shall be 
designed for a minimum live load, L^, as specified in 
Table 1607A.1. Such live loads are permitted to be 
reduced in accordance with Section 1607A.9. Live loads 
of 100 psf (4.79 kN/m^) or more at areas of roofs classi- 
fied as Group A occupancies shall not be reduced. 

1607A. 11,3 Landscaped roofs. Where roofs are to be land- 
scaped, the uniform design live load in the landscaped area 
shall be 20 psf (0.958 kN/m^). The weight of the landscap- 
ing materials shall be considered as dead load and shall be 
computed on the basis of saturation of the soil. 

1607A.11.4 Awnings and canopies. Awnings and canopies 
shall be designed for uniform live loads as required in Table 
1607A. 1 as well as for snow loads and wind loads as speci- 
fied in Sections 1608A and 1609A. 

I I 1607A.11.5 Uncovered open-frame roof structures. 

Uncovered open-frame roof structures shall be designed for 
a vertical live load of not less than 10 pounds per square 

foot (0.48 kN/m^) of the total area encompassed by the 

framework. 

1607A.12 Crane loads. The crane live load shall be the rated 
capacity of the crane. Design loads for the runway beams, 
including connections and support brackets, of moving bridge 
cranes and monorail cranes shall include the maximum wheel 
loads of the crane and the vertical impact, lateral and longitudi- 
nal forces induced by the moving crane. 

1607A.12.1 Maximum wheel load. The maximum wheel 
loads shall be the wheel loads produced by the weight of the 
bridge, as applicable, plus the sum of the rated capacity and the 
weight of the trolley with the trolley positioned on its runway at 
the location where the resulting load effect is maximum. 

1607A.12.2 Vertical impact force. The maximum wheel 
loads of the crane shall be increased by the percentages 
shown below to determine the induced vertical impact or 
vibration force: 

Monorail cranes (powered) • • • 25 percent 

Cab-operated or remotely operated 

bridge cranes (powered) 25 percent 

Pendant-operated bridge cranes 

(powered) lOpercent 

Bridge cranes or monorail cranes with 

hand-geared bridge, trolley and hoist percent 

1607A.12.3 Lateral force. The lateral force on crane run- 
way beams with electrically powered trolleys shall be calcu- 
lated as 20 percent of the sum of the rated capacity of the 
crane and the weight of the hoist and trolley. The lateral 
force shall be assumed to act horizontally at the traction sur- 



face of a runway beam, in either direction perpendicular to 
the beam, and shall be distributed according to the lateral 
stiffness of the runway beam and supporting structure. 

1607A.12.4 Longitudinal force. The longitudinal force on 
crane runway beams, except for bridge cranes with 
hand-geared bridges, shall be calculated as 10 percent of the 
maximum wheel loads of the crane. The longitudinal force 
shall be assumed to act horizontally at the traction surface of 
a runway beam, in either direction parallel to the beam. 

1607A.13 Interior walls and partitions. Interior walls and 
partitions that exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in height, including 
their finish materials, shall have adequate strength to resist the 
loads to which they are subjected but not less than a horizontal 
load of 5 psf (0.240 kN/m^). The 5 psf (0.24 kN/m') load need 
not be applied simultaneously with wind or seismic loads. The 
deflection of such walls under a load of 5 psf (0.24 kN/m^) shall 
not exceed the limits in Table 1604A.3. 

Exception: Fabric partitions complying with Section 
1607A. 13.1 shall not be required to resist the minimum hor- 
izontal load of 5 psf (0.24 kN/m^). 

1607A.13.1 Fabric partitions. Fabric partitions that 
exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in height, including their finish 
materials, shall have adequate strength to resist the follow- 
ing load conditions: 

1. A horizontal distributed load of 5 psf (0.24 kN/m^) 
applied to the partition framing. The total area used to 
determine the distributed load shall be the area of the 
fabric face between the framing members to which 
the fabric is attached. The total distributed load shall 
be uniformly applied to such framing members in 
proportion to the length of each member. 

2. A concentrated load of 40 pounds (0. 176 kN) applied 
to an 8-inch diameter (203 mm) area [50.3 square 
inches (32 452 mm^)] of the fabric face at a height of 
54 inches (1372 mm) above the floor. 

SECTION 1608/4 
SNOW LOADS 

1608A.1 General. Design snow loads shall be determined in 
accordance with Chapter 7 of ASCE 7, but the design roof load 
shall not be less than that determined by Section 1607A. 

1608A,2 Ground snow loads. The ground snow loads to be 
used in determining the design snow loads for roofs shall be 
determined in accordance with ASCE 7 or Figure 1608A.2 for 
the contiguous United States. Site-specific case studies shall be 
made in areas designated "CS" in Figure 1608A.2. Ground snow 
loads for sites at elevations above the limits indicated in Figure 
1608A.2 and for all sites within the CS areas shall be approved. 
Ground snow load determination for such sites shall be based on 
an extreme value statistical analysis of data available in the 
vicinity of the site using a value with a 2-percent annual proba- 
bihty of being exceeded (50-year mean recurrence interval). 

1608A,3 Determination of snow loads. [DSA-SS] The 

ground snow load or the design snow load for roofs shall con- 
form with the adopted ordinance of the city, county, or city 
and county in which the project site is located, and shall be 
approved by DSA. 



II 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



91 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



(100) 



(400) 

10 
(300) 




In CS areas, site-specific Case Studies are required to 
establish ground snow loads. Extreme local variations in 
ground snow loads in tliese areas preclude mapping at 
this scale. 

Numbers in parentheses represent the upper elevation 
limits in feet for the ground snow load values presented 
below. Site -specific case studies are required to estab- 
lish ground snow loads at elevations not covered. 

To convert Ib/sq ft to kNm^ multiply by 0.0479. 

To convert feet to meters, multiply by 0.3048. 



J I I L. 



J 



100 



200 



300 miles 



FIGURE 16084.2 
GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (psf) 



92 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




FIGURE 1608A2-contmued 
GROUND SNOW LOADS, pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (psf) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



93 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



SECTION 160M 
WIND LOADS 

1609A.1 Applications. Buildings, structures and parts thereof 
shall be designed to withstand the minimum wind loads pre- 
scribed herein. Decreases in wind loads shall not be made for 
the effect of shielding by other structures. 

1609A.1.1 Determination of wind loads. Wind loads on 
every building or structure shall be determined in accor- 
dance with Chapter 6 of ASCE 7 or provisions of the alter- 
nate all-heights method in Section 1609A.6. The type of 
opening protection required, the basic wind speed and the 
exposure category for a site is permitted to be determined in 
accordance with Section 1609A or ASCE 7. Wind shall be 
assumed to come from any horizontal direction and wind 
pressures shall be assumed to act normal to the surface con- 
sidered. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Subject to the limitations of Section 1609A. 1.1.1, 
the provisions of ICC 600 shall be permitted for 
apphcable Group R-2 and R-3 buildings. 

2. Subject to the limitations of Section 1 609A. 1.1.1, 
residential structures using the provisions of the 
AF&PA WFCM. 

3. Subject to the limitations of Section 1609A. 1.1.1, 
residential structures using the provisions of AISI 
S230. 

4. Designs using NAAMM FP 1001. 

5. Designs using TIA-222 for antenna-supporting 
structures and antennas. 

6. Wind tunnel tests in accordance with Section 6.6 
of ASCE 7, subject to the limitations in Section 
1609A. 1,1.2. 

1609A. 1.1.1 Applicability. The provisions of ICC 600 
are applicable only to buildings located within Exposure 
B or C as defined in Section 1609A.4. The provisions of 
ICC 600, AFcfePA WFCM and AISI S230 shall not apply 
to buildings sited on the upper half of an isolated hill, 
ridge or escarpment meeting the following conditions: 

L The hill, ridge or escarpment is 60 feet (18 288 
mm) or higher if located in Exposure B or 30 feet 
(9144 mm) or higher if located in Exposure C; 

2. The maximum average slope of the hill exceeds 10 
percent; and 

3. The hill, ridge or escarpment is unobstructed 
upwind by other such topographic features for a 
distance from the high point of 50 times the height 
of the hill or 1 mile (1.61 km), whichever is 
greater. 

1609A. 1.1.2 Wind tunnel test limitations. The lower 
limit on pressures for main wind-force-resisting systems 
and components and cladding shall be in accordance 
with Sections 1609A. 1.1.2.1 and 1609A. 1.1.2.2. 

1609A. 1.1.2.1 Lower limits on main wind- 
force-resisting system. Base overturning moments 
determined from wind tunnel testing shall be limited 



to not less than 80 percent of the design base overturn- 
ing moments determined in accordance with Section 
6.5 of ASCE 7, unless specific testing is performed 
that demonstrates it is the aerodynamic coefficient of 
the building, rather than shielding from other struc- 
tures, that is responsible for the lower values. The 
80-percent limit shall be permitted to be adjusted by 
the ratio of the frame load at critical wind directions as 
determined from wind tunnel testing without specific 
adjacent buildings, but including appropriate upwind 
roughness, to that determined in Section 6.5 of ASCE 
7. 

1609A. 1.1.2.2 Lower limits on components and 
cladding. The design pressures for components and 
cladding on walls or roofs shall be selected as the 
greater of the wind tunnel test results or 80 percent of 
the pressure obtained for Zone 4 for walls and Zone 1 
for roofs as determined in Section 6.5 of ASCE 7, 
unless specific testing is performed that demonstrates 
it is the aerodynamic coefficient of the building, 
rather than shielding from nearby structures, that is 
responsible for the lower values. Alternatively, lim- 
ited tests at a few wind directions without specific 
adjacent buildings, but in the presence of an appropri- 
ate upwind roughness, shall be permitted to be used to 
demonstrate that the lower pressures are due to the 
shape of the building and not to shielding. 

1609AAJ,3 Special wind regions. [DSA-SS] The basic 
wind speed for projects located in special wind regions 
as defined in Figure 1609A shall conform with the 
adopted ordinance of the city, county or city and county 
in which the project site is located, and shall be approved 
by DSA'SS, 

1609A.1.2 Protection of openings. In wind-borne debris 
regions, glazing in buildings shall be impact resistant or pro- 
tected with an impact-resistant covering meeting the 
requirements of an approved impact-resistant standard or 
ASTM E 1996 and ASTM E 1886 referenced herein as fol- 
lows: 

1 . Glazed openings located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of 
grade shall meet the requirements of the large missile 
test of ASTM E 1996. 

2. Glazed openings located more than 30 feet (9144 
mm) above grade shall meet the provisions of the 
small missile test of ASTM E 1996. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Wood structural panels with a minimum thickness 
of Vi6 inch (11.1 mm) and maximum panel span of 
8 feet (2438 mm) shall be permitted for opening 
protection in one- and two-story buildings classi- 
fied as Group R-3 or R-4 occupancy. Panels shall 
be precut so that they shall be attached to the fram- 
ing surrounding the opening containing the prod- 
uct with the glazed opening. Panels shall be 
predrilled as required for the anchorage method 
and shall be secured with the attachment hardware 
provided. Attachments shall be designed to resist 



94 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



the components and cladding loads determined in 
accordance with the provisions of ASCE 7, with 
corrosion-resistant attachment hardware provided 
and anchors permanently installed on the building. 
Attachment in accordance with Table 1609A.1.2 
with corrosion-resistant attachment hardware pro- 
vided and anchors permanently installed on the 
building is permitted for buildings with a mean 
roof height of 45 feet (13 716 mm) or less where 
wind speeds do not exceed 140 mph (63 m/s). 

2. Glazing in Occupancy Category I buildings as 
defined in Section 1604A.5, including green- 
houses that are occupied for growing plants on a 
production or research basis, without public access 
shall be permitted to be unprotected. 

3. Glazing in Occupancy Category II, III or IV build- 
ings located over 60 feet (18 288 mm) above the 
ground and over 30 feet (9144 mm) above aggre- 
gate surface roofs located within 1,500 feet (458 
m) of the building shall be permitted to be unpro- 
tected. 

1609A. 1.2.1 Louvers. Louvers protecting intake and 
exhaust ventilation ducts not assumed to be open that are 
located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of grade shall meet 
requirements of an approved impact-resisting standard 
or the large missile test of ASTM E 1996. 

1609A. 1.2,2 Garage doors. Garage door glazed open- 
ing protection for wind-borne debris shall meet the 
requirements of an approved impact-resisting standard 
orANSI/DASMA115, 

1609 AJ3 Story drift for wind loads. The calculated story 
drift due to wind pressures shall not exceed 0.005 times the 
story height for buildings less than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in 
height or 0.004 times the story height for buildings 65 feet 
(19 812 mm) or greater in height. 

1609A.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of Section 1609 A, have the meanings shown 
herein. 



TABLE1609A1.2 

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS PROTECTION FASTENING 

SCHEDULE FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS^' '''*^'*^ 



FASTENER 
TYPE 


FASTENER SPACING (inches) 


Panel Span 
<4feet 


4feet< 

Panel Span < 

6 feet 


6feet< 

Panel Span < 

8 feet 


No. 8 wood-screw-based 
anchor with 2-inch 
embedment length 


16 


10 


8 


No. 10 wood-screw-based 
anchor with 2-inch 
embedment length 


16 


12 


9 


V4-inch diameter 
lag-screw-based anchor 
with 2-inch embedment 
length 


16 


16 


16 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N, 
1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. This table is based on 140 mph wind speeds and a 45-foot mean roof height. 

b. Fasteners shall be installed at opposing ends of the wood structural panel. 
Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 1 inch from the edge of the panel. 

c. Anchors shall penetrate through the exterior wall covering with an 
embedment length of 2 inches minimum into the building frame. Fasteners 
shall be located a minimum of 2 V2 inches from the edge of concrete block or 
concrete. 

d. Where panels are attached to masonry or masonry/stucco, they shall be 
attached using vibration-resistant anchors having a minimum ultimate with- 
drawal capacity of 1,500 pounds. 



HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. 

hurricanes defined as: 



Areas vulnerable to 



1. The U. S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico coasts 
where the basic wind speed is greater than 90 mph (40 
m/s) and 

2. Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands and Ameri- 
can Samoa. 

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. Portions of hurri- 
cane-prone regions that are within 1 mile (1.61 km) of the 
coastal mean high water line where the basic wind speed is 1 10 
mph (48 m/s) or greater; or portions of hurricane -prone 
regions where the basic wind speed is 120 mph (53 m/s) or 
greater; or Hawaii. 











TABLE 1 609 A3.1 
EQUIVALENT BASIC WIND SPEEDS^''' 


c 










V^s 


85 


90 


100 


105 


110 


120 


125 


130 


140 


145 


150 


160 


170 


Vj^ 


71 


76 


85 


90 


95 


104 


109 


114 


123 


128 


133 


142 


152 



For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.44 m/s. 

a. Linear interpolation is permitted. 

b. V35 is the 3-second gust wind speed (mph). 

c. Vj^ is the fastest mile wind speed (mph). 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



95 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




Notes: 

1. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour (m/s) at 33 ft (10 m) abcve ground for Exposure C category. 

2. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

3. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

4. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories, and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 



FIGURE 1609yt 
BASIC WIND SPEED (3-SECOND GUST) 



96 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



1609A.3 Basic wind speed. The basic wind speed, in mph, for 
the determination of the wind loads shall be determined by Fig- 
ure 1609A. Basic wind speed for the special wind regions indi- 
cated, near mountainous terrain and near gorges shall be in 
accordance with local jurisdiction requirements. Basic wind 
speeds determined by the local jurisdiction shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 6.5.4 of ASCE 7. 

In nonhurricane-prone regions, when the basic wind speed is 
estimated from regional climatic data, the basic wind speed 
shall be not less than the wind speed associated with an annual 
probability of 0.02 (50-year mean recurrence interval), and the 
estimate shall be adjusted for equivalence to a 3-second gust 
wind speed at 33 feet (10 m) above ground in Exposure Cate- 
gory C. The data analysis shall be performed in accordance 
with Section 6.5.4.2 of ASCE 7. 

1609A.3.1 Wind speed conversion. When required, the 
3-second gust basic wind speeds of Figure 1609 A shall be 
converted to fastest-mile wind speeds, V^, using Table 
1609A.3.1 or Equation 16A-32. 



Vfin = 



(^3,-10.5) 



1.05 



(Equation 16A-32) 



where: 



V35 = 3-second gust basic wind speed from Figure 1609A. 

1609A.4 Exposure category. For each wind direction consid- 
ered, an exposure category that adequately reflects the charac- 
teristics of ground surface irregularities shall be determined for 
the site at which the building or structure is to be constructed. 
Account shall be taken of variations in ground surface rough- 
ness that arise from natural topography and vegetation as well 
as from constructed features. 

1609A.4.1 Wind directions and sectors. For each selected 
wind direction at which the wind loads are to be evaluated, 
the exposure of the building or structure shall be determined 
for the two upwind sectors extending 45 degrees (0.79 rad) 
either side of the selected wind direction. The exposures in 
these two sectors shall be determined in accordance with 
Sections 1609A.4.2 and 1609A.4.3 and the exposure result- 
ing in the highest wind loads shall be used to represent 
winds from that direction. 

1609A.4.2 Surface rougliness categories. A ground sur- 
face roughness within each 45-degree (0.79 rad) sector shall 
be determined for a distance upwind of the site as defined in 
Section 1609A.4.3 from the categories defined below, for 
the purpose of assigning an exposure category as defined in 
Section 1609A.4.3. 

Surface Roughness B. Urban and suburban areas, 
wooded areas or other terrain with numerous closely 
spaced obstructions having the size of single-family 
dwellings or larger. 

Surface Roughness C. Open terrain with scattered 
obstructions having heights generally less than 30 feet 
(9144 mm). This category includes flat open country, 
grasslands, and all water surfaces in hurricane-prone 
regions. 



Surface Roughness D. Flat, unobstructed areas and 
water surfaces outside hurricane-prone regions. This 
category includes smooth mud flats, salt flats and unbro- 
ken ice. 

1609A.4.3 Exposure categories. An exposure category 
shall be determined in accordance with the following: 

Exposure B. Exposure B shall apply where the ground 
surface roughness condition, as defined by Surface 
Roughness B, prevails in the upwind direction for a dis- 
tance of at least 2,600 feet (792 m) or 20 times the height 
of the building, whichever is greater. 

Exception: For buildings whose mean roof height is 
less than or equal to 30 feet (9 1 44 mm), the upwind dis- 
tance is permitted to be reduced to 1 ,500 feet (457 m). 

Exposure C. Exposure C shall apply for all cases where 
Exposures B or D do not apply. 

Exposure D. Exposure D shall apply where the ground 
surface roughness, as defined by Surface Roughness D, 
prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 
5,000 feet (1524 m) or 20 times the height of the build- 
ing, whichever is greater. Exposure D shall extend inland 
from the shorehne for a distance of 600 feet (183 m) or 20 
times the height of the building, whichever is greater. 

1609A.5 Roof systems. 

1609A.5.1 Roof deck. The roof deck shall be designed to 
withstand the wind pressures determined in accordance 
with ASCE 7. 

1609A.5.2 Roof coverings. Roof coverings shall comply 
with Section 1609A.5.1. 

Exception: Rigid tile roof coverings that are air perme- 
able and installed over a roof deck complying with Sec- 
tion 1609A.5.1 are permitted to be designed in 
accordance with Section 1609A.5.3. 

Asphalt shingles installed over a roof deck complying 
with Section 1609A.5.1 shall comply with the wind-resis- 
tance requirements of Section 1507.2.7.1. 

1609A.5.3 Rigid tile. Wind loads on rigid tile roof cover- 
ings shall be determined in accordance with the following 
equation: 



M^ = q,C,bLL^[\.0-GC^] 



(Equation 16A-33) 



For SI: M^ = 



1,000 



where: 
b 



Exposed width, feet (mm) of the roof tile. 

Lift coefficient. The lift coefficient for concrete and 
clay tile shall be 0.2 or shall be determined by test in 
accordance with Section 1716.2. 

GCp= Roof pressure coefficient for each applicable roof 
zone determined from Chapter 6 of ASCE 7. Roof 
coefficients shall not be adjusted for internal pres- 
sure. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



97 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



L = Length, feet (mm) of the roof tile. 

L^ = Moment arm, feet (mm) from the axis of rotation to 
the point of uplift on the roof tile. The point of uplift 
shall be taken at 0.76L from the head of the tile and 
the middle of the exposed width. For roof tiles with 
nails or screws (with or without a tail clip), the axis 
of rotation shall be taken as the head of the tile for 
direct deck application or as the top edge of the bat- 
ten for battened applications. For roof tiles fastened 
only by a nail or screw along the side of the tile, the 
axis of rotation shall be determined by testing. For 
roof tiles installed with battens and fastened only by 
a clip near the tail of the tile, the moment arm shall 
be determined about the top edge of the batten with 
consideration given for the point of rotation of the 
tiles based on straight bond or broken bond and the 
tile profile. 

M^ = Aerodynamic uplift moment, feet-pounds (N-mm) 
acting to raise the tail of the tile. 

qf^ = Wind velocity pressure, psf (kN/m^) determined 
from Section 6.5.10 of ASCE 7. 

Concrete and clay roof tiles complying with the following 
limitations shall be designed to withstand the aerodynamic 
uplift moment as determined by this section. 

1. The roof tiles shall be either loose laid on battens, 
mechanically fastened, mortar set or adhesive set. 

2. The roof tiles shall be installed on solid sheathing 
which has been designed as components and clad- 
ding. 

3. An underlayment shall be installed in accordance 
with Chapter 15. 

4. The tile shall be single lapped interlocking with a 
minimum head lap of not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm). 

5. The length of the tile shall be between 1.0 and 1.75 
feet (305 mm and 533 mm). 

6. The exposed width of the tile shall be between 0.67 
and 1.25 feet (204 mm and 381 mm). 

7. The maximum thickness of the tail of the tile shall not 
exceed 1.3 inches (33 mm). 

8. Roof tiles using mortar set or adhesive set systems 
shall have at least two-thirds of the tile's area free of 
mortar or adhesive contact. 

1609A.6 Alternate all-heights method. The alternate wind 
design provisions in this section are simplifications of the 
ASCE 7 Method 2— Analytical Procedure. 



1609A.6.1 Scope. As an alternative to ASCE 7 Section 6.5, 
the following provisions are permitted to be used to deter- 
mine the wind effects on regularly shaped buildings, or 
other structures that are regularly shaped, which meet all of 
the following conditions: 

1 . The building or other structure is less than or equal to 
75 feet (22 860 mm) in height with a height-to-least- 
width ratio of 4 or less, or the building or other struc- 
ture has a fundamental frequency greater than or 
equal to 1 hertz. 

2. The building or other structure is not sensitive to 
dynamic effects. 

3. The building or other structure is not located on a site 
for which channeling effects or buffeting in the wake 
of upwind obstructions warrant special consideration. 

4. The building shall meet the requirements of a simple 
diaphragm building as defined in ASCE 7 Section 
6.2, where wind loads are only transmitted to the main 
wind-force-resisting system (MWFRS) at the dia- 
phragms. 

5. For open buildings, multispan gable roofs, stepped 
roofs, sawtooth roofs, domed roofs, roofs with slopes 
greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad), soHd free-standing 
walls and solid signs, and rooftop equipment, apply 
ASCE 7 provisions. 

1609A.6.1.1 Modifications. The following modifica- 
tions shall be made to certain subsections in ASCE 7: in 
Section 1609A.6.2, symbols and notations that are spe- 
cific to this section are used in conjunction with the sym- 
bols and notations in ASCE 7 Section 6.3. 

1609A.6.2 Symbols and notations. Coefficients and vari- 
ables used in the alternative all-heights method equations 
are as follows: 

C„g, = Net-pressure coefficient based on K^ [(G) (Cp) - 
{GCpi)], in accordance with Table 1609A.6.2(2). 

G = Gust effect factor for rigid structures in accordance 
with ASCE 7 Section 6.5.8.1. 

/ = Importance Factor in accordance with ASCE 7 
Section 6.5.5 

K^ = Wind directionality factor in accordance with 
ASCE 7 Table 6-4. 

P„g^ = Design wind pressure to be used in determination 
of wind loads on buildings or other structures or 
their components and cladding, in psf (kN/m^). 

q^ = Wind stagnation pressure in psf (kN/m^) in accor- 
dance with Table 1609A.6.2(1). 



TABLE 16094.6.2(1) 
WIND VELOCITY PRESSURE (q^) AT STANDARD HEIGHT OF 33 FEEr 



BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


85 


90 


100 


105 


110 


120 


125 


130 


140 


150 


160 


170 


PRESSURE, q^ (psf) 


18.5 


20.7 


25.6 


28.2 


31.0 


36.9 


40.0 


43.3 


50.2 


57.6 


65.5 


74.0 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mph = 0.44 m/s, 1 psf = 47.88 Fa. 
a. For basic wind speeds not shown, use q^ = 0.00256 V^. 



98 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 







TABLE 16094.6.2(2) 
NET PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS 


f> a,b 






STRUCTURE OR 
PART THEREOF 


DESCRIPTION 


C„e, FACTOR 


1 . Main wind- 
force-resisting 
frames and systems 


Walls: 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


+ Internal 
pressure 


- Internal 
pressure 


+ internal 
pressure 


- Internal 
pressure 


Windward wall 


0.43 


0.73 


0.11 


1.05 


Leeward wall 


-0.51 


-0.21 


-0.83 


0.11 


Sidewail 


-0.66 


-0.35 


-0.97 


-0.04 


Parapet wall 


Windward 


1.28 


1.28 


Leeward 


-0.85 


-0.85 


Roofs: 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Wind perpendicular to ridge 


+ Internal 
pressure 


- Internal 
pressure 


+ Internal 
pressure 


- Internal 
pressure 


Leeward roof or flat roof 


-0.66 


-0.35 


-0.97 


-0.04 


Windward roof slopes: 


Slope < 2:12 (10°) 


Condition 1 


-1.09 


-0.79 


-1.41 


-0.47 


Condition 2 


-0.28 


0.02 


-0.60 


0.34 


Slope = 4:12 (18°) 


Condition 1 


-0.73 


-0.42 


-1.04 


-0.11 


Condition 2 


-0.05 


0.25 


-0.37 


0.57 


Slope = 5:12 (23°) 


Condition 1 


-0.58 


-0.28 


-0.90 


0.04 


Condition 2 


0.03 


0.34 


-0.29 


0.65 


Slope = 6:12 (27°) 


Condition 1 


-0.47 


-0.16 


-0.78 


0.15 


Condition 2 


0.06 


0.37 


-0.25 


0.68 


Slope = 7:12 (30°) 


Condition 1 


-0.37 


-0.06 


-0.68 


0.25 


Condition 2 


0.07 


0.37 


-0.25 


0.69 


Slope 9:12 (37°) 


Condition 1 


-0.27 


0.04 


-0.58 


0.35 


Condition 2 


0.14 


0.44 


-0.18 


0.76 


Slope 12:12 (45°) 


0.14 


0.44 


-0.18 


0.76 


Wind parallel to ridge and flat roofs 


-1.09 


-0.79 


-1.41 


-0.47 


Nonbuilding Structures: Chimneys, Tanks and Similar Structures: 




h/D 


1 


7 


25 


Square (Wind normal to face) 


0.99 


1.07 


1.53 


Square (Wind on diagonal) 


0.77 


0.84 


1.15 


Hexagonal or Octagonal 


0.81 


0.97 


1.13 


Round 


0.65 


0.81 


0.97 


Open signs and lattice frameworks 


Ratio of solid to gross area 




<0.1 


0.1 to 0.29 


0.3 to 0.7 


Rat 


1.45 


1.30 


1.16 


Round 


0.87 


0.94 


1.08 



(continued) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



99 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 





TABLE 16094.6.2(2)— continued 
NET PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS, C^et"'^ 






STRUCTURE OR 
PART THEREOF 


DESCRIPTION 


C„e^ FACTOR 


2. Components and 
cladding not in 
areas of disconti- 
nuity — roofs and 
overhangs 


Roof elements and slopes 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Gable of hipped configurations (Zone 1) 


Hat < Slope < 6: 1 2 {IT) See ASCE 7 Figure 6- 11 C Zone 1 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.58 


0.89 


100 square feet or more 


0.41 


0.72 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.00 


-1.32 


100 square feet or more 


-0.92 


-1.23 


Overhang: Flat < Slope < 6: 12 (27°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-1 IB Zone 1 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.45 


100 square feet or more 


-1.36 


500 square feet or more 


-0.94 


6:12 (27°) < Slope < 12:12 (45°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-llD Zone 1 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.92 


1.23 


100 square feet or more 


0.83 


1.15 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.00 


-1.32 


100 square feet or more 


-0.83 


-1.15 


Monosloped configurations (Zone 1) 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Flat < Slope < 7:12 (30°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-14B Zone 1 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.49 


0.81 


100 square feet or more 


0.41 


0.72 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.26 


-1.57 


100 square feet or more 


-1.09 


-1.40 


Tall flat-topped roofs h > 60' 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Flat < Slope < 2:12 (10°) (Zone 1) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-17 Zone 1 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.34 


-1.66 


500 square feet or more 


-0.92 


-1.23 



• 



(continued) 



100 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 





TABLE 16094.6.2(2)— continuec 
NET PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS, C, 


1 

let 




STRUCTURE OR 
PART THEREOF 


DESCRIPTION 


C„e, FACTOR 


3. Components and clad- 
ding in areas of dis- 
continuities — ^roofs 
and overhangs 


Roof elements and slopes 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Gable or hipped configurations at ridges, eaves and rakes (Zone 2) 


Flat < Slope < 6:12 (27°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-llC Zone 2 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.58 


0.89 


100 square feet or more 


0.41 


10.72 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1,68 


-2.00 


100 square feet or more 


-1.17 


-1.49 


Overhang for Slope Flat < Slope < 6: 12 (27°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-1 IC Zone 2 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.87 


100 square feet or more 


-1.87 


6:12 (27°) < Slope < 12:12 (45°) Figure 6-1 ID 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.92 


1.23 


100 square feet or more 


0.83 


L15 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.17 


-1.49 


100 square feet or more 


-1.00 


-1.32 


Overhang for 6:12 (27°) < Slope < 12:12 (45°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-1 ID Zone 2 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.70 


500 square feet or more 


-1.53 


Monosloped configurations at ridges, eaves and rakes (Zone 2) 


Flat < Slope < 7:12 (30°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-14B Zone 2 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.49 


0.81 


100 square feet or more 


0.41 


0.72 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.51 


-1.83 


100 square feet or more 


-1.43 


-L74 


Tall flat topped roofs h > 60' 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Flat < Slope < 2:12 (10°) (Zone 2) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-17 Zone 2 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-2.11 


-2.42 


500 square feet or more 


-1.51 


-1.83 


Gable or hipped configurations at comers (Zone 3) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-1 IC Zone 3 


Flat < Slope < 6:12 (27°) 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.58 


0.89 


100 square feet or more 


0.41 


0.72 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-2.53 


-2.85 


100 square feet or more 


-1.85 


-2.17 



(continued) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



101 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 





TABLE 16094.6.2(2)— continued 
NET PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS, C„^t^'^ 




STRUCTURE OR 
PART THEREOF 


DESCRIPTION 


C„ef FACTOR 


3. Components and cladding in 
areas of discontinuity — roofs 
and overhangs 
(continued) 


Overhang for Slope Flat < Slope < 6:12 (27°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-1 IC Zone 3 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-3.15 


100 square feet or more 


-2.13 


6:12 (27°) < 12:12 (45°) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-1 ID Zone 3 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.92 


1.23 


100 square feet or more 


0.83 


1.15 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.17 


-1.49 


100 square feet or more 


-1.00 


-1.32 


Overhang for 6:12 (27°) < Slope < 12:12 (45°) 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.70 


100 square feet or more 


-1.53 


Monosloped Configurations at comers (Zone 3) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-14B Zone 3 


Flat < Slope < 7:12 (30°) 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


0.49 


0.81 


100 square feet or more 


0.41 


0.72 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-2.62 


-2.93 


100 square feet or more 


-1.85 


-2.17 


Tall flat topped roofs h > 60' 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Flat < Slope < 2:12 (10°) (Zone 3) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-17 Zone 3 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-2.87 


-3.19 


500 square feet or more 


-2.11 


-2.42 


4, Components and cladding not 
in areas of discontinuity — walls 
and parapets 


Wall Elements: h = 60' (Zone 4) Figure 6-11 A 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Positive 


10 square feetor less 


LOO 


1.32 


500 square feet or more 


0.75 


1.06 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.09 


-1.40 


500 square feet or more 


-0.83 


-1.15 


Wall Elements: h > 60' (Zone 4) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-17 Zone 4 


Positive 


20 square feet or less 


0.92 


1.23 


500 square feet or more 


0.66 


0.98 


Negative 


20 square feet or less 


-0.92 


-1.23 


500 square feet or more 


-0.75 


-1.06 


Parapet Walls 


Positive 


2.87 


3.19 


Negative 


-1.68 


-2.00 



(continued) 



102 



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TABLE 16094.6.2(2)--continued 
NET PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS, C^^^^^^ 




STRUCTURE OR 
PART THEREOF 


DESCRIPTION 


C„e, FACTOR 


5. Components and cladding 
in areas of discontinuity — 
walls and parapets 


Wall elements: 


h < 60' (Zone 5) Figure 6-1 1 A 


Enclosed 


Partially enclosed 


Positive 


10 square feet or less 


1.00 


1.32 


500 square feet or more 


0.75 


1.06 


Negative 


10 square feet or less 


-1.34 


-1.66 


500 square feet or more 


-0.83 


-1.15 


Wall elements: 


h > 60' (Zone 5) See ASCE 7 Figure 6-17 Zone 4 




Positive 


20 square feet or less 


0.92 


1.23 


500 square feet or more 


0.66 


0.98 


Negative 


20 square feet or less 


-1.68 


-2.00 


500 square feet or more 


-1.00 


-1.32 


Parapet walls 


Positive 


3.64 


3.95 


Negative 


-2.45 


-2.76 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^ 1 degree = 0.0175 rad. 

a. Linear interpolation between values in the table is permitted. 

b. Some C„^^ values have been grouped together. Less conservative results may be obtained by applying ASCE 7 provisions. 



1609A.6.3 Design equations. When using the alternative 
all-heights method, the MWFRS, and components and clad- 
ding of every structure shall be designed to resist the effects 
of wind pressures on the building envelope in accordance 
with Equation 16A-34. 



Pnet-^sKzC„^tUKzt\ 



(Equation 16A-34) 



ponents and cladding, the sum of the internal and exter- 
nal net pressure shall be based on the net pressure coeffi- 
cient, C„,,. 

1 . The pressure coefficient, C„^^, for walls and roofs 
shall be determined from Table 1609A.6.2(2). 

2. Where Q^^ has more than one value, the more 



Design wind forces for the MWFRS shall not be less than 
10 psf (0.48 kN/m^) multiplied by the area of the structure 
projected on a plane normal to the assumed wind direction 
(see ASCE 7 Section 6.1.4 for criteria). Design net wind 
pressure for components and cladding shall not be less than 
10 psf (0.48 kN/m^) acting in either direction normal to the 
surface. 

1609A.6.4 Design procedure. The MWFRS and the com- 
ponents and cladding of every building or other structure 
shall be designed for the pressures calculated using Equa- 
tion 16A-34. 

1609A. 6.4.1 Main wind-force-resisting systems. The 

MWFRS shall be investigated for the torsional effects 
identified in ASCE 7 Figure 6-9. 

1609A.6.4.2 Determination of K^ and K^^ Velocity 
pressure exposure coefficient, K^, shall be determined in 
accordance with ASCE 7 Section 6.5.6.6 and the topo- 
graphic factor, K^f, shall be determined in accordance 
with ASCE 7 Section 6.5.7. 

1. For the windward side of a structure, K^^ and K^ 
shall be based on height z. 

2. For leeward and side walls, and for windward and 
leeward roofs, K^^ and K^ shall be based on mean 
roof height h. 

1609A. 6.4.3 Determination of net pressure coeffi- 
cients, C„^f. For the design of the MWFRS and for corn- 



severe wind load condition 

design. 



shall be used for 



1609A. 6.4.4 Application of vt^ind pressures. When 
using the alternative all-heights method, wind pressures 
shall be applied simultaneously on, and in a direction 
normal to, all building envelope wall and roof surfaces. 

1609A. 6.4.4.1 Components and cladding. Wind 
pressure for each component or cladding element is 
applied as follows using C^^^ values based on the 
effective wind area. A, contained within the zones in 
areas of discontinuity of width and/or length "a," "2a" 
or *'4a" at: corners of roofs and walls; edge strips for 
ridges, rakes and eaves; or field areas on walls or roofs 
as indicated in figures in tables in ASCE 7 as refer- 
enced in Table 1609A. 6.2(2) in accordance with the 
following: 

1. Calculated pressures at local discontinuities 
acting over specific edge strips or corner 
boundary areas. 

2. Include "field" (Zone 1, 2 or 4, as applicable) 
pressures applied to areas beyond the bound- 
aries of the areas of discontinuity. 

3. Where applicable, the calculated pressures at 
discontinuities (Zones 2 or 3) shall be com- 
bined with design pressures that apply specifi- 
cally on rakes or eave overhangs. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



103 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



TABLE 1 61 0A1 
LATERAL SOIL LOAD 



DESCRIPTION OF BACKFILL MATERIAL"^ 


UNIFIED SOIL 
CLASSIFICATION 


DESIGN LATERAL SOIL LOAD^ 
(pound per square foot per foot of depth) 


Active pressure 


At-rest pressure 


Well-graded, clean gravels; gravel-sand mixes 


GW 


30 


60 


Poorly graded clean gravels; gravel-sand mixes 


GP 


30 


60 


Silty gravels, poorly graded gravel-sand mixes 


GM 


40 


60 


Clayey gravels, poorly graded gravel-and-clay mixes 


GC 


45 


60 


Well-graded, clean sands; gravelly sand mixes 


SW 


30 


60 


Poorly graded clean sands; sand-gravel mixes 


SP 


30 


60 


Silty sands, poorly graded sand- silt mixes 


SM 


45 


60 


Sand-silt clay mix with plastic fines 


SM-SC 


45 


100 


Clayey sands, poorly graded sand-clay mixes 


SC 


60 


100 


Inorganic silts and clayey silts 


ML 


45 


100 


Mixture of inorganic silt and clay 


ML-CL 


60 


100 


Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity 


CL 


60 


100 


Organic silts and silt clays, low plasticity 


OL 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Inorganic clayey silts, elastic silts 


MH 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Inorganic clays of high plasticity 


CH 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Organic clays and silty clays 


OH 


Noteb 


Noteb 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot per foot of depth = 0. 157 kPa/m, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Design lateral soil loads are given for moist conditions for the specified soils at their optimum densities. Actual field conditions shall govern. Submerged or satu- 
rated soil pressures shall include the weight of the buoyant soil plus the hydrostatic loads. 

b. Unsuitable as backfill material. 

c. The definition and classification of soil materials shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2487. 



SECTION 16104 
SOIL LATERAL LOADS 

161QA. 1 GeneraL Foundation walls and retaining walls shall 
be designed to resist lateral soil loads. Soil loads specified in 
Table 1610A. 1 shall be used as the minimum design lateral soil 
loads unless determined otherwise by a geotechnical investiga- 
tion in accordance with Section 1803A. Foundation walls and 
other walls in which horizontal movement is restricted at the 
top shall be designed for at-rest pressure. Retaining walls free 
to move and rotate at the top shall be permitted to be designed 
for active pressure. Design lateral pressure from surcharge 
loads shall be added to the lateral earth pressure load. Design 
lateral pressure shall be increased if soils at the site are expan- 
sive. Foundation walls shall be designed to support the weight 
of the full hydrostatic pressure of undrained backfdl unless a 
drainage system is installed in accordance with Sections 
1805A.4.2andl805A.4.3. 

Exception: Foundation walls extending not more than 8 
feet (2438 mm) below grade and laterally supported at the 
top by flexible diaphragms shall be permitted to be designed 
for active pressure. 



SECTION 16114 
RAIN LOADS 

161L4.1 Design rain loads. Each portion of a roof shall be 
designed to sustain the load of rainwater that will accumulate 
on it if the primary drainage system for that portion is blocked 
plus the uniform load caused by water that rises above the inlet 
of the secondary drainage system at its design flow. The design 
rainfall shall be based on the 100-year hourly rainfall rate indi- 
cated in Figure 161 1 A. 1 or on other rainfall rates determined 
from approved local weather data. 



For SI: R = 0.0098( J, + d^,) 
where: 



(Equation 16A-35) 



df^ = Additional depth of water on the undeflected roof 
above the inlet of secondary drainage system at its 
design flow (i.e., the hydraulic head), in inches (mm). 

d^ = Depth of water on the undeflected roof up to the inlet of 
secondary drainage system when the primary drainage 
system is blocked (i.e., the static head), in inches (mm). 

R = Rain load on the undeflected roof, in psf (kN/m2). 
When the phrase "undeflected roof is used, deflec- 
tions from loads (including dead loads) shall not be 
considered when determining the amount of rain on the 
roof. 



104 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




4.28-^' 



[P] FIGURE 161 1A1 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) EASTERN UNITED STATES 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



105 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




[P] FIGURE 1611A1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) CENTRAL UNITED STATES 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC. 



106 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




*— ". ? 



[P] FIGURE 1611 A1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) WESTERN UNITED STATES 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



107 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 




[P] FIGURE 1 61 1A1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) ALASKA 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC. 



108 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 







Ijx^ 



o; 





•^^ 




- i' 


xs 


3 
< 
X 











M/^^j^^^ I\ 




^;?^^ 




"-^Os 






/ 





[P] FIGURE 1611 A1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) HAWAII 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



109 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



161 L4. 2 Ponding instability. For roofs with a slope less than 
V4 inch per foot [1.19 degrees (0.0208 rad)] , the design calcula- 
tions shall include verification of adequate stiffness to preclude 
progressive deflection in accordance with Section 8.4 of ASCE 

7. 

161 L4. 3 Controlled drainage. Roofs equipped with hardware 
to control the rate of drainage shall be equipped with a second- 
ary drainage system at a higher elevation that limits accumula- 
tion of water on the roof above that elevation. Such roofs shall 
be designed to sustain the load of rainwater that will accumu- 
late on them to the elevation of the secondary drainage system 
plus the uniform load caused by water that rises above the inlet 
of the secondary drainage system at its design flow determined 
from Section 1611A.L Such roofs shall also be checked for 
ponding instability in accordance with Section 1611A,2. 



SECTION 16124 
FLOOD LOADS 

1612A.1 GeneraL Within flood hazard areas as established in 
Section 1612A.3, all new construction of buildings, structures 
and portions of buildings and structures, including substantial 
improvement and restoration of substantial damage to build- 
ings and structures, shall be designed and constructed to resist 
the effects of flood hazards and flood loads. For buildings that 
are located in more than one flood hazard area, the provisions 
associated with the most restrictive flood hazard area shall 
apply. 

1612A. 2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this section, have the meanings shown herein. 

BASE FLOOD. The flood having a 1 -percent chance of being 
equaled or exceeded in any given year. 

BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the base 
flood, including wave height, relative to the National Geodetic 
Vertical Datum (NGVD), North American Vertical Datum 
(NAVD) or other datum specified on the Flood Insurance Rate 
Map (FIRM). 

BASEMENT. The portion of a building having its floor 
subgrade (below ground level) on all sides. 

This definition of "Basement" is limited in appHcation to the 
provisions of Section 1612A (see "Basement" in Section 
502.1). 

DESIGN FLOOD. The flood associated with the greater of 
the following two areas: 

1. Area with a flood plain subject to a 1 -percent or greater 
chance of flooding in any year; or 

2. Area designated as a flood hazard area on a commu- 
nity' s flood hazard map, or otherwise legally designated. 

DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the 
'''design flood'' including wave height, relative to the datum 
specified on the community's legally designated flood hazard 
map. In areas designated as Zone AG, the design flood eleva- 
tion shall be the elevation of the highest existing grade of the 
building's perimeter plus the depth number (in feet) specified 
on the flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AG where 



a depth number is not specified on the map, the depth number 
shall be taken as being equal to 2 feet (610 mm). 

DRY FLOODPROOFING. A combination of design modifi- 
cations that results in a building or structure, including the 
attendant utility and sanitary facilities, being water tight with 
walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and 
with structural components having the capacity to resist loads 
as identified in ASCE 7. 

EXISTING CONSTRUCTION. Any buildings and struc- 
tures for which the "start of construction" commenced before 
the effective date of the community's first flood plain manage- 
ment code, ordinance or standard. "Existing construction" is 
also referred to as "existing structures." 

EXISTING STRUCTURE. See "Existing construction." 

FLOOD or FLOODING. A general and temporary condition 
of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land from: 

1 . The overflow of inland or tidal waters. 

2. The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface 
waters from any source. 

FLOOD DAMAGE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. Any con- 
struction material capable of withstanding direct and pro- 
longed contact with floodwaters without sustaining any 
damage that requires more than cosmetic repair. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The greater of the following two 
areas: 

1. The area within a flood plain subject to a 1 -percent or 
greater chance of flooding in any year. 

2. The area designated as a flood hazard area on a commu- 
nity's flood hazard map, or otherwise legally designated. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH- VELOC- 
ITY WAVE ACTION. Area within the flood hazard area that 
is subject to high-velocity wave action, and shown on a Flood 
Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) or other flood hazard map as Zone 
V,VG,VEorVl-30. 

FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM). An official 
map of a community on which the Federal Emergency Man- 
agement Agency (FEMA) has delineated both the special flood 
hazard areas and the risk premium zones applicable to the com- 
munity. 

FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY. The official report provided 
by the Federal Emergency Management Agency containing the 
Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), the Flood Boundary and 
Floodway Map (FBFM), the water surface elevation of the 
base flood and supporting technical data. 

FLOODWAY. The channel of the river, creek or other water- 
course and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in 
order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increas- 
ing the water surface elevation more than a designated height. 

LOWEST FLOOR. The floor of the lowest enclosed area, 
including basement, but excluding any unfinished or 
flood-resistant enclosure, usable solely for vehicle parking, 
building access or limited storage provided that such enclosure 
is not built so as to render the structure in violation of this sec- 
tion. 



110 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The land area subject 
to flood hazards and shown on a Flood Insurance Rate Map or 
other flood hazard map as Zone A, AE, Al-30, A99, AR, AG, 
AH, V, VO, VE or Vl-30. 

START OF CONSTRUCTION. The date of issuance for new 
construction and substantial improvements to existing struc- 
tures, provided the actual start of construction, repair, recon- 
struction, rehabilitation, addition, placement or other 
improvement is within 180 days after the date of issuance. The 
actual start of construction means the first placement of perma- 
nent construction of a building (including a manufactured 
home) on a site, such as the pouring of a slab or footings, instal- 
lation of piUngs or construction of columns. 

Permanent construction does not include land preparation 
(such as clearing, excavation, grading or filling), the installa- 
tion of streets or walkways, excavation for a basement, foot- 
ings, piers or foundations, the erection of temporary forms or 
the installation of accessory buildings such as garages or sheds 
not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main building. 
For a substantial improvement, the actual "start of construc- 
tion" means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor or 
other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration 
affects the external dimensions of the building. 

SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. Damage of any origin sus- 
tained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the struc- 
ture to its before-damaged condition would equal or exceed 
50 percent of the market value of the structure before the dam- 
age occurred. 

SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. Any repair, reconstruc- 
tion, rehabilitation, addition or improvement of a building or 
structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the 
market value of the structure before the improvement or repair 
is started. If the structure has sustained substantial damage, any 
repairs are considered substantial improvement regardless of 
the actual repair work performed. The term does not, however, 
include either: 

1. Any project for improvement of a building required to 
correct existing health, sanitary or safety code violations 
identified by the building official and that are the mini- 
mum necessary to assure safe living conditions. 

2. Any alteration of a historic structure provided that the 
alteration will not preclude the structure's continued 
designation as a historic structure. 

1612A.3 Establishment of flood hazard areas. To establish 
flood hazard areas, the applicable governing authority shall 
adopt a flood hazard map and supporting data. The flood haz- 
ard map shall include, at a minimum, areas of special flood haz- 
ard as identified by the Federal Emergency Management 
Agency 's Flood Insurance Study (FIS) adopted by the local 
authority having jurisdiction where the project is located, as 
amended or revised with the accompanying Flood Insurance 
Rate Map (FIRM) and Flood Boundary and Floodway Map 
(FBFM) and related supporting data along with any revisions 
thereto. The adopted flood hazard map and supporting data are 
hereby adopted by reference and declared to be part of this sec- 
tion. 



1612A.3.1 Design flood elevations. Where design flood 
elevations are not included in the flood hazard areas estab- 
lished in Section 1612A.3, or where floodway s are not des- 
ignated, the building official is authorized to require the 
applicant to: 

1 . Obtain and reasonably utilize any design flood eleva- 
tion and floodway data available from a federal, state 
or other source; or 

2. Determine the design flood elevation and/or 
floodway in accordance with accepted hydrologic 
and hydrauUc engineering practices used to define 
special flood hazard areas. Determinations shall be 
undertaken by a registered design professional who 
shall document that the technical methods used 
reflect currently accepted engineering practice. 

1612A.3.2 Determination of impacts. In riverine flood 
hazard areas where design flood elevations are specified 
but floodways have not been designated, the applicant shall 
provide a floodway analysis that demonstrates that the pro- 
posed work will not increase the design flood elevation 
more than 1 foot (305 mm) at any point within the jurisdic- 
tion of the applicable governing authority. 

1612A.4 Design and construction. The design and construc- 
tion of buildings and structures located in flood hazard areas, 
including flood hazard areas subject to high- velocity wave 
action, shall be in accordance with Chapter 5 of ASCE 7 and 
with ASCE 24. 

1612A.5 Flood hazard documentation. The following docu- 
mentation shall be prepared and sealed by a registered design 
professional and submitted to the building official: 

1. For construction in flood hazard areas not subject to 
high-velocity wave action: 

1.1. The elevation of the lowest floor, including the 
basement, as required by the lowest floor eleva- 
tion inspection in Section 110.3.3. 

1.2. For fully enclosed areas below the design flood 
elevation where provisions to allow for the auto- 
matic entry and exit of floodwaters do not meet 
the minimum requirements in Section 2.6.2.1 of 
ASCE 24, construction documents shall include 
a statement that the design will provide for equal- 
ization of hydrostatic flood forces in accordance 
with Section 2.6,2.2 of ASCE 24. 

1.3. For dry floodproofed nonresidential buildings, 
construction documents shall include a statement 
that the dry floodproofing is designed in accor- 
dance with ASCE 24. 

2. For construction in flood hazard areas subject to 
high- velocity wave action: 

2.1. The elevation of the bottom of the lowest hori- 
zontal structural member as required by the low- 
est floor elevation inspection in Section 1 10.3.3. 

2.2. Construction documents shall include a state- 
ment that the building is designed in accordance 
with ASCE 24, including that the pile or column 
foundation and building or structure to be 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



111 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



> 



>| 



attached thereto is designed to be anchored to 
resist flotation, collapse and lateral movement 
due to the effects of wind and flood loads acting 
simultaneously on all building components, and 
other load requirements of Chapter 16A, 

2.3. For breakaway walls designed to resist a nominal 
load of less than 1 psf (0.48 kN/m^) or more than 
20 psf (0.96 kN/m^), construction documents 
shall include a statement that the breakaway wall 
is designed in accordance with ASCE 24. 



SECTION 1613/1 
EARTHQUAKE LOADS 

1613A.1 Scope. Every structure, and portion thereof, including 
nonstructural components that are permanently attached to 
structures and their supports and attachments, shall be 
designed and constructed to resist the effects of earthquake 
motions in accordance with ASCE 7 with all the modifications 
incorporated herein, excluding Chapter 14 and Appendix 1 lA. 
The seismic design category for a structure shall be determined 
in accordance with Section 161 3 A. 

Exception: Structures that require special consideration of 
their response characteristics and environment that are not 
addressed by this code or ASCE 7 and for which other regu- 
lations provide seismic criteria, such as vehicular bridges, 
electrical transmission towers, hydraulic structures, buried 
utility lines and their appurtenances and nuclear reactors. 

1613A.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this section, have the meanings shown herein. 
Definition provided in Section 3402 A. 1 and ASCE 7 Section 
11.2 shall apply when appropriate in addition to terms defined 
in this section. 

ACTIVE EARTHQUAKE FAULT A fault that has been the 
source of earthquakes or is recognized as a potential source of 
earthquakes, including those that have exhibited surface dis- 
placement within Holocene time (about 11 ,000 years) as deter- 
mined by California Geological Survey (CGS) under the 
Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act, those included as 
type A or type B faults for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 
National Seismic Hazard Maps, and faults considered to have 
been active in Holocene time by an authoritative source, fed- 
eral, state or local governmental agency. 

BASE, The level at which the horizontal seismic ground 
motions are considered to be imparted to the structure or the 
level at which the structure as a dynamic vibrator is supported. 
This level does not necessarily coincide with the ground level 

DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION. The earth- 
quake ground motion that buildings and structures are specifi- 
cally proportioned to resist in Section 1613A. 

DISTANCE FROM AN ACTIVE EARTHQUAKE FAULT 

Distance measured from the nearest point of the building to the 



closest edge of an Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zone for an 
active fault, if such a map exists, or to the closest mapped splay 
of the fault. 

HOSPITAL BUILDINGS. Hospital buildings and all other 
medical facilities as defined in Section 1250, Health and Safety 
Code. 

IRREGULAR STRUCTURE. A structure designed as having 
one or more plan or vertical irregularities per ASCE 7 Section 
12.3. 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND 
MOTION. The most severe earthquake effects considered by 
this code. 

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS. For the purposes of determin- 
ing seismic loads in ASCE 7, mechanical systems shall include 
plumbing systems as specified therein. 

NEXT GENERATION ATTENUATION (NGA). Attenuation 
relations used for the 2008 United States Geological Survey 
(USGS) seismic hazards maps (for the Western United States) 
or their equivalent as determined by the enforcement agency. 

ORTHOGONAL. To be in two horizontal directions, at 90 
degrees (1.57 rad) to each other. 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. A classification assigned 
to a structure based on its occupancy category and the severity 
of the design earthquake ground motion at the site. 

SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. That part of the 
structural system that has been considered in the design to pro- 
vide the required resistance to the prescribed seismic forces. 

SITE CLASS. A classification assigned to a site based on the 
types of soils present and their engineering properties as 
defined in Section 1613A.5.2. 

SITE COEFFICIENTS. The values of F^ and F, indicated in 
Tables 1613A.5.3(1) and 1613A.5.3(2), respectively. 

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS, Floor or roof diaphragms, 
decking, joists, slabs, beams or girders, columns, bearing 
walls, retaining walls, masonry or concrete nonbearing walls 
exceeding one story in height, foundations, shear walls or 
other lateral-force-resisting members and any other elements 
necessary to the vertical and lateral strength or stability of 
either the building as a whole or any of its parts, including con- 
nection between such elements. 

1613A.3 Existing buildings. [OSHPD 1 & 4] Additions, alter- 
ations, repairs or change of occupancy of existing buildings 
shall be in accordance with Chapter 34A, 

1613A.4 Special inspections. Where required by Sections 
1705A.3 through 1705A.3.5, the statement of special inspec- 
tions shall include the special inspections required by Section 
1705A.3.6. 



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# 



1613A.5 Seismic ground motion values. Seismic ground 
motion values shall be determined in accordance with this sec- 
tion. 

1613A.5.1 Mapped acceleration parameters. The param- 
eters S^ and S^ shall be determined from the 0.2 and 1 -second 
spectral response accelerations shovi^n on Figures 1613.5(1) 
through 1613.5(14). 

1613A.5.2 Site class definitions. Based on the site soil 
properties, the site shall be classified as either Site Class A, 
B, C, D, E or F in accordance with Table 1613A.5.2. When 
the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to deter- 
mine the site class, Site Class D shall be used unless the 
building official or geotechnical data determines that Site 
Class E or F soil is likely to be present at the site. 

1613A.5.3 Site coefficients and adjusted maximum con- 
sidered earthquake spectral response acceleration 
parameters. The maximum considered earthquake spectral 
response acceleration for short periods, 5^^, and at 1 -second 
period, Si^i, adjusted for site class effects shall be deter- 
mined by Equations 16A-36 and 16A-37, respectively: 



(Equation 16A-36) 
(Equation 16A -37) 



Sm\ — ^vS\ 

where: 

F, = Site coefficient defined in Table 1613A.5.3(1). 



Fy = Site coefficient defined in Table 161 3A. 5. 3(2). 

Ss = The mapped spectral accelerations for short periods 
as determined in Section 1613A.5.L 

5i = The mapped spectral accelerations for a 1 -second 
period as determined in Section 1613A.5.1. 



1613A.5.4 Design spectral response acceleration param- 
eters. Five-percent damped design spectral response accel- 
eration at short periods, 5^,5, and at 1 -second period, Sj^ji, 
shall be determined from Equations 16A-38 and 16A-39, 
respectively: 



^DS-^ r.^MS 



^D\ — ry^Ml 



(Equation 16A -38) 



(Equation 16A-39) 



where: 

Sj^s = The maximum considered earthquake spectral 
response accelerations for short period as deter- 
mined in Section 1613A.53. 

5^1 = The maximum considered earthquake spectral 
response accelerations for 1 -second period as 
determined in Section 1613A.5.3. 



TABLE1613A5.2 
SITE CLASS DEFINITIONS 



SITE 
CLASS 


SOIL PROFILE 
NAME 


AVERAGE PROPERTIES IN TOP 100 feet, SEE SECTION 1613A.5.5 


Soil shear wave velocity, v^, (ft/s) 


Standard penetration resistance, 
N 


Soil undrained shear strength, s„ , (psf) 


A 


Hard rock 


V, > 5,000 


N/A 


N/A 


B 


Rock 


2,500 < v^ < 5,000 


N/A 


N/A 


C 


Very dense soil and soft rock 


1,200 <v, < 2,500 


N>50 


5„ > 2,000 


D 


Stiff soil profile 


600 <v, < 1,200 


15<iV<50 


1,000 <^„< 2,000 


E 


Soft soil profile 


v^ < 600 


N<15 


s^ < 1,000 


E 


— 


Any profile with more than 10 feet of soil having the following characteristics: 

1 . Plasticity index PI > 20, 

2. Moisture content w > 40%, and 

3. Undrained shear strength 5„< 500 psf 


F 


— 


Any profile containing soils having one or more of the following characteristics: 

1. Soils vulnerable to potential failure or collapse under seismic loading such as hquefiable 
soils, quick and highly sensitive clays, collapsible weakly cemented soils. 

2. Peats and/or highly organic clays {/f > 10 feet of peat and/or highly organic clay where 
H = thickness of soil) 

3. Very high plasticity clays {H > 25 feet with plasticity index PI > 75) 

4. Very thick soft/medium stiff clays {H > 120 feet) 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. N/A = Not applicable 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



113 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



TABLE 16134.5.3(1) 
VALUES OF SITE COEFFICIENT F^ ^ 



SITE 
CLASS 


MAPPED SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION AT SHORT PERIOD 


Ss < 0.25 


S^ = 0.50 


Sg = 0.75 


Ss = 1.00 


S^> 1.25 


A 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


B 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


C 


1.2 


1.2 


1.1 


1.0 


1.0 


D 


1.6 


1.4 


1.2 


1.1 


1.0 


E 


2.5 


1.7 


1.2 


0.9 


0.9 


F 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 



a. Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of mapped spectral response acceleration at short period, S^. 

b. Values shall be determined in accordance with Section 11.4.7 of ASCE 7. 



TABLE 16134.5.3(2) 
VALUES OF SITE COEFFICIENT Fy^ 



SITE 
CLASS 


MAPPED SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION AT 1-SECOND PERIOD 


Si < 0.1 


S, = 0.2 


S, = 0.3 


Si = 0.4 


Si > 0.5 


A 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


B 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


C 


1.7 


1.6 


1.5 


1.4 


1.3 


D 


2.4 


2.0 


1.8 


1.6 


1.5 


E 


3.5 


3.2 


2.8 


2.4 


2.4 


F 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 



a. Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of mapped spectral response acceleration at 1 -second period, 5,. 

b. Values shall be determined in accordance with Section 11. 4.7 of ASCE 7. 



1613A.5.5 Site classification for seismic design. Site clas- 
sification for Site Class C, D or E shall be determined from 
Table 1613A.5.5. 

The notations presented below apply to the upper 100 feet 
(30 480 mm) of the site profile. Profiles containing dis- 
tinctly different soil and/or rock layers shall be subdivided 
into those layers designated by a number that ranges from 1 
to n at the bottom where there is a total of n distinct layers in 
the upper 100 feet (30 480 mm). The symbol / then refers to 
any one of the layers between 1 and n. 

where: 

v,^ = The shear wave velocity in feet per second (m/s). 

di = The thickness of any layer between and 100 feet 
(30 480 mm). 

where: 



Xdi 



^ J/ = 100 feet (30 480 mm) 



(Equation 16A-40) 



A^, is the Standard Penetration Resistance (ASTM D 1586) 
not to exceed 100 blows/foot (328 blows/m) as directly 
measured in the field without corrections. When refusal is 
met for a rock layer, A^, shall be taken as 1 00 blows/foot (328 
blows/m). 









(Equation 16A-41) 



where A^^ and di in Equation 16A-41 are for cohesionless 
soil, cohesive soil and rock layers. 



Nc 



"" d 



(Equation 16A-42) 



A^; 



where: 

m 

Use di and A^, for cohesionless soil layers only in Equation 

16A-42. 

d^ = The total thickness of cohesionless soil layers in the 
top 100 feet (30 480 mm). 



114 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



m = The number of cohesionless soil layers in the top 100 
feet (30 480 mm). 

s^,i = The undrained shear strength in psf (kPa), not to 
exceed 5,000 psf (240 kPa), ASTM D 2166 or D 

2850. 



(Equation 16A-43) 



Su =— 

where: 

dc = The total thickness of cohesive soil layers in the top 
100 feet (30 480 mm). 

k - The number of cohesive soil layers in the top 100 feet 
(30 480 mm). 

PI = The plasticity index, ASTM D 4318. 

w = The moisture content in percent, ASTM D 2216. 

Where a site does not qualify under the criteria for Site 
Class F and there is a total thickness of soft clay greater than 
10 feet (3048 mm) where a soft clay layer is defined by: s^ < 
500 psf (24 kPa), w > 40 percent, and PI > 20, it shall be clas- 
sified as Site Class E. 

The shear wave velocity for rock, Site Class B, shall be 
either measured on site or estimated by a geotechnical engi- 
neer or engineering geologist/seismologist for competent 
rock with moderate fracturing and weathering. Softer and 
more highly fractured and weathered rock shall either be 
measured on site for shear wave velocity or classified dis Site 
Class C. 

The hard rock category. Site Class A, shall be supported 
by shear wave velocity measurements either on site or on 
profiles of the same rock type in the same formation with an 
equal or greater degree of weathering and fracturing. Where 
hard rock conditions are known to be continuous to a depth 
of 100 feet (30 480 mm), surficial shear wave velocity mea- 
surements are permitted to be extrapolated to assess v^ . 

The rock categories, Site Classes A and B, shall not be 
used if there is more than 10 feet (3048 mm) of soil between 
the rock surface and the bottom of the spread footing or mat 
foundation. 



1613A.5.5.1 Steps for classifying a site. 

1. Check for the four categories of Site Class F 
requiring site-specific evaluation. If the site corre- 
sponds to any of these categories, classify the site 
as Site Class F and conduct a site-specific evalua- 
tion. 

2. Check for the existence of a total thickness of soft 
clay > 10 feet (3048 mm) where a soft clay layer is 
defined by: s^< 500 psf (24 kPa), w > 40 percent 
and PI > 20. If these criteria are satisfied, classify 
the site as Site Class E, 

3 . Categorize the site using one of the following three 
methods with v^ , N, and s^ and computed in all 

cases as specified. 

3.1. V, for the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) 
(v^ method). 

3.2. TV^for the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) 
(A^method). 

3.3. N^f, for cohesionless soil layers (PI < 20) 
in the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) and aver- 
age, 5„ for cohesive soil layers (PI > 20) in 
the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) ( s^ method). 

1613A.5.6 Determination of seismic design category. 

Structures classified as Occupancy Category I, n or III that 
are located where the mapped spectral response accelera- 
tion parameter at 1-second period, Sj, is greater than or 
equal to 0.75 shall be assigned to Seismic Design Category 
E. Structures classified as Occupancy Category IV that are 
located where the mapped spectral response acceleration 
parameter at 1-second period, 5y, is greater than or equal to 
0.75 shall be assigned to Seismic Design Category F. All 
other structures shall be assigned to a seismic design Cate- 
gory D. 

1613A. 5.6.1 Alternative seismic design category 
determination. Not permitted by DSA-SS & OSHPD. 

1613A. 5.6.2 Simplified design procedure. Not permitted 

by DSA-SS & OSHPD. 

1613A.6 Alternatives to ASCE 7. The provisions of Section 
1 6 1 3A. 6 shall be permitted as alternatives to the relevant pro vi- 
sions of ASCE 7. 



< 



TABLE 1613A5.5 
SITE CLASSIFICATION^ 



SITE CLASS 


Vb 


NotN^ 


s„ 


E 


< 600 ft/s 


<15 


< 1,000 psf 


D 


600 to 1,200 ft/s 


15 to 50 


1,000 to 2,000 psf 


C 


1,200 to 2,500 ft/s 


>50 


> 2,000 



For SI: 1 foot per second = 304.8 mm per second, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m^. 

a. If the 5„method is used and the N^^and 5„ criteria differ, select the category with the softer soils (for example, use Site Class E instead of D). 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



115 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



>l 



1613A.6.1 Assumption of flexible diaphragm. Add the 

following text at the end of Section 12.3.1.1 of ASCE 7. 

Diaphragms constructed of wood structural panels or 
untopped steel decking shall also be permitted to be idealized 
as flexible, provided all of the following conditions are met: 

1. Toppings of concrete or similar materials are not 
placed over wood structural panel diaphragms except 
for nonstructural toppings no greater than 1 Vj inches 
(38 mm) thick. 

2. Each line of vertical elements of the seismic- 
force-resisting system complies with the allowable 
story drift of Table 12.12-1. 

3. Vertical elements of the seismic-force-resisting sys- 
tem are light-frame walls sheathed with wood struc- 
tural panels rated for shear resistance or steel sheets. 

4. Portions of wood structural panel diaphragms that 
cantilever beyond the vertical elements of the lat- 
eral-force-resisting system are designed in accor- 
dance with Section 4.2.5.2 of AF&PA SDPWS. 

1613A.6.2 Additional seismic-force-resisting systems for 
seismically isolated structures. Add the following excep- 
tion to the end of Section 17.5.4.2 of ASCE 7: 

Exception: For isolated structures designed in accor- 
dance with this standard, the Structural System Limita- 
tions and the Building Height Limitations in Table 
12.2-1 for ordinary steel concentrically braced frames 
(OCBFs) as defined in Chapter 11 and intermediate 
moment frames (IMFs) as defined in Chapter 1 1 are per- 
mitted to be taken as 160 feet (48 768 mm) for structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F, provided 
that the following conditions are satisfied: 

1 . The value oiR^ as defined in Chapter 17 is taken as 
1. 

2. For OCBFs, design is in accordance with AISC 
341. 

3. For IMFs, design is in accordance with AISC 34 L 
In addition, requirements of Section 9.3 of AISC 
341 shall be satisfied, 

1613A.6.3 Automatic sprinkler sysitvas. Automatic sprin- 
kler systems designed and installed in accordance with 
NFPA 13 shall be deemed to meet the requirements of Sec- 
tion 13.6.8 of ASCE 7. 

Exception: The allowable values for design ofanchorSy 
hangers and bracings shall be determined in accordance 
with material chapters of this code in lieu of those in 
NFPA 13. 

1613A.6.4 Autoclaved aerated concrete (A AC) masonry. 

Not permitted by DSA-SS & OSHPD. 

1613A.6.5 Seismic controls for elevators. Seismic switches 
in accordance with Section 8.4.10 of ASME A17.1 shall be 
deemed to comply with Section 13.6.10.3 of ASCE 7. 

1613A.6.6 Steel plate shear wall height limits. Modify 
Section 12.2.5.4 of ASCE 7 to read as follows: 



12.2.5.4 Increased building height limit for steel- 
braced frames, special steel plate shear walls and spe- 
cial reinforced concrete shear walls. The height limits 
in Table 12.2-1 are permitted to be increased from 160 
feet (48 768 mm) to 240 feet (75 152 mm) for structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category D or E and from 
100 feet (30 480 mm) to 160 feet (48 768 mm) for struc- 
tures assigned to Seismic Design Category F that have 
steel-braced frames, special steel plate shear walls or 
special reinforced concrete cast-in-place shear walls and 
that meet both of the following requirements: 

1 . The structure shall not have an extreme torsional 
irregularity as defined in Table 12.2-1 (horizontal 
structural irregularity Type lb). 

2. The braced frames or shear walls in any one plane 
shall resist no more than 60 percent of the total 
seismic forces in each direction, neglecting acci- 
dental torsional effects. 

1613A.6.7 Minimum distance for building separation. 

All buildings and structures shall be separated from adjoin- 
ing structures. Separations shall allow for the maximum 
inelastic response displacement (8^^). h^ shall be determined 
at critical locations with consideration for both translational 
and torsional displacements of the structure using Equation 
16A-44 for DSA-SS and 16A-44B for OSHPD. 



Ofuf — 



-c,d„ 



(Equation 16A-44A) 



(Equation 16A-44B) 



where: 

Q - Deflection ampHfication factor in Table 12.2-1 of 
ASCE 7. 

5^^ = Maximum displacement defined in Section 12.8.4.3 
of ASCE 7. 

/ = Importance factor in accordance with Section 11.5.1 
of ASCE 7. 

Adjacent buildings on the same property shall be sepa- 
rated by a distance not less than ?>mt^ determined by Equa- 
tion 16A-45. 



^MT^^i^Mx)" ^{^Mlf 



(Equation 16A-45) 



where: 



^Mh ^M2 - The maximum inelastic response displace- 
ments of the adjacent buildings in accordance 
with Equations 16A-44A or 16A-44B for 
OSHPD. 

Where a structure adjoins a property line not common to a 
public way, the structure shall also be set back from the 
property line by not less than the maximum inelastic 
response displacement, d^^, of that structure. 

Exception: Smaller separations or property hne set- 
backs shall be permitted when justified by rational analy- 
ses. 



116 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



SECTION 16144 
STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY 

1614A.1 General. Buildings classified as high-rise buildings 
in accordance with Section 403 and assigned to Occupancy 
Category III or IV shall comply with the requirements of this 
section. Frame structures shall comply with the requirements 
of Section 1614A.3. Bearing wall structures shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 1614A.4. 

1614A.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of Section 1614A, have the meanings shown 
herein. 

BEARING WALL STRUCTURE. A building or other struc- 
ture in which vertical loads from floors and roofs are primarily 
supported by walls. 

FRAME STRUCTURE. A building or other structure in 
which vertical loads from floors and roofs are primarily sup- 
ported by columns. 

1614A.3 Frame structures. Frame structures shall comply 
with the requirements of this section. 

1614A.3.1 Concrete frame structures. Frame structures 
constructed primarily of reinforced or prestressed concrete, 
either cast-in-place or precast, or a combination of these, 
shall conform to the requirements of ACI 318 Sections 7.13, 
13.3.8.5, 13.3,8.6, 16.5, 18.12.6, 18.12.7 and 18.12.8 as 
applicable. Where ACI 318 requires that nonprestressed 
reinforcing or prestressing steel pass through the region 
bounded by the longitudinal column reinforcement, that 
reinforcing or prestressing steel shall have a minimum nom- 
inal tensile strength equal to two-thirds of the required 
one-way vertical strength of the connection of the floor or 
roof system to the column in each direction of beam or slab 
reinforcement passing through the column. 

Exception: Where concrete slabs with continuous rein- 
forcing having an area not less than 0.0015 times the con- 
crete area in each of two orthogonal directions are 
present and are either monolithic with or equivalently 
bonded to beams, girders or columns, the longitudinal 
reinforcing or prestressing steel passing through the col- 
umn reinforcement shall have a nominal tensile strength 
of one-third of the required one-way vertical strength of 
the connection of the floor or roof system to the column 
in each direction of beam or slab reinforcement passing 
through the column. 

1614A.3.2 Structural steel, open web steel joist or joist 
girder, or composite steel and concrete frame structures. 

Frame structures constructed with a structural steel frame or 
a frame composed of open web steel joists, joist girders with 
or without other structural steel elements or a frame com- 
posed of composite steel or composite steel joists and rein- 
forced concrete elements shall conform to the requirements 
of this section. 

1614A. 3.2.1 Columns. Each column splice shall have 
the minimum design strength in tension to transfer the 
design dead and live load tributary to the column 
between the spHce and the splice or base immediately 
below. 



1614A.3.2.2 Beams. End connections of all beams and 
girders shall have a minimum nominal axial tensile 
strength equal to the required vertical shear strength for 
allowable stress design (ASD) or two-thirds of the 
required shear strength for load and resistance factor 
design (LRFD) but not less than 10 kips (45 kN). For the 
purpose of this section, the shear force and the axial ten- 
sile force need not be considered to act simultaneously. 

Exception: Where beams, girders, open web joist and 
joist girders support a concrete slab or concrete slab 
on metal deck that is attached to the beam or girder 
with not less than Vg-inch-diameter (9.5 nun) headed 
shear studs, at a spacing of not more than 12 inches 
(305 mm) on center, averaged over the length of the 
member, or other attachment having equivalent shear 
strength, and the slab contains continuous distributed 
reinforcement in each of two orthogonal directions 
with an area not less than 0.0015 times the concrete 
area, the nominal axial tension strength of the end 
connection shall be permitted to be taken as half the 
required vertical shear strength for ASD or one-third 
of the required shear strength for LRFD, but not less 
than 10 kips (45 kN). 

1614A.4 Bearing wall structures. Bearing wall structures 
shall have vertical ties in all load-bearing walls and longitudi- 
nal ties, transverse ties and perimeter ties at each floor level in 
accordance with this section and as shown in Figure 1614A.4. 

1614A.4.1 Concrete wall structures. Precast bearing wall 
structures constructed solely of reinforced or prestressed 
concrete, or combinations of these shall conform to the 
requirements of Sections 7.13, 13.3.8.5 and 16.5 of ACI 
318. 

1614A.4.2 Other bearing wall structures. Ties in bearing 
wall structures other than those covered in Section 
1614A.4.1 shall conform to this section. 

1614A. 4.2.1 Longitudinal ties. Longitudinal ties shall 
consist of continuous reinforcement in slabs; continuous 
or spliced decks or sheathing; continuous or spliced 
members framing to, within or across walls; or connec- 
tions of continuous framing members to walls. Longitu- 
dinal ties shall extend across interior load-bearing walls 
and shall connect to exterior load-bearing walls and shall 
be spaced at not greater than 10 feet (3038 mm) on cen- 
ter. Ties shall have a minimum nominal tensile strength, 
Tj, given by Equation 16A-46. For ASD the minimum 
nominal tensile strength shall be permitted to be taken as 
1 .5 times the allowable tensile stress times the area of the 



tie. 



(Equation 16A-46) 



Tj^~wLS<0LtS 

where: 

L = The span of the horizontal element in the direc- 
tion of the tie, between bearing walls, feet (m). 

w = The weight per unit area of the floor or roof in the 
span being tied to or across the wall, psf (N/m^). 

S = The spacing between ties, feet (m). 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



117 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



a^^ = A coefficient with a value of 1,500 pounds per 
foot (2.25 kN/m) for masonry bearing wall struc- 
tures and a value of 375 pounds per foot (0.6 
kN/m) for structures with bearing walls of 
cold-formed steel light-frame construction. 

1614A. 4.2.2 Transverse ties. Transverse ties shall con- 
sist of continuous reinforcement in slabs; continuous or 
spliced decks or sheathing; continuous or spliced mem- 
bers framing to, within or across walls; or connections of 
continuous framing members to walls. Transverse ties 
shall be placed no farther apart than the spacing of load- 
bearing walls. Transverse ties shall have minimum nomi- 
nal tensile strength Tj^ given by Equation 16A-46. For 
ASD the minimum nominal tensile strength shall be per- 
mitted to be taken as 1 .5 times the allowable tensile stress 
times the area of the tie. 

1614A.4.2.3 Perimeter ties. Perimeter ties shall consist 
of continuous reinforcement in slabs; continuous or 
spliced decks or sheathing; continuous or spliced mem- 
bers framing to, within or across walls; or connections of 
continuous framing members to walls. Ties around the 
perimeter of each floor and roof shall be located within 4 
feet (1219 mm) of the edge and shall provide a nominal 
strength in tension not less than Tp, given by Equation 
16A-47. For ASD the minimum nominal tensile strength 
shall be permitted to be taken as 1.5 times the allowable 
tensile stress times the area of the tie. 



7; = 200w<p7^ 

For SI: 

Tp = 90.7w < ^r 



(Equation 16A-47) 



where: 

w = 



As defined in Section 1614A.4.2.1. 

A coefficient with a value of 16,000 pounds 
(7200 kN) for structures with masonry bearing 
walls and a value of 4,000 pounds (1300 kN) for 
structures with bearing walls of cold-formed 
steel light-frame construction. 

1614A.4.2.4 Vertical ties. Vertical ties shall consist of 
continuous or spliced reinforcing, continuous or spliced 
members, wall sheathing or other engineered systems. 
Vertical tension ties shall be provided in bearing walls 
and shall be continuous over the height of the building. 
The minimum nominal tensile strength for vertical ties 
within a bearing wall shall be equal to the weight of the 
wall within that story plus the weight of the diaphragm 
tributary to the wall in the story below. No fewer than two 
ties shall be provided for each wall. The strength of each 
tie need not exceed 3,000 pounds per foot (450 kN/m) of 
wall tributary to the tie for walls of masonry construction 
or 750 pounds per foot (140 kN/m) of wall tributary to 
the tie for walls of cold-formed steel light-frame con- 
struction. 




T = Transverse 
L = Longitudinal 
V = Vertical 
P = Perimeter 



FIGURE 1 61 4A4 
LONGITUDINAL, PERIMETER, TRANSVERSE AND VERTICAL TIES 



118 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



SECTION 16154 
MODIFICATIONS TO ASCE 7 

1615 AA General The textof ASCE 7 shall be modified as indi- 
cated in Sections 1615A.1.1 through 1615A.L38. 

1615A.1J ASCE 7, Section ILL Modify ASCE 7 Section 
1 LI by the adding Section 11.1.5 as fo Hows: 

11.1.5 Structural design criteria. Where design reviews 
are required in ASCE 7, Chapters 16, 17 or 18, the 
ground motion, analysis, and design methods, material 
assumptions and acceptance criteria proposed by the 
engineer shall be submitted to the enforcement agency in 
the form of structural design criteria for approval. 

[OSHPD 1 & 41 Peer review requirements in Section 
341 4 A shall apply to design reviews required by ASCE 7 
Chapters 17 and 18. 

1615A.L2A [DSA-SS] ASCE 7, Section 11,4 J. Modify 
ASCE 7 Section 11.4. 7 as follows: 

11,4.7 Site-specific ground motion procedures. The 

site-specific ground motion procedure set forth in ASCE 
7 Section 21 as modified in Section 1803 A. 6 of this code 
is permitted to be used to determine ground motion for 
any structure. 

Unless otherwise approved, the site-specific proce- 
dure per ASCE 7 Section 21 as modified by Section 
1803A.6 of this code shall be used where any of the fol- 
lowing conditions apply: 

1) A site response analysis shall be performed per 
Section 2 LI, and a ground motion hazard analysis 
shall be performed in accordance with Section 
21.2 for the following structures: 

a) Structure located in Type E soils and 
mapped MCE spectral acceleration at short 
periods (SJ exceeds 2.0g. 

b) Structures located in Type F soils. 

Exceptions: 

1) Where S^ is less than 0.20g, use of 
Type E soil profile shall be permit- 
ted. 

2) Where exception to Section 20.3.1 
is applicable except for base iso- 
lated buildings. 

2) A ground motion hazard analysis shall be per- 
formed in accordance with Section 21.2 when: 

a) A time history response analysis of the 
building is performed as part of the design. 

b) The building site is located in an area identi- 
fied in Section 4-3 17(e) of the California 
Administrative Code (Part 1, Title 24, 
C.C.R). 

c) For seismically isolated structures and for 
structures with damping systems. 



I615A,1,2B, [OSHPD 1 & 4] Modify ASCE 7 
Section 11.4. 7 by adding the following: 

For buildings assigned to Seismic Design 
Category F, or when required by the building 
official, a ground motion hazard analysis 
shall be performed in accordance with 
ASCE 7 Chapter 21 as modified by Section 
1803A.6. 

16I5A,1,3 ASCE 7, Table 12,2-L Modify ASCE 7 Table 
12.2-1 as follows: 

A, BEARING WALL SYSTEMS 

5. Intermediate Precast Shear Walls^Not per- 
mitted by OSHPD. 

14. Light-framed walls with shear panels of all 
other materials — Not permitted by OSHPD and 
DSA-SS. 

B, BUILDING FRAME SYSTEMS 

2. Steel eccentrically braced frames, non- 
moment-resisting connections at columns away 
from links — Not permitted by OSHPD. 

4. Ordinary steel concentrically braced frames — 
Not permitted by OSHPD. 

9. Intermediate Precast Shear Walls — Not per- 
mitted by OSHPD. 

24. Light-framed walls with shear panels of all 
other materials — Not permitted by OSHPD and 
DSA-SS. 

25. Buckling-restrained braced frames, non- 
moment-resisting beam-column connections 
—Not permitted by OSHPD. 

27. Special steel plate shear wall — Not permitted 
by OSHPD. 

C, MOMENT-RESISTING FRAME SYSTEMS 

2. Special steel truss moment frames — Not permit- 
ted by OSHPD. 

3. Intermediate steel moment frames — Not permit- 
ted by OSHPD. 

4. Ordinary steel moment frames — Not permitted 
by OSHPD. 

Exceptions: 

1. Systems listed in this section can be used as an 
alternative system when preapproved by the 
enforcement agency. 

2. Rooftop or other supported structures not exceed- 
ing two stories in height and 10 percent of the total 
structure weight can use the systems in this section 
when designed as components per ASCE 7 Chap- 
ter 13. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



119 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



3. Systems listed in this section can be used for seis- 
mically isolated buildings when permitted by Sec- 
tion 1613A,6.2. 

1615A.L4ASCE 7, Section 1223,1, Modify ASCE 7 Sec^ 
tion 12.2.3.1 by adding the following additional require- 
ments for a two stage equivalent lateral force procedure or 
modal response spectrum procedure: 

e. Where design of elements of the upper portion is gov- 
emed by special seismic load combinations, the spe- 
cial loads shall be considered in the design of the 
lower portion. 

1615AJ,5ASCE 7, Section 12.3.3, Modify first sentence of 
ASCE 7 Section 12.3.3.1 as follows : 

12.3.3.1 Prohibited horizontal and vertical irregulari- 
ties for Seismic Design Categories D through F. Struc- 
tures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F 
having horizontal structural irregularity Type lb of 
Table 12.3-1 or vertical structural irregularities Type 
lb, 5a or 5b of Table 12.3-2 shall not be permitted. 

1615AJ.6ASCE 7, Section 12.7.2. Modify ASCE 7 Section 
12.7.2 by adding Item 5 to read as follows: 

5. Where buildings provide lateral support for walls 
retaining earth, and the exterior grades on opposite 
sides of the building differ by more than 6 feet (1829 
mm), the load combination of the seismic increment of 
earth pressure due to earthquake acting on the higher 
side, as determined by a geotechnical engineer quali- 
fied in soils engineering plus the difference in earth 
pressures shall be added to the lateral forces pro- 
vided in this section. 

1615A.1.7 ASCE 7, Section 12.8.7. Modify ASCE 7 Section 
12.8.7 by replacing Equation 12.8-16 as follows: 



6 = 



V.hC, 



(12,8-16) 



1615A.1.8 ASCE 7, Section 12.9.4. Replace ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 12.9.4 as follows: 

12.9.4 Scaling design values of combined response. 
Modal base shear shall not be less than the base shear 
calculated using the equivalent lateral force procedure 
of Section 12.8. 

1615A.1.9ASCE 7, Section 12.10.2.1. Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 12.10.2.1 by adding the following: 

The value of HqQe ^^^^ "^ ^^^^ combinations with 
overstrength factors in ASCE 7-05 Section 12.4.3.2 for 
design of collector elements, splices and their connections 
to resisting elements may be taken as the largest of the fol- 
lowing: 

1) Q^oF, (where F, is given by ASCE 7-05 Eq.12.8-11) 

2) Q,^^^ (where F^, is given by ASCE 7-05 Eq. 12.10-1 
ignoring the O.iS^slWp^ minimum) 

3) 0.2SjyslWp^ (Minimum value from Section 12.10.1.1) 

1615A.1.10ASCE 7, Section 12.13.1. Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 12.13.1 by adding Section 12.13.1.1 as follows: 



12.13.1.1 Foundations and superstructure-to-founda- 
tion connections. The foundation shall be capable of 
transmitting the design base shear and the overturning 
forces from the structure into the supporting soil. Stabil- 
ity against overturning and sliding shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 160 5 A. LI. 

In addition, the foundation and the connection of the 
superstructure elements to the foundation shall have the 
strength to resist, in addition to gravity loads, the lesser 
of the following seismic loads: 

1. The strength of the superstructure elements. 

2. The maximum forces that would occur in the fully 
yielded structural system. 

3. Forces from the Load Combinations with 
overstrength factor in accordance with ASCE 7 
Section 12.4.3.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where referenced standards specify the use of 
higher design loads. 

2. When it can be demonstrated that inelastic 
deformation of the foundation and superstruc- 
ture-to-foundation connection will not result in 
a weak story or cause collapse of the structure. 

3. Where basic structural system consists of light 
framed walls with shear panels. 

Where the computation of the seismic over- 
turning moment is by the equivalent lat- 
eral-force method or the modal analysis method, 
reduction in overturning moment permitted by 
section 12.13.4 of ASCE 7 may be used. 

Where moment resistance is assumed at the 
base of the superstructure elements, the rotation 
andflexural deformation of the foundation as 
well as deformation of the superstruc- 
ture-to-foundation connection shall be consid- 
ered in the drift and deformation compatibility 
analyses. 

1615A.1.11 ASCE 7, Section 13.1.3. [OSHPD 1&4] Mod- 
ify ASCE 7 Section 13.1.3 by the following: 

For position retention, the design of supports and attach- 
ments for all nonstructural components shall have a compo- 
nent importance factor, Ip, equal to 1.5. 

1615A.1.12 ASCE 7, Section 13.1.4. Replace ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 13.1.4 with the following: 

13.1.4 Exemptions. The following nonstructural compo- 
nents are exempt from the requirements of this section: 

1. Furniture (except storage cabinets as noted in 
Table 13.5-1). 

2. Temporary or moveable equipment 

Exceptions: 

a) Equipment shall be anchored if it is per- 
manently attached to the building utility 
services such as electricity, gas or water. 



120 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



d 



For the purposes of this requirement, 
*' permanently attached" shall include all 
electrical connections except three- 
prong plugs for duplex receptacles. 

b) The enforcement agency shall be permit- 
ted to require temporary attachments for 
movable equipment which is usually sta- 
tioned in one place and heavier than 400 
pounds, when they are not in use for a 
period longer than 8 hours at a time. 

3. Architectural, mechanical and electrical compo- 
nents in Seismic Design Categories D, E or F 
where all of the following apply: 

a. The component is positively attached to the 
structure; 

b. Flexible connections are provided between 
the component and associated ductwork, 
piping and conduit; and either: 

i. The component weighs 400 pounds 
(1780 N) or less and has a center of 
mass located 4 feet (1.22 m) or less 
above the adjacent floor or roof level 
that directly support the component; 

Exception: Special Certification 
Requirements for Designated Seis- 
mic Systems in accordance with 
Section 13.2.2 shall apply. 

or 

a. The component weighs 20 pounds (89 
N) or less or, in the case of a distrib- 
uted system, 5 lb/ft (73 N/m) or less. 

Exception: The enforcement 
agency shall be permitted to 
require attachments for equipment 
with hazardous contents to be 
shown on construction documents 
irrespective of weight. 

1615AJJ3 ASCE 7, Section 13.3,2. Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 13.3.2 by adding the following: 

The seismic relative displacements to be used in design of 
displacement sensitive nonstructural components is Dp 1 
instead of Dp, where Dp is given by Equations 13.3-5 to 13.3-8 
and I is the building importance factor given in Section 11.5. 

1615A.1J4 ASCE 7, Section 13.4 Replace ASCE 7 Sec- 
tions 13.4.1 and 13.4.2 with the following: 

13.4.1 Design force in the attachment. The force in the 
attachment shall be determined based on the prescribed 
forces and displacements for the component as deter- 
mined in Sections 13.3,1 and 13.3.2 except that Rp shall 
not be taken as larger than 6. 

13.4.2 Anchors in concrete or masonry. 

13.4.2.1 Anchors in concrete. Anchors in concrete 
used for component anchorage shall be designed in 
accordance with Appendix D ofACI 318. 



13.4.2.2 Anchors in masonry. Anchors in masonry 
used for component anchorage shall be designed in 
accordance with ACI 530. Anchors shall be designed 
to be governed by the tensile or shear strength of a 
ductile steel element. 

Exception: Anchors shall be permitted to be 
designed so that the attachment that the anchor is 
connecting to the structure undergoes ductile 
yielding at a load level corresponding to anchor 
forces not greater than their design strength, or the 
minimum design strength of the anchors shall be at 
least 2.5 times the factored forces transmitted by 
the attachment. 

13.4.2.3 Postinstalled anchors in concrete and 
masonry. Postinstalled anchors shall fulfill the 
requirements of Section 13.4.2.1 or 13.4.2.2. 
Postinstalled anchors in concrete used for component 
anchorage shall be pre- qualified for seismic applica- 
tions in accordance with ACI 355.2, ICC-ES AC193 
or ICC-ES AC308. Postinstalled anchors in masonry 
used for component anchorage shall be prequalified 
for seismic applications in accordance with ICC-ES 
AC01,AC58orAC106. 

Exceptions: 

1) Adhesive anchors shall not be permitted in 
overhead applications or application with 
sustained (continuous) tension load that can 
lead to creep. 

2) Anchors pre-qualified for seismic applica- 
tions need not be governed by the steel 
strength of a ductile steel element. 

1615A.L15 ASCE 7, Section 13.4.5. Replace ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 13.4.5 with the following: 

13.4.5 Power actuated fasteners. Power actuated fasten- 
ers in concrete or steel shall not be used for sustained 
tension loads or for brace applications in Seismic 
Design Categories D, E, or F unless approved for seis- 
mic loading. Power actuated fasteners in masonry shall 
not be permitted unless approved for seismic loading. 

Exception: Power actuated fasteners in concrete 
used for support of acoustical tile or lay-in panel sus- 
pended ceiling applications and distributed systems 
where the service load on any individual fastener 
does not exceed 90 lb (400 N). Power actuated fasten- 
ers in steel where the service load on any individual 
fastener does not exceed 250 lb (1,112 N). 

1615A.1.16 ASCE 7, Section 13.5.6. Replace ASCE 7, Sec- 
tion 13.5.6 with the following: 

13.5.6 Suspended ceilings. Suspended ceilings shall be 
in accordance with this section. 

13.5.6.1 Seismic forces. The weight of the ceiling, 
Wp, shall include the ceiling grid; ceiling tiles or pan- 
els; light fixtures if attached to, clipped to, or laterally 
supported by the ceiling grid; and other components 
that are laterally supported by the ceiling. Wp shall be 
taken as not less than 4 psf(19 N/rr?). 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



121 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



The seismic force^ Fp, shall be transmitted through 
the ceiling attachments to the building structural ele- 
ments or the ceiling-structure boundary. 

13.5,6,2 Seismic design requirements. Suspended 
acoustical tile or lay-in panel ceilings shall be 
designed in accordance with ASTM E 580 Section 
5,2.8.8 and the requirements of Sections } 3.5.6.2.1 
and 13.5.6.2.2, or be designed in accordance with 
Section 13.2.1.1, or be seismically qualified in accor- 
dance with Sections 13.2.5 or 13.2.6. 

13.5.6.2.1 Industry standard construction for 
acoustical tile or lay-in panel ceilings. Acoustical 
tile or lay -in panel ceilings in Seismic Design Cat- 
egories D, E, and F shall be designed and installed 
in accordance with ASTM C 635, ASTM C 636, 
and ASTM E 580, Section 5 - Seismic Design Cate- 
gories D, Ey and F as modified by Section 
13.5.6.2.2. 

13.5.6.2.2 Modification to ASTM E 580. Modify 
ASTM E 580 by the following: 

1. Exitways. Lay -in ceiling assemblies in 
exitways of hospitals and essential services 
buildings shall be installed with a main run- 
ner or cross runner surrounding all sides of 
each piece of tile, board or panel and each 
light fixture or grille. A cross runner that 
supports another cross runner shall be con- 
sidered as a main runner for the purpose of 
structural classification. Splices or intersec- 
tions of such runners shall be attached with 
through connectors such as pop rivets, 
screws, pins, plates with end tabs or other 
approved connectors. 

2. Corridors and Lobbies. Expansion joints 
shall be provided in the ceiling at intersec- 
tions of corridors and at junctions of corri- 
dors and lobbies or other similar areas. 

3. Lay-in panels. Metal panels and panels 
weighing more than V2 pounds per square 
foot (24 N/m^) other than acoustical tiles 
shall be positively attached to the ceiling 
suspension runners. 

4. Lateral force bracing. Lateral force brac- 
ing is required for all ceiling areas except 
that they shall be permitted to be omitted in 
rooms with floor areas up to 144 square feet 
when perimeter support in accordance with 
ASTM E 580 Sections 5.2.2 and 5.2.3 are 
provided and perimeter walls are designed 
to carry the ceiling lateral forces. 

5. Ceiling fixtures. Fixtures installed in acous- 
tical tile or lay -in panel ceilings shall be 
mounted in a manner that will not compro- 
mise ceiling performance. 



All recessed or drop-in light fixtures and 
grilles shall be supported directly from the 
fixture housing to the structure above with a 
minimum of two 12 gage wires located at 
diagonally opposite comers. Leveling and 
positioning of fixtures may be provided by 
the ceiling grid. Fixture support wires may 
be slightly loose to allow the fixture to seat in 
the grid system. Fixtures shall not be sup- 
ported from main runners or cross runners if 
the weight of the fixtures causes the total 
dead load to exceed the deflection capability 
of the ceiling suspension system. 

Fixtures shall not be installed so that the 
main runners or cross runners will be eccen- 
trically loaded. 

Surface-mounted fixtures shall be 
attached to the main runner with at least two 
positive clamping devices made of material 
with a minimum of 14 gage. Rotational 
spring catches do not comply. A 12 gage sus- 
pension wire shall be attached to each 
clamping device and to the structure above. 

6. Partitions, Where the suspended ceiling sys- 
tem is required to provide lateral support for 
the permanent or relocatable partitions, the 
connection of the partition to the ceiling sys- 
tem, the ceiling system members and their 
connections, and the lateral force bracing 
shall be designed to support the reaction 
force of the partition from prescribed loads 
applied perpendicular to the face of the par- 
tition. Partition connectors, the suspended 
ceiling system and the lateral-force bracing 
shall all be engineered to suit the individual 
partition application and shall be shown or 
defined in the drawings or specifications. 

1615A.1,17 ASCE 7, Section 13,5.7, [OSHPD 1 & 4] Mod- 
ify ASCE 7 Section 13.5.7 by the following: 

All access floors shall be special access floors in accor- 
dance with Section 13.5.7.2. 

1615A.1.18 Reserved. 

1615A,1.19 Reserved. 

1615A,L20 ASCE 7, Section 13.6.5. Modify ASCE 7, Sec- 
tion 13.6.5 by deleting Item 6 in Section 13. 6.5.5 and adding 
Section 13.6.5.6 as follows: 

13,6.5.6 Conduit, Cable Tray, and Other Electrical Dis- 
tribution Systems (Raceways). Raceways shall be 
designed for seismic forces and seismic relative dis- 
placements as required in Section 13.3. Conduit greater 
than 2.5 inches (64 mm) trade size and attached to pan- 
els, cabinets or other equipment subject to seismic rela- 
tive displacement of Section 13.3.2 shall be provided 
with flexible connections or designed for seismic forces 



p 



122 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



and seismic relative displacements as required in Section 
133, 

Exceptions: 

1. Design for the seismic forces and relative dis- 
placements of Section 13.3 shall not be 
required for raceways where either: 

a. Trapeze assemblies are used to support 
raceways and the total weight of the race- 
way supported by trapeze assemblies is 
less than 10 lb/ft (146 N/m), or 

b. The raceway is supported by hangers and 
each hanger in the raceway run is 12 in. 
(305 mm) or less in length from the race- 
way support point to the supporting 
structure. Where rod hangers are used 
with a diameter greater than % inch, they 
shall be equipped with swivels to prevent 
inelastic bending in the rod. 

2. Design for the seismic forces and relative dis- 
placements of Section 13.3 shall not be 
required for conduit, regardless of the value of 
Ip, where the conduit is less than 2.5 in. (64 mm) 
trade size. 

1615A,L21 ASCE 7, Section 13.6.7. Replace ASCE 7, Sec- 
tion 13.6.7 with the following : 

13,6.7 Ductwork. HVAC and other ductwork shall be 
designed for seismic forces and seismic relative dis- 
placements as required in Section 13.3. Ductwork 
designed to carry toxic, highly toxic, or explosive gases, 
or used for smoke control shall be designed and braced 
without considering the Exceptions noted below. 

Exceptions: 

The following exceptions pertain to ductwork not 
designed to carry toxic, highly toxic, or flammable 
gases or used for smoke control: 

1. Design for the seismic forces and relative dis- 
placements of Section 13.3 shall not be 
required for ductwork where either: 

a. Trapeze assemblies are used to support 
ductwork and the total weight of the 
ductwork supported by trapeze assem- 
blies is less than 10 lb/ft (146 N/m); or 

b. The ductwork is supported by hangers 
and each hanger in the duct run is 12 in. 
(305 mm) or less in length from the duct 
support point to the supporting structure. 
Where rod hangers are used with a diam- 
eter greater than % inch, they shall be 
equipped with swivels to prevent inelastic 
bending in the rod. 

2. Design for the seismic forces and relative dis- 
placements of Section 13.3 shall not be 
required where provisions are made to avoid 
impact with larger ducts or mechanical compo- 
nents or to protect the ducts in the event of such 



impact; and HVAC ducts have a cross- sec- 
tional area of6ft^ (0.557 m^) or less, or weigh 
10 lb/ft (146 N/m) or less. 

HVAC duct systems fabricated and installed in accor- 
dance with standards approved by the authority having 
jurisdiction shall be deemed to meet the lateral bracing 
requirements of this section. 

Components that are installed in-line with the duct 
system and have an operating weight greater than 75 lb 
(334 N), such as fans, heat exchangers and humidifiers, 
shall be supported and laterally braced independent of 
the duct system and such braces shall meet the force 
requirements of Section 13.3.L Appurtenances such as 
dampers, louvers and diffusers shall be positively 
attached with mechanical fasteners. Unbraced piping 
attached to in-line equipment shall be provided with ade- 
quate flexibility to accommodate the seismic relative dis- 
placements of Section 13.3.2. 

1615A.L22 ASCE 7, Section 13.6.8. Replace ASCE 7, Sec- 
tion 13.6.8 with the following: 

13.6.8 Piping Systems. Unless otherwise noted in this 
section, piping systems shall be designed for the seismic 
forces and seismic relative displacements of Section 
13.3. ASME pressure piping systems shall satisfy the 
requirements of Section 13.6.8.1. Fire protection sprin- 
kler piping shall satisfy the requirements of Section 
13.6.8.2. Elevator system piping shall satisfy the require- 
ments of Section 13.6.10. 

Where other applicable material standards or recog- 
nized design bases are not used, piping design including 
consideration of service loads shall be based on the fol- 
lowing allowable stresses: 

a. For piping constructed with ductile materials 
(e.g., steel, aluminum, or copper), 90 percent of 
the minimum specified yield strength. 

b. For threaded connections in piping constructed 
with ductile materials, 70 percent of the minimum 
specified yield strength. 

c. For piping constructed with nonductile materials 
(e.g., cast iron, or ceramics), 10 percent of the 
material minimum specified tensile strength. 

d. For threaded connections in piping constructed 
with nonductile materials, 8 percent of the mate- 
rial minimum specified tensile strength. 

Piping not detailed to accommodate the seismic rela- 
tive displacements at connections to other components 
shall be provided with connections having sufficient flex- 
ibility to avoid failure of the connection between the 
components. 

13.6.8.1 ASME Pressure Piping Systems. Pressure 
piping systems, including their supports, designed 
and constructed in accordance with ASME B 31 shall 
be deemed to meet the force, displacement, and other 
requirements of this section. In lieu of specific force 
and displacement requirements provided in ASME B 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



123 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



31, the force and displacement requirements of Sec- 
tions 13.3 shall be used. 

13.6.8.2 Fire protection sprinkler piping systems. 

Fire protection sprinkler piping designed and con- 
structed in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be deemed 
to meet the force and displacement requirements of 
this section. The exceptions of Section 13.6.8.3 shall 
not apply. 

Exception: Pipe hangers, bracing, and anchor 
capacities shall be determined in accordance with 
material chapters of the California Building Code, 
in lieu of using those in NFPA 13. The force and 
displacement requirements of Section 13.3 or 
those in the NFPA 13 may be used for design. 

13.6.8.3 Exceptions. Design of piping systems and 
attachments for the seismic forces and relative dis- 
placements of Section 13.3 shall not be required 
where one of the following conditions apply: 

1. Trapeze assemblies are used to support piping 
whereby no single pipe exceeds the limits set 
forth in 3a. or b. below and the total weight of 
the piping supported by the trapeze assemblies 
is less than 10 lb/ft (146 N/m). 

2. The piping is supported by hangers and each 
hanger in the piping run is 12 in. (305 mm) or 
less in length from the top of the pipe to the sup- 
porting structure. Where pipes are supported 
on a trapeze, the trapeze shall be supported by 
hangers having a length of 12 in. (305 mm) or 
less. Where rod hangers are used with a diame- 
ter greater than % inch, they shall be equipped 
with swivels, eye nuts or other devices to pre- 
vent bending in the rod. 

3. Piping having an Rp in Table 13.6-1 of 4.5 or 
greater is used and provisions are made to 
avoid impact with other structural or 
nonstructural components or to protect the pip- 
ing in the event of such impact and where the 
following size requirements are satisfied: 

a. For Seismic Design Categories D,EorF 
and values of Ip greater than one, the 
nominal pipe size shall be 1 inch (25 mm) 
or less. 

b. For Seismic Design Categories D, E or F, 
where lp = l.Othe nominal pipe size shall 
be 3 inches (80 mm) or less. 

The exceptions above shall not apply to elevator 
piping. 

13.6.8.4 Other Piping Systems. Piping not designed 
and constructed in accordance with ASME B 31 or 
NFPA 13 shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion 13.6.11. 

1615A.1.23 ASCE 7, Section 13.6.10.1. Modify ASCE 7 
Section 13.6.10.1 by adding Section 13.6.10.1.1 as follows: 

13.6.10.1.1 Elevators guide rail support. The design of 
guide rail support-bracket fastenings and the supporting 



structural framing shall use the weight of the counter- 
weight or maximum weight of the car plus not less than 
40 percent of its rated load. The seismic forces shall be 
assumed to be distributed one third to the top guiding 
members and two thirds to the bottom guiding members 
of cars and counterweights, unless other substantiating 
data are provided. In addition to the requirements of 
ASCE 7 Section 13.6.10.1, the minimum seismic forces 
shall be 0.5 g acting in any horizontal direction. 

1615A.1.24 ASCE 7, Section 13.6.10.4. Replace ASCE 7 
Section 13.6.10.4 as follows: 

13.6.10.4 Retainer plates. Retainer plates are required at 
the top and bottom of the car and counterweight, except 
where safety devices acceptable to the enforcement 
agency are provided which meet all requirements of the 
retainer plates, including full engagement of the 
machined portion of the rail. The design of the car, cab 
stabilizers, counterweight guide rails and counterweight 
frames for seismic forces shall be based on the following 
requirements: 

1. The seismic force shall be computed per the 
requirements of ASCE 7 Section 13.6.10.1. The 
minimum horizontal acceleration shall be 0.5 g for 
all buildings. 

2. Wp shall equal the weight of the counterweight or 
the maximum weight of the car plus not less than 
40 percent of its rated load. 

3. With the car or counterweight located in the most 
adverse position, the stress in the rail shall not 
exceed the limitations specified in these regula- 
tions, nor shall the deflection of the rail relative to 
its supports exceed the deflection listed below: 



RAIL SIZE 

(weight per foot 

of length, 

pounds) 


WIDTH OF 

MACHINED 

SURFACE 

(Inches) 


ALLOWABLE 

RAIL 

DEFLECTION 

(Inches) 


8 


1% 


0.20 


11 


1% 


0.30 


12 


1% 


0.40 


15 


l'%2 


0.50 


18^/2 


l'%2 


0.50 


22% 


2 


0.50 


30 


2% 


0.50 



For SI: 1 inch = 25 mm, I foot = 305 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

Note: Deflection limitations are given to maintain a consistent factor of safety 

against disengagement of retainer plates from the guide rails during an 

earthquake. 

4. Where guide rails are continuous over supports and 
rail joints are within 2 feet (610 mm) of their sup- 
porting brackets^ a simple span may be assumed. 

5. The use of spreader brackets is allowed. 

6. Cab stabilizers and counterweight frames shall be 
designed to withstand computed lateral load with 
a minimum horizontal acceleration of 0.5 g. 



124 



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1615A,L25ASCE 7, Section 16,1,3,2, Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 16.1.3.2 by the following: 

Where next generation attenuation relations are used in 
accordance with Section 1803A.6.2, each pair of motions 
shall be scaled such that in the period range from 0.2T to 
L5Ty the average of the SRSS spectra from all horizontal 
component pairs does not fall below the corresponding 
ordinate of the design response spectrum determined using 
NGA relations. 

At sites within 3.1 miles (5 km) of an active fault that con- 
trols the hazard, each pair of components shall be rotated to 
the fault-normal and fault-parallel direction of the causative 
fault, and shall be scaled so that average of the fault-normal 
components is not less than the Maximum Considered Earth- 
quake (MCE) response spectrum determined using NGA 
relations for each period range from 0.2Tto L5T. 

1615A,L26 ASCE 7, Section 16.1,4, Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 16.1.4 by the following: 

For each ground motion analyzed, the individual 
response parameters shall be multiplied by the following 
scalar quantities: 

a. Force response parameters shall be multiplied by 1/R, 
where I is the importance factor determined in accor- 
dance with Section 1L5.1, and R is the response mod- 
ification coefficient selected in accordance with 
Section 12.2.1. 

b. Drift quantities shall be multiplied by CJR, where Q 
is the deflection amplification factor specified in 
Table 12.2-1. 

The distribution of horizontal shear shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 12.8.4. 

1615A,1,27 ASCE 7, Section 16,2,4, Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 16.2.4 by the following: 

a) Where site is located within 3. 1 miles (5 km) of an 
active fault at least seven ground motions shall be 
analyzed and response parameters shall be based on 
larger of the average of the maximum response with 
ground motions applied as follows: 

1. Each of the ground motions shall have their 
maximum component at the fundamental 
period aligned in one direction. 

2. Each of the ground motion 's maximum compo- 
nent shall be rotated orthogonal to the previous 
analysis direction. 

b) Where site is located more than 3.1 miles (5 km) from 
an active fault at least 10 ground motions shall be ana- 
lyzed. The ground motions shall be applied such that 
one-half shall have their maximum component aligned 
in one direction and the other half aligned in the 
orthogonal direction. The average of the maximum 
response of all the analyses shall be used for design. 

16I5AJ,28 ASCE 7, Section 16,2.4.2 [OSHPD 1 & 4] 

Modify ASCE 7 Section 16.2.4.2 by the following: 

Acceptance criteria for elements subjected to deformation 
beyond their linear range of response shall be based on ASCE 



41 for Immediate Occupancy (10) at Design Earthquake (DE) 
and Life Safety (LS) at Maximum Considered Earthquake 
(MCE). For LS acceptance criteria at MCE, primary compo- 
nents shall be within the acceptance criteria for primary com- 
ponents and secondary components shall be within the 
acceptance criteria for secondary components. 

1615A.L29 ASCE 7, Section 17,2.1, Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 17.2.1 by adding the following: 

The importance factor, I^, for parts and portions of a seis- 
mically isolated building shall be the same as that required 
for a fixed-base building of the same occupancy category. 

1615A.1,30ASCE 7, Section 17,2,4,7, Modify ASCE 7 Sec- 
tion 17.2.4.7 by adding the following: 

The effects of uplift and/or rocking shall be explicitly 
accounted for in the analysis and in the testing of the isola- 
tor units. 

1615A.i,31 ASCE 7, Section 17,2,5,2, Modify ASCE 7, 
Section 17.2.5.2 by adding the following: 

The separation requirements for the building above the 
isolation system and adjacent buildings shall be the sum of 
the factored displacements for each building. The factors to 
be used in determining separations shall be: 

1. For seismically isolated buildings, the deformation <C 
resulting from the analyses using the maximum con- < 
sidered earthquake unmodified by Rf. 

2. For fixed based buildings, Q times the elastic defor- 
mations resulting from an equivalent static analysis 
using the seismic base shear computed via ASCE 7 
Section 12.8. 

1615A,1,32 ASCE 7, Section 17,3,2, Replace ASCE 7, Sec- 
tion 17.3.2 with the following: 

17,3,2 Ground Motion Histories, Where response his- 
tory procedures are used, ground motions shall consist of 
pairs of appropriate horizontal ground motion accelera- 
tion components developed in accordance with Section 

16.1.3.2 except that 0.2T and 1.5T shall be replaced by 
0.5 Td and 1.25Tj^, respectively, where Tp and T^ are 
defined in Section 17.5.3. 

1615A,1,33 ASCE 7, Section 17,4, Modify ASCE 7, Section 
17.4 by adding the following: 

17.4.2.3 Linear procedures. Linear procedures shall be 
limited to structures located at sites with Sj less than 
0.6g. 

1615A,1,34 ASCE 7, Section 17.6 Modify ASCE 7, Section 
17.6 by the following: 

17,6,1,1 Minimum seismic force. For the response spec- 
trum and linear response history procedures, V^ and V^, 
shall not be taken less than those calculated in accor- 
dance with Equations 17.5-7 and 17.5-8. 

1615A,1,35 ASCE 7, Section 18,3,L Modify ASCE 7, Sec- 
tion 18.3.1 by replacing the third paragraph with the follow- 
ing: 

If the calculated force in an element of the seismic force 
resisting system does not exceed 1.5 times its nominal 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



125 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 



strength for the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) 
nor its nominal strength for the design earthquake (DE), the 
element is permitted to be modeled as linear 

1615AJJ6ASCE 7, Section 2L4, Replace ASCE 7, Sec- 
tion 21.4 with the following: 

21,4 Design Acceleration Parameters, Where the 
site-specific procedure is used to determine the design 
ground motion in accordance with Section 21.3, the 
parameter S^^ shall be taken as the spectral acceleration, 
So, obtained from the site-specific spectra at a period of 
0.2 sec, except that it shall not be taken less than 90 per- 
cent of the peak spectral acceleration, Sa, at any period 
larger than 0.2 second. The parameter Spj shall be taken 
as the greater of the spectral acceleration, S^, at a period 
of 1 sec or two times the spectral acceleration, S^, at a 
period of 2 sec. 

For use with the equivalent lateral force procedure, the 
site specific spectral acceleration, S^ at T shall be permit- 
ted to replace S^j/T in Equation 12.8-3 and Sj^jT/P in 
Equation 12.8-4. The parameter S^^s calculated per this 
section shall be permitted to be used in Equations 12,8-2 
and 12.8-5. The mapped value of Si shall be used in 
Equation 12.8-6. The parameters 5^^ anJ Sj^j shall be 
taken as 1.5 times Sj^s ^^^ ^d]> respectively. The values so 
obtained shall not be less than 80 percent of the values 
determined in accordance with Section 11.43 for Sj^s 
and Sj^j and Section 11.4.4 for Sj^s ^^^ ^oi- 

161 5 A, 1,37. Earthquake Motion Measuring Instrumenta- 
tion and Monitoring, [OSHPD 1 & 4] Modify ASCE 7 by 
the following: 

Scope: For buildings with a seismic isolation system, a 
damping system or a lateral force resisting system 
(LFRS) not listed in ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1, earthquake 
motion measuring instrumentation and monitoring shall 
be required. 

Instrumentation: There shall be a sufficient number of 
instruments to characterize the response of the building 
during an earthquake and shall include at least one 
tri-axial free field instrument or equivalent. A proposal 
for instrumentation and equipment specifications shall 
be forwarded to the enforcement agency for review and 
approval. The owner of the building shall be responsible 
for the implementation of the instrumentation program. 
Maintenance of the instrumentation and removal/ 
processing of the records shall be the responsibility of the 
enforcement agency. 

Monitoring: After every significant seismic events, 
where the ground shaking acceleration at the site 
exceeds 0.3 g, or the acceleration at any monitored build- 
ing level exceeds 0.8 g, as measured by the seismic moni- 
toring system in the building, the owner shall retain a 



structural engineer to make an inspection of the struc- 
tural system. The inspection shall include viewing the 
performance of the building, reviewing the strong motion 
records, and a visual examination of the isolators, damp- 
ers and connections for deterioration, offset or physical 
damage. A report for each inspection, including conclu- 
sions on the continuing adequacy of the structural sys- 
tem, shall be submitted to the enforcement agency. 

1615A,1,38 Operational Nonstructural Performance 
Level Requirements, [OSHPD 1 & 4] New buildings 
designed and constructed to this code shall be deemed to 
satisfy operational nonstructural performance level when: 

L The facility has on-site supplies of water and holding 
tanks for wastewater, sufficient for 72 hours of emer- 
gency operations, which are integrated into the build- 
ing plumbing systems. As an alternative, hook-ups to 
allow for the use of transportable sources of water 
and sanitary waste water disposal shall be permitted. 

2, An on-site emergency system as defined within Part 3, 
Title 24 is incorporated into the building electrical 
system for critical care areas. Additionally, the sys- 
tem shall provide for radiological service and an 
onsitefuel supply for 72 hours of acute care opera- 
tion. 



126 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 17 - STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DBA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


GEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


SS 


SS/CC 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 






















X 




















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 


X 




X 


X 












X 






















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 










































Chapter/Section 










































1702 - Approved Agency 






X 


X 


































1704.1 






X 


X 


































1704.1.1 


X 


















X 






















1704.6.2 




















X 






















1711.1 


X 



















































































2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



127 



1 28 201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 17 

STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



SECTION 1701 
GENERAL 

1701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
quality, workmanship and requirements for materials covered. 
Materials of construction and tests shall conform to the appli- 
cable standards listed in this code, 

1701.2 New materials. New building materials, equipment, 
appliances, systems or methods of construction not provided 
for in this code, and any material of questioned suitability pro- 
posed for use in the construction of a building or structure, shall 
be subjected to the tests prescribed in this chapter and in the 
approved rules to determine character, quality and limitations 
of use. 

1701.3 Used materials. The use of second-hand materials that 
meet the minimum requirements of this code for new materials 
shall be permitted. 



SECTION 1702 
DEFINITIONS 

1702.1 General. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized 
agency regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing 
inspection services, when such agency has been approved. 
[HCD 1 & HCD 2] "Approved agency " shall mean "Listing 
agency" and "Testing agency" (See Chapter 2 definitions). 

APPROVED FABRICATOR. An established and qualified 
person, firm or corporation approved by the building official 
pursuant to Chapter 17 of this code. 

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. A certificate stating 
that materials and products meet specified standards or that 
work was done in compliance with approved construction doc- 
uments. 

DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM. Those architectural, 
electrical and mechanical systems and their components that 
require design in accordance with Chapter 13 of ASCE 7 and 
for which the component importance factor, 7^, is greater than 1 
in accordance with Section 13.1.3 of ASCE 7. 

FABRICATED ITEM. Structural, load-bearing or lateral 
load-resisting assemblies consisting of materials assembled 
prior to installation in a building or structure, or subjected to 
operations such as heat treatment, thermal cutting, cold work- 
ing or reforming after manufacture and prior to installation in a 
building or structure. Materials produced in accordance with 
standard specifications referenced by this code, such as rolled 
structural steel shapes, steel-reinforcing bars, masonry units, 
and wood structural panels or in accordance with a standard, 
listed in Chapter 35, which provides requirements for quality 
control done under the supervision of a third-party quality con- 
trol agency shall not be considered "fabricated items." 



INSPECTION CERTIFICATE. An identification applied on 
a product by an approved agency containing the name of the 
manufacturer, the function and performance characteristics, 
and the name and identification of an approved agency that 
indicates that the product or material has been inspected and 
evaluated by an approved agency (see Section 1703.5 and 
''Label,'' "Manufacturer's designation" and ''Mark''), 

INTUMESCENT FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. Thin 
film liquid mixture applied to substrates by brush, roller, spray 
or trowel which expands into a protective foamed layer to pro- 
vide fire-resistant protection of the substrates when exposed to 
flame or intense heat. 

MAIN WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. An assem- 
blage of structural elements assigned to provide support and 
stability for the overall structure. The system generally 
receives wind loading from more than one surface. 

MASTIC FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. Liquid mixture 
applied to a substrate by brush, roller, spray or trowel that pro- 
vides fire-resistant protection of a substrate when exposed to 
flame or intense heat. 

SPECIAL INSPECTION. Inspection as herein required of 
the materials, installation, fabrication, erection or placement of 
components and connections requiring special expertise to 
ensure compliance with approved construction documents and 
referenced standards (see Section 1704). 

SPECIAL INSPECTION, CONTINUOUS. The full-time 
observation of work requiring special inspection by an 
approved special inspector who is present in the area where the 
work is being performed. 

SPECIAL INSPECTION, PERIODIC. The part-time or 
intermittent observation of work requiring special inspection 
by an approved special inspector who is present in the area 
where the work has been or is being performed and at the com- 
pletion of the work, 

SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. Cementitious 
or fibrous materials that are sprayed to provide fire-resistant pro- 
tection of the substrates. 

STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION. The visual observadon of 
the structural system by a registered design professional for 
general conformance to the approved construction documents. 
Structural observation does not include or waive the responsi- 
bility for the inspection required by Section 1 10, 1704 or other 
sections of this code. 



SECTION 1703 
APPROVALS 

1703.1 Approved agency. An approved agency shall provide 
all information as necessary for the building official to deter- 
mine that the agency meets the applicable requirements. 

1703.1.1 Independence. An approved agency shall be 
objective, competent and independent from the contractor 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



129 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



responsible for the work being inspected. The agency shall 
also disclose possible conflicts of interest so that objectivity 
can be confirmed. 

1703.1.2 Equipment. An approved agency shall have ade- 
quate equipment to perform required tests. The equipment 
shall be periodically calibrated. 

1703.1.3 PersonneL An approved agency shall employ 
experienced personnel educated in conducting, supervising 
and evaluating tests and/or inspections. 

1703.2 Written approval. Any material, appliance, equip- 
ment, system or method of construction meeting the require- 
ments of this code shall be approved in writing after 
satisfactory completion of the required tests and submission of 
required test reports. 

1703.3 Approved record. For any material, appliance, equip- 
ment, system or method of construction that has been 
approved, a record of such approval, including the conditions 
and limitations of the approval, shall be kept on file in the build- 
ing official's office and shall be open to public inspection at 
appropriate times. 

1703.4 Performance. Specific information consisting of test 
reports conducted by an approved testing agency in accordance 
with standards referenced in Chapter 35, or other such informa- 
tion as necessary, shall be provided for the building official to 
determine that the material meets the applicable code require- 
ments. 

1703.4.1 Research and investigation. Sufficient technical 
data shall be submitted to the building official to substanti- 
ate the proposed use of any material or assembly. If it is 
determined that the evidence submitted is satisfactory proof 
of performance for the use intended, the building official 
shall approve the use of the material or assembly subject to 
the requirements of this code. The costs, reports and investi- 
gations required under these provisions shall be paid by the 
apphcant. 

1703.4.2 Research reports. Supporting data, where neces- 
sary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not 
specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid 
research reports from approved sources. 

1703.5 Labeling. Where materials or assemblies are required 
by this code to be labeled, such materials and assemblies shall 
be labeled by an approved agency in accordance with Section 
1703. Products and materials required to be labeled shall be 
labeled in accordance with the procedures set forth in Sections 
1703.5.1 through 1703.5.3. 

1703.5.1 Testing. An approved agency shall test a represen- 
tative sample of the product or material being labeled to the 
relevant standard or standards. The approved agency shall 
maintain a record of the tests performed. The record shall 
provide sufficient detail to verify compliance with the test 
standard. 

1703.5.2 Inspection and identification. The approved 
agency shall periodically perform an inspection, which 
shall be in-plant if necessary, of the product or material that 
is to be labeled. The inspection shall verify that the labeled 



product or material is representative of the product or mate- 
rial tested. 

1703.5.3 Label information. The label shall contain the 
manufacturer's or distributor's identification, model num- 
ber, serial number or definitive information describing the 
product or material's performance characteristics and 
approved agency's identification. 

1703.6 Evaluation and foUow-up inspection services. Where 
structural components or other items regulated by this code are 
not visible for inspection after completion of a prefabricated 
assembly, the applicant shall submit a report of each prefabri- 
cated assembly. The report shall indicate the complete details of 
the assembly, including a description of the assembly and its 
components, the basis upon which the assembly is being evalu- 
ated, test results and similar information and other data as neces- 
sary for the building official to determine conformance to this 
code. Such a report shall be approved by the building official 

1703.6.1 Follow-up inspection. The applicant shall pro- 
vide for special inspections of fabricated items in accor- 
dance with Section 1704.2. 

1703.6.2 Test and inspection records. Copies of necessary 
test and inspection records shall be filed with the building 
official. 



SECTION 1704 
SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 

1704.1 General. Where application is made for construction as 
described in this section, the owner or the registered design 
professional in responsible charge acting as the owner's agent 
shall employ one or more approved agencies to perform 
inspections during construction on the types of work listed 
under Section 1704. These inspections are in addition to the 
inspections identified in Section 110. 

The special inspector shall be a qualified person who shall 
demonstrate competence, to the satisfaction of the building 
official, for the inspection of the particular type of construction 
or operation requiring special inspection. The registered 
design professional in responsible charge and engineers of 
record involved in the design of the project are permitted to act 
as the approved agency and their personnel are permitted to act 
as the special inspector for the work designed by them, pro- 
vided those personnel meet the qualification requirements of 
this section to the satisfaction of the building official. The spe- 
cial inspector shall provide written documentation to the build- 
ing official demonstrating his or her competence and relevant 
experience or training. Experience or training shall be consid- 
ered relevant when the documented experience or training is 
related in complexity to the same type of special inspection 
activities for projects of similar complexity and material quali- 
ties. These qualifications are in addition to quaUfications speci- 
fied in other sections of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Special inspections are not required for work of a 
minor nature or as warranted by conditions in the 
jurisdiction as approved by tiie building official. 



130 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



2. Special inspections are not required for building com- 
ponents unless the design involves the practice of pro- 
fessional engineering or architecture as defined by 
applicable state statutes and regulations governing 
the professional registration and certification of engi- 
neers or architects. 

3. Unless otherwise required by the building official, 
special inspections are not required for Group U 
occupancies that are accessory to a residential occu- 
pancy including, but not limited to, those listed in 
Section 312.1. 

4. [HCD 1] The provisions of Health and Safety Code 
Division 13, Part 6 and the California Code of Regu- 
lations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, commencing 
with Section 3000, shall apply to the construction and 
inspection of factory-built housing as defined in 
Health and Safety Code Section 19971. 

1704.1.1 Statement of special inspections. The applicant 
shall submit a statement of special inspections prepared by 
the registered design professional in responsible charge in 

I I accordance with Section 107.1 Chapter 1, Division II, as a 
condition for issuance. This statement shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 1705. 

Exceptions: 

1. A statement of special inspections is not required 
for structures designed and constructed in accor- 
dance with the conventional construction provi- 
sions of Section 2308. [OSHPD 2] Not permitted 
by OSHPD. 

2. The statement of special inspections is permitted 
to be prepared by a qualified person approved by 
the building official for construction not designed 
by a registered design professional. 

1704.1.2 Report requirement. Special inspectors shall 
keep records of inspections. The special inspector shall fur- 
nish inspection reports to the building official, and to the 
registered design professional in responsible charge. 
Reports shall indicate that work inspected was or was not 
completed in conformance to approved construction docu- 
ments. Discrepancies shall be brought to the immediate 
attention of the contractor for correction. If they are not cor- 
rected, the discrepancies shall be brought to the attention of 
the building official and to the registered design profes- 
sional in responsible charge prior to the completion of that 
phase of the work. A final report documenting required spe- 
cial inspections and correction of any discrepancies noted in 
the inspections shall be submitted at a point in time agreed 
upon prior to the start of work by the applicant and the 
building official. 

1704.2 Inspection of fabricators. Where fabrication of struc- 
tural load-bearing members and assemblies is being performed 
on the premises of a fabricator's shop, special inspection of the 
fabricated items shall be required by this section and as 
required elsewhere in this code. 

1704.2.1 Fabrication and implementation procedures. 

The special inspector shall verify that the fabricator main- 
tains detailed fabrication and quahty control procedures that 



provide a basis for inspection control of the workmanship 
and the fabricator's ability to conform to approved con- 
struction documents and referenced standards. The special 
inspector shall review the procedures for completeness and 
adequacy relative to the code requirements for the fabrica- 
tor's scope of work. 

Exception: Special inspections as required by Section 
1704.2 shall not be required where the fabricator is 
approved in accordance with Section 1704.2.2. 

1704.2.2 Fabricator approval. Special inspections 
required by Section 1704 are not required where the work is 
done on the premises of a fabricator registered and approved 
to perform such work without special inspection. Approval 
shall be based upon review of the fabricator's written proce- 
dural and quality control manuals and periodic auditing of 
fabrication practices by an approved special inspection 
agency. At completion of fabrication, the approved fabrica- 
tor shall submit a certificate of compliance to the building 
official stating that the work was performed in accordance 
with the approved construction documents. 

1704.3 Steel construction. The special inspections for steel 
elements of buildings and structures shall be as required by 
Section 1704.3 and Table 1704.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Special inspection of the steel fabrication process 
shall not be required where the fabricator does not 
perform any welding, thermal cutting or heating oper- 
ation of any kind as part of the fabrication process. In 
such cases, the fabricator shall be required to submit a 
detailed procedure for material control that demon- 
strates the fabricator's ability to maintain suitable 
records and procedures such that, at any time during 
the fabrication process, the material specification, 
grade and mill test reports for the main stress-carrying 
elements are capable of being determined. 

2. The special inspector need not be continuously pres- 
ent during welding of the following items, provided 
the materials, welding procedures and qualifications 
of welders are verified prior to the start of the work; 
periodic inspections are made of the work in progress 
and a visual inspection of all welds is made prior to 
completion or prior to shipment of shop welding. 

2. 1 . Single-pass fillet welds not exceeding Vjg inch 
(7.9 mm) in size. 

2.2. Roor and roof deck welding. 

2.3. Welded studs when used for structural dia- 
phragm. 

2.4. Welded sheet steel for cold-formed steel 
members. 

2.5. Welding of stairs and railing systems. 

1704.3.1 Welding. Welding inspection and welding inspec- 
tor qualification shall be in accordance with this section. 

1704.3.1.1 Structural steel. Welding inspection and 
welding inspector qualification for structural steel shall 
be in accordance with AWS DLL 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



131 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



TABLE 1704.3 
REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION 




VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION 


CONTINUOUS 


PERIODIC 


REFERENCED 
STANDARD^ 


IBC REFERENCE 


1 . Material verification of high-strength bolts, nuts and 
washers: 


a. Identification markings to conform to ASTM 
standards specified in the approved 
construction documents. 


— 


X 


AISC 360, 
Section A3. 3 and 
applicable ASTM 
material standards 




b. Manufacturer's certificate of compliance 
required. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


2. Inspection of high-strength bolting: 


a. Snug-tight joints. 


— 


X 


AISC 360, 
Section M2.5 


1704.3.3 


b.Pretensioned and slip-critical joints using 
tum-of-nut with matchmarking, twist-off bolt or 
direct tension indicator methods of installation. 


— 


X 


c.Pretensioned and slip-critical joints using 
tum-of-nut without matchmarking or calibrated 
wrench methods of installation. 


X 


— 


3. Material verification of structural steel and 
cold-formed steel deck: 


a. For structural steel, identification markings to 
conform to AISC 360. 


— 


X 


AISC 360, 
Section M5.5 




b. For other steel, identification markings to conform 
to ASTM standards specified in the approved 
construction documents. 


— 


X 


Applicable ASTM 
material standards 


c. Manufacturer's certified test reports. 


— 


X 






4. Material verification of weld filler materials: 


a. Identification markings to conform to AWS 
specification in the approved construction 
documents. 


— 


X 


AISC 360, 

Section A3. 5 and 

applicable AWS 

A5 documents 




b.Manufacturer's certificate of comphance required. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


5. Inspection of welding: 


a. Structural steel and cold-formed steel deck: 


1) Complete and partial joint penetration groove 
welds. 


X 


— 


AWSDl.l 


1704.3.1 


2) Multipass fillet welds. 


X 


— 


3) Single-pass fillet welds > Vjg" 


X 


— 


4) Plug and slot welds. 


X 


— 


5) Single-pass fillet welds < V^^" 


— 


X 


6) Floor and roof deck welds. 


— 


X 


AWSD1.3 





(continued) 



132 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



TABLE 1704.3— continued 
REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION 



VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION 


CONTINUOUS 


PERIODIC 


REFERENCED 
STANDARD^ 


IBC 
REFERENCE 


b. Reinforcing steel: 








~ 


1) Verification of weldability of reinforcing steel 
other than ASTM A 706. 





X 


AWS D1.4 ACI 318: Section 3.5.2 


2) Reinforcing steel resisting flexural and axial 
forces in intermediate and special moment 
frames, and boundary elements of special 
structural walls of concrete and shear 
reinforcement. 


X 


— 


3) Shear reinforcement. 


X 


— 


4) Other reinforcing steel. 


— 


X 


6. Inspection of steel frame joint details for compliance: 


a. Details such as bracing and stiffening. 


— 


X 


— 


1704.3.2 


b. Member locations. 


— 


X 


c. Application of joint details at each connection. 


— 


X 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Where applicable, see also Section 1707.1, Special inspection for seismic resistance. 



1704.3.1.2 Cold-formed steel. Welding inspection and 
welding inspector qualification for cold-formed steel 
floor and roof decks shall be in accordance with AWS 
D1.3. 

1704.3.1.3 Reinforcing steel. Welding inspection and 
welding inspector qualification for reinforcing steel shall 
be in accordance with AWS D1.4 and ACI 318. 

1704.3.2 Details. The special inspector shall perform an 
inspection of the steel frame to verify comphance with the 
details shown on the approved construction documents, 
such as bracing, stiffening, member locations and proper 
application of joint details at each connection. 

1704.3.3 High-strength bolts. Installation of high-strength 
bolts shall be inspected in accordance with AISC 360. 

1704.3.3.1 General. While the work is in progress, the 
special inspector shall determine that the requirements 
for bolts, nuts, washers and paint; bolted parts and instal- 
lation and tightening in such standards are met. For bolts 
requiring pretensioning, the special inspector shall 
observe the preinstallation testing and calibration proce- 
dures when such procedures are required by the installa- 
tion method or by project plans or specifications; 
determine that all plies of connected materials have been 
drawn together and properly snugged and monitor the 
installation of bolts to verify that the selected procedure 
for installation is properly used to tighten bolts. For 
joints required to be tightened only to the snug-tight con- 
dition, the special inspector need only verify that the con- 



nected materials have been drawn together and properly 
snugged. 

1704.3.3.2 Periodic monitoring. Monitoring of bolt 
installation for pretensioning is permitted to be per- 
formed on a periodic basis when using the tum-of-nut 
method with matchmarking techniques, the direct ten- 
sion indicator method or the alternate design fastener 
(twist-off bolt) method. Joints designated as snug tight 
need be inspected only on a periodic basis. 

1704.3.3.3 Continuous monitoring. Monitoring of bolt 
installation for pretensioning using the calibrated 
wrench method or the turn-of-nut method without 
matchmarking shall be performed on a continuous basis. 

1704.3.4 Cold-formed steel trusses spanning 60 feet or 
greater. Where a cold-formed steel truss clear span is 60 
feet (18 288 nun) or greater, the special inspector shall ver- 
ify that the temporary installation restraint/bracing and the 
permanent individual truss member restraint/bracing are 
installed in accordance with the approved truss submittal 
package. 

1704.4 Concrete construction. The special inspections and 
verifications for concrete construction shall be as required by 
this section and Table 1704.4. 

Exception: Special inspections shall not be required for: 

L Isolated spread concrete footings of buildings three 
stories or less above grade plane that are fully sup- 
ported on earth or rock. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



133 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



2. Continuous concrete footings supporting walls of 
buildings three stories or less above grade plane that 
are fully supported on earth or rock where: 

2.1. The footings support walls of light-frame con- 
struction; 

2.2. The footings are designed in accordance with 
Table 1809.7; or 

2.3. The structural design of the footing is based 
on a specified compressive strength, / \, no 
greater than 2,500 pounds per square inch 



(psi) (17.2 MPa), regardless of the compres- 
sive strength specified in the construction 
documents or used in the footing construction. 

3. Nonstructural concrete slabs supported directly on 
the ground, including prestressed slabs on grade, 
where the effective prestress in the concrete is less 
than 150 psi (1.03 MPa). 

4. Concrete foundation walls constructed in accordance 
with Table 1807.1.6.2. 

5. Concrete patios, driveways and sidewalks, on grade. 



TABLE 1704.4 
REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION 


CONTINUOUS 


PERIODIC 


REFERENCED 
STANDARD^ 


IBC REFERENCE 


1. Inspection of reinforcing steel, including 
prestressing tendons, and placement. 


— 


X 


ACI 318: 3.5, 7.1-7.7 


1913.4 


2. Inspection of reinforcing steel welding in 
accordance with Table 1704.3, Item 5b. 


— 


— 


AWSD1.4 
ACI 318: 3.5.2 


— 


3. Inspection of bolts to be installed in concrete 
prior to and during placement of concrete where 
allowable loads have been increased or where 
strength design is used. 


X 


— 


ACI 318: 
8.1.3,21.2.8 


1911.5, 
1912.1 


4. Inspection of anchors installed in hardened 
concrete. 


— 


X 


ACI 318: 
3.8.6,8.1.3,21.2.8 


1912.1 


5. Verifying use of required design mix. 


— 


X 


ACI 318: Ch. 4, 5.2-5.4 


1904.2.2, 1913.2, 
1913.3 


6. At the time fresh concrete is sampled to fabricate 
specimens for strength tests, perform slump and 
air content tests, and determine the temperature 
of the concrete. 


X 


— 


ASTMC172 

ASTMC31 

ACI 318: 5.6, 5.8 


1913.10 


7. Inspection of concrete and shotcrete placement 
for proper application techniques. 


X 


— 


ACI 318: 5.9, 5.10 


1913.6, 1913.7, 1913.8 


8. Inspection for maintenance of specified curing 
temperature and techniques. 


— 


X 


ACI 318: 5.11-5.13 


1913.9 


9. Inspection of prestressed concrete: 

a. Application of prestressing forces. 

b. Grouting of bonded prestressing tendons in 
the seismic-force-resisting system. 


X 
X 


— 


ACI 318: 18.20 
ACI 318: 18.18.4 


— 


10. Erection of precast concrete members. 


— 


X 


ACI 318: Ch. 16 


— 


11. Verification of in-situ concrete strength, prior to 
stressing of tendons in posttensioned concrete 
and prior to removal of shores and forms from 
beams and structural slabs. 


— 


X 


ACI 318: 6.2 


— 


12. Inspect formwork for shape, location and 
dimensions of the concrete member being 
formed. 


— 


X 


ACI 318: 6.1.1 


— 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Where applicable, see also Section 1707.1, Special inspection for seismic resistance. 



134 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



1704.4.1 Materials. In the absence of sufficient data or doc- 
umentation providing evidence of conformance to quality 
standards for materials in Chapter 3 of ACI 318, the build- 
ing official shall require testing of materials in accordance 
with the appropriate standards and criteria for the material 
in Chapter 3 of ACI 318. Weldability of reinforcement, 
except that which conforms to ASTM A 706, shall be 
determined in accordance with the requirements of Section 
3.5.2 of ACI 318. 

1704.5 Masonry construction. Masonry construction shall be 
inspected and verified in accordance with the requirements of 
Sections 1704.5.1 through 1704.5.3, depending on the occu- 
pancy category of the building or structure. 

Exception: Special inspections shall not be required for: 

1. Empirically designed masonry, glass unit masonry or 
masonry veneer designed by Section 2109, 2110 or 
Chapter 14, respectively, or by Chapter 5, 6 or 7 of 
TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, respectively, when they 
are part of structures classified as Occupancy Cate- 
gory I, II or in in accordance with Section 1604.5. 

2. Masonry foundation walls constructed in accordance 
with Table 1807.1.6.3(1), 1807.1.6.3(2), 
1807.1.6.3(3) or 1807.1.6.3(4). 

3. Masonry fireplaces, masonry heaters or masonry 
chimneys installed or constructed in accordance with 
Section 2111, 2112 or 2113, respectively. 

1704.5.1 Empirically designed masonry, glass unit 
masonry and masonry veneer in Occupancy Category 

IV. The minimum special inspection program for empirically 
designed masonry, glass unit masonry or masonry veneer 
designed by Section 2109, 21 10 or Chapter 14, respectively, 
or by Chapter 5, 6 or 7 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, respec- 
tively, in structures classified as Occupancy Category IV, in 
accordance with Section 1604.5, shall comply with Table 
1704.5.1. 

1704.5.2 Engineered masonry in Occupancy Category I, 
n or III. The minimum special inspection program for 
masonry designed by Section 2107 or 2108 or by chapters 
other than Chapter 5, 6 or 7 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 in 
structures classified as Occupancy Category I, II or III, in 
accordance with Section 1604.5, shall comply with Table 
1704.5.1. 

1704.5.3 Engineered masonry in Occupancy Category 

IV. The minimum special inspection program for masonry 
designed by Section 2107 or 2108 or by chapters other than 
Chapter 5, 6 or 7 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 in structures 
classified as Occupancy Category IV, in accordance with 
Section 1604.5, shall comply with Table 1704.5.3. 

1704.6 Wood construction. Special inspections of the fabrica- 
tion process of prefabricated wood structural elements and 
assemblies shall be in accordance with Section 1704.2. Special 
inspections of site-built assemblies shall be in accordance with 
this section. 

1704.6.1 High-load diaphragms. High-load diaphragms 
designed in accordance with Table 2306.2.1(2) shall be 



installed with special inspections as indicated in Section 
1704.1. The special inspector shall inspect the wood struc- 
tural panel sheathing to ascertain whetiier it is of the grade 
and thickness shown on the approved building plans. Addi- 
tionally, the special inspector must verify the nominal size 
of framing members at adjoining panel edges, the nail or sta- 
ple diameter and length, the number of fastener lines and 
that the spacing between fasteners in each line and at edge 
margins agrees with the approved building plans. 

1704.6.2 Metal-plate-connected wood trusses spanning 
60 feet or greater. Where a truss clear span is 60 feet (18 
288 nmi) or greater, the special inspector shall verify that the 
temporary installation restraint/bracing and the permanent 
individual truss member restraint/bracing are installed in 
accordance with the approved truss submittal package. 

1704.6.2 Manufactured trusses and assemblies. [OSHPD 

2] The fabrication of trusses and other assemblages con- 
structed using wood and metal members, or using light 
metal plate connectors, shall be continuously inspected by a 
qualified inspector approved by the enforcement agency. 
The inspector shall furnish the architect, structural engi- 
neer and the enforcement agency with a report that the lum- 
ber species, grades and moisture content; type of glue, 
temperature and gluing procedure; type of metal members 
and metal plate connectors; and the workmanship conform 
in every material respect with the duly approved plans and 
specifications. Each inspected truss shall be stamped by the 
inspector with an identifying mark. 

1704.7 Soils. Special inspections for existing site soil condi- 
tions, fill placement and load-bearing requirements shall be as 
required by this section and Table 1704.7. The approved 
geotechnical report, and the construction documents prepared 
by the registered design professionals shall be used to deter- 
mine compliance. During fill placement, the special inspector 
shall determine that proper materials and procedures are used 
in accordance with the provisions of the approved geotechnical 
report. 

Exception: Where Section 1803 does not require reporting 
of materials and procedures for fill placement, the special 
inspector shall verify that the in-place dry density of the 
compacted fill is not less than 90 percent of the maximum 
dry density at optimum moisture content determined in 
accordance with ASTM D 1557. 

1704.8 Driven deep foundations. Special inspections shall be 
performed during installation and testing of driven deep foun- 
dation elements as required by Table 1704.8. The approved 
geotechnical report, and the construction documents prepared 
by the registered design professionals, shall be used to deter- 
mine compliance. 

1704.9 Cast-in-place deep foundations. Special inspections 
shall be performed during installation and testing of 
cast-in-place deep foundation elements as required by Table 
1704.9. The approved geotechnical report, and the construc- 
tion documents prepared by the registered design profession- 
als, shall be used to determine compliance. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



135 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



TABLE 1704.5.1 
LEVEL 1 REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 



VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION 


FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION 


REFERENCE FOR CRITERIA 


CONTINUOUS 


PERIODIC 


IBC SECTION 


TMS 402/ACI 
530/ASCE 5« 


TMS 602/ACI 
530.1/ASCE 6^ 


1. Compliance with required inspection pro- 
visions of the construction documents and 
the approved submittals shall be verified. 




X 


— 


— 


Art. 1.5 


2. Verification of/^ saidf^^ prior to con- 
struction except where specifically 
exempted by this code. 


-~ 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 1.4B 


3. Verification of slump flow and VSI as 
delivered to the site for self-consolidating 
grout. 


X 


~ 


— 


— 


Art. 1.5B.l.b.3 


4. As masonry construction begins, the following shall be verified to ensure compliance: 


a. Proportions of site-prepared mortar. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 2.6A 


b. Construction of mortar joints. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 3.3B 


c. Location of reinforcement, 
connectors, prestressing tendons 
and anchorages. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 3.4, 3.6A 


d. Prestressing technique. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 3.6B 


e. Grade and size of prestressing 
tendons and anchorages. 


— 


X 


-~ 


— 


Art. 2.4B, 2.4H 


5. During construction the inspection program shall verify: 


a. Size and location of structural 
elements. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 3.3F 


b. Type, size and location of anchors, 
including other details of anchorage 
of masonry to structural members, 
frames or other construction. 


— 


X 


— 


Sec. 1.2.2(e), 
1.16.1 


— 


c. Specified size, grade and type of 
reinforcement, anchor bolts, 
prestressing tendons and 
anchorages. 


— 


X 


— 


Sec. 1.15 


Art. 2.4, 3.4 


d. Welding of reinforcing bars. 


X 


— 


— 


Sec. 2.1.9.7.2, 
3.3.3.4(b) 


— 


e. Preparation, construction and 
protection of masonry during cold 
weather (temperature below 40°F) 
or hot weather (temperature above 
90°F). 


— 


X 


Sec. 2104.3, 
2104.4 





Art. 1.8C, 
1.8D 


f. Application and measurement of 
prestressing force. 


X 


— 


— 


~ 


Art. 3.6B 



(continued) 



136 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



•^ 



TABLE 1704.5.1— continued 
LEVEL 1 REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 



VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION 


FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION 


REFERENCE FOR CRITERIA 


CONTINUOUS 


PERIODIC 


IBC SECTION 


TMS 402/ACI 
530/ASCE 5^ 


TMS 602/ACI 
530.1/ASCE 6^ 


6. Prior to grouting, the following shall be verified to ensure compliance: 


a. Grout space is clean. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 3.2D 


b. Placement of reinforcement and 
connectors, and prestressing 
tendons and anchorages. 


— 


X 


— 


Sec. 1.13 


Art. 3.4 


c. Proportions of site-prepared grout 
and prestressing grout for bonded 
tendons. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 2.6B 


d. Construction of mortar joints. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 3.3B 


7. Grout placement shall be verified to 
ensure compliance: 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. 3.5 


a. Grouting of prestressing bonded 
tendons. 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. 3.6C 


8. Preparation of any required grout speci- 
mens, mortar specimens and/or prisms 
shall be observed. 


— 


X 


Sec. 2105.2.2, 
2105.3 


— 


Art. 1.4 



For SI: °C = [fF) - 32]/1.8. 

a. The specific standards referenced are those listed in Chapter 35. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



137 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



TABLE 1704.5.3 
LEVEL 2 REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 



VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION 


CONTINUOUS 


PERIODIC 


REFERENCE FOR CRITERIA 


IBC SECTION 


TMS 402/ACI 
530/ASCE 5^ 


TMS 602/ACI 
530.1 /ASCE 6^ 


1 . Compliance with required inspection provi- 
sions of the construction documents and the 
approved submittals. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 1.5 


2. Verification of /^ and/^^ prior to construc- 
tion and for every 5,000 square feet during 
construction. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 1.4B 


3. Verification of proportions of materials in 
premixed or preblended mortar and grout as 
delivered to the site. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 1.5B 


4. Verification of slump flow and VSI as deliv- 
ered to the site for self-consolidating grout. 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. 1.5B.l.b.3 


5. The following shall be verified to ensure compliance: 


a. Proportions of site-prepared mortar, 
grout and prestressing grout for bonded 
tendons. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 2.6A 


b. Placement of masonry units and 
construction of mortar joints. 


— 


X 




— 


Art. 3.3B 


c. Placement of reinforcement, connectors 
and prestressing tendons and 
anchorages. 


— 


X 




Sec. 1.15 


Art. 3.4, 3.6A 


d. Grout space prior to grout. 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. 3.2D 


e. Placement of grout. 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. 3.5 


f. Placement of prestressing grout. 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. 3.6C 


g. Size and location of structural elements. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 3.3F 


h. Type, size and location of anchors, 
including other details of anchorage of 
masonry to structural members, frames 
or other construction. 


X 


— 


— 


Sec. 1.2.2(e), 
1.16.1 


— 


i. Specified size, grade and type of 
reinforcement, anchor bolts, 
prestressing tendons and anchorages. 




X 


— 


Sec. 1.15 


Art. 2.4,^3.4 


j. Welding of reinforcing bars. 


X 


— 


— . 


Sec. 2.1.9.7.2, 
3.3.3.4(b) 


/ — 


k. Preparation, construction and protection 
of masonry during cold weather 
(temperature below 40°F) or hot 
weather (temperature above 90°F). 


— 


X 


Sec. 2104.3, 
2104.4 


/ 


Art. 1.8C, 1.8D 


1. Application and measurement of 
prestressing force. 


X 


— 


— 


— ; 


Art. 3.6B 


6. Preparation of any required grout specimens 
and/or prisms shall be observed. 


X 


— 


Sec. 2105.2.2, 
2105.3 


— 


Art. 1.4 



For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32]/l .8, 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 

a. The specific standards referenced are those listed in Chapter 35. 



138 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



TABLE 1704.7 
REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF SOILS 



VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION TASK 


CONTINUOUS DURING TASK LISTED 


PERIODICALLY DURING TASK LISTED 


1. Verify materials below shallow foundations are adequate to 
achieve the design bearing capacity. 


— 


X 


2. Verify excavations are extended to proper depth and have 
reached proper material. 


— 


X 


3. Perform classification and testing of compacted fill 
materials. 


— 


X 


4. Verify use of proper materials, densities and lift thicknesses 
during placement and compaction of compacted fill. 


X 


— 


5 . Prior to placement of compacted fill, observe subgrade and 
verify that site has been prepared properly. 


— 


X 



TABLE 1704.8 
REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF DRIVEN DEEP FOUNDATION ELEMENTS 



VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION TASK 


CONTINUOUS DURING TASK LISTED 


PERIODICALLY DURING TASK LISTED 


1 . Verify element materials, sizes and lengths comply with the 
requirements. 


X 


— 


2. Determine capacities of test elements and conduct additional 
load tests, as required. 


X 


— 


3. Observe driving operations and maintain complete and 
accurate records for each element. 


X 


— 


4. Verify placement locations and plumbness, confirm type and 
size of hammer, record number of blows per foot of 
penetration, determine required penetrations to achieve design 
capacity, record tip and butt elevations and document 
any damage to foundation element. 


X 


— 


5. For steel elements, perform additional inspections in 
accordance with Section 1704.3. 


— 


— 


6. For concrete elements and concrete-filled elements, perform 
additional inspections in accordance with Section 1704.4. 


— 


— 


7. For specialty elements, perform additional inspections as 
determined by the registered design professional in 
responsible charge. 


— 


— 



TABLE 1704.9 
REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF CAST-IN-PLACE DEEP FOUNDATION ELEMENTS 



VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION TASK 


CONTINUOUS DURING TASK LISTED 


PERIODICALLY DURING TASK LISTED 


1. Observe drilling operations and maintain complete and 
accurate records for each element. 


X 


— 


2. Verify placement locations and plumbness, confirm element 
diameters, bell diameters (if applicable), lengths, embedment 
into bedrock (if applicable) and adequate end-bearing strata 
capacity. Record concrete or grout volumes. 


X 


— 


3. For concrete elements, perform additional inspections in 
accordance with Section 1704.4. 


~ 


— 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



139 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



1704.10 Helical pile foundations. Special inspections shall be 
performed continuously during installation of helical pile 
foundations. The information recorded shall include installa- 
tion equipment used, pile dimensions, tip elevations, final 
depth, final installation torque and other pertinent installation 
data as required by the registered design professional in 
responsible charge. The approved geotechnical report and the 
construction documents prepared by the registered design pro- 
fessional shall be used to determine compliance. 

1704.11 Vertical masonry foundation elements. Special 
inspection shall be performed in accordance with Section 
1704.5 for vertical masonry foundation elements. 

1704.12 Sprayed fire-resistant materials. Special inspec- 
tions for sprayed fire-resistant materials applied to floor, roof 
and wall assemblies and structural members shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 1704.12.1 through 1704.12.6. Special 
inspections shall be based on the fire-resistance design as des- 
ignated in the approved construction documents. The tests set 
forth in this section shall be based on samplings from specific 
floor, roof and wall assemblies and structural members. Spe- 
cial inspections shall be performed after the rough installation 
of electrical, automatic sprinkler, mechanical and plumbing 
systems and suspension systems for ceilings, where applicable. 

1704.12.1 Physical and visual tests. The special inspec- 
tions shall include the following tests and observations to 
demonstrate compliance with the listing and the fire-resis- 
tance rating: 

1. Condition of substrates. 

2. Thickness of application. 

3. Density in pounds per cubic foot (kg/m^), 

4. Bond strength adhesion/cohesion. 

5. Condition of finished application. 

1704.12.2 Structural member surface conditions. The 

surfaces shall be prepared in accordance with the approved 
fire-resistance design and the written instructions of 
approved manufacturers. The prepared surface of structural 
members to be sprayed shall be inspected before the appli- 
cation of the sprayed fire-resistant material. 

1704.12.3 Application. The substrate shall have a mini- 
mum ambient temperature before and after application as 
specified in the written instructions of approved manufac- 
turers. The area for application shall be ventilated during 
and after application as required by the written instructions 
of approved manufacturers. 

1704.12.4 Thickness. No more than 10 percent of the thick- 
ness measurements of the sprayed fire-resistant materials 
applied to floor, roof and wall assemblies and structural 
members shall be less than the thickness required by the 
approved fire-resistance design, but in no case less than the 
minimum allowable thickness required by Section 
1704.12.4,1. 

1704.12.4.1 Minimum allowable thickness. For design 
thicknesses 1 inch (25 mm) or greater, the minimum 
allowable individual thickness shall be the design thick- 
ness minus V4 inch (6.4 nun). For design thicknesses less 
than 1 inch (25 mm), the minimum allowable individual 



thickness shall be the design thickness minus 25 percent. 
Thickness shall be determined in accordance with 
ASTM E 605. Samples of the sprayed fire-resistant 
materials shall be selected in accordance with Sections 
1704.12.4.2 and 1704.12.4.3. 

1704.12.4.2 Floor, roof and wall assemblies. The thick- 
ness of the sprayed fire-resistant material applied to 
floor, roof and wall assemblies shall be determined in 
accordance with ASTM E 605, making not less than four 
measurements for each 1,000 square feet (93 m^) of the 
sprayed area in each story or portion thereof. 

1704.12.4.2.1 Cellular decks. Thickness measure- 
ments shall be selected from a square area, 12 inches 
by 12 inches (305 mm by 305 mm) in size. A mini- 
mum of four measurements shall be made, located 
symmetrically within the square area. 

1704.12.4.2.2 Fluted decks. Thickness measure- 
ments shall be selected from a square area, 12 inches 
by 12 inches (305 mm by 305 mm) in size. A mini- 
mum of four measurements shall be made, located 
symmetrically within the square area, including one 
each of the following: valley, crest and sides. The 
average of the measurements shall be reported. 

1704.12.4.3 Structural members. The thickness of the 
sprayed fire-resistant material applied to structural mem- 
bers shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E 
605. Thickness testing shall be performed on not less 
than 25 percent of the structural members on each floor. 

1704.12.4.3.1 Beams and girders. At beams and 
girders thickness measurements shall be made at nine 
locations around the beam or girder at each end of a 
12-inch (305 mm) length. 

1704.12.4.3.2 Joists and trusses. At joists and 
trusses, thickness measurements shall be made at 
seven locations around the joist or truss at each end of 
a 12-inch (305 mm) length. 

1704.12.4.3.3 Wide-flanged columns. At wide- 
flanged columns, thickness measurements shall be 
made at 12 locations around the colunm at each end of 
a 12-inch (305 mm) length. 

1704.12.4.3.4 Hollow structural section and pipe 
columns. At hollow structural section and pipe col- 
umns, thickness measurements shall be made at a 
minimum of four locations around the column at each 
end of a 12-inch (305 mm) length. 

1704.12.5 Density. The density of the sprayed fire-resistant 
material shall not be less than the density specified in the 
approved fire-resistance design. Density of the sprayed 
fire-resistant material shall be determined in accordance 
with ASTM E 605. The test samples for determining the 
density of the sprayed fire-resistant materials shall be 
selected as follows: 

1 . From each floor, roof and wall assembly at the rate of 
not less than one sample for every 2,500 square feet 
(232 m^) or portion thereof of the sprayed area in each 
story. 



140 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



2. From beams, girders, trusses and columns at the rate 
of not less than one sample for each type of structural 
member for each 2,500 square feet (232 m^) of floor 
area or portion thereof in each story. 

1704.12.6 Bond strength. The cohesive/adhesive bond 
strength of the cured sprayed fire-resistant material applied 
to floor, roof and wall assemblies and structural members 
shall not be less than 150 pounds per square foot (psf) (7.18 
kN/m^). The cohesive/adhesive bond strength shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with the field test specified in ASTM E 
736 by testing in-place samples of the sprayed fire-resistant 
material selected in accordance with Sections 1704.12.6.1 
through 1704.12.6.3. 

1704.12.6.1 Floor, roof and wall assemblies. The test 
samples for determining the cohesive/adhesive bond 
strength of the sprayed fire-resistant materials shall be 
selected from each floor, roof and wall assembly at the 
rate of not less than one sample for every 2,500 square 
feet (232 m^) of the sprayed area in each story or portion 
thereof. 

1704.12.6.2 Structural members. The test samples for 
determining the cohesive/adhesive bond strength of the 
sprayed fire-resistant materials shall be selected from 
beams, girders, trusses, columns and other structural 
members at the rate of not less than one sample for each 
type of structural member for each 2,500 square feet 
(232 m^) of floor area or portion thereof in each story, 

1704.12.6.3 Primer, paint and eneapsulant bond tests. 

Bond tests to qualify a primer, paint or eneapsulant shall 
be conducted when the sprayed fire-resistant material is 
applied to a primed, painted or encapsulated surface for 
which acceptable bond-strength performance between 
these coatings and the fire-resistant material has not been 
determined. A bonding agent approved by the SFRM 
manufacturer shall be applied to a primed, painted or 
encapsulated surface where the bond strengths are found 
to be less than required values. 

1704.13 Mastic and intumescent fire-resistant coatings. 

Special inspections for mastic and intumescent fire-resistant 
coatings applied to structural elements and decks shall be in 
accordance with AWCI 12-B. Special inspections shall be 
based on the fire-resistance design as designated in the 
approved construction documents. 

1704.14 Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS). Spe~ 
cial inspections shall be required for all EIFS applications. 

Exceptions: 

1. Special inspections shall not be required for EIFS 
applications installed over a water-resistive harrier 
with a means of draining moisture to the exterior. 

2. Special inspections shall not be required for EIFS 
applications installed over masonry or concrete walls. 

1704.14.1 Water-resistive barrier coating. A water-resis- 
tive barrier cosd-ing complying with ASTM E 2570 requires 
special inspection of the water-resistive barrier coating 
when installed over a sheathing substrate. 



1704.15 Special cases. Special inspections shall be required 
for proposed work that is, in the opinion of the building official, 
unusual in its nature, such as, but not limited to, the following 
examples: 

1 . Construction materials and systems that are alternatives 
to materials and systems prescribed by this code. 

2. Unusual design applications of materials described in 
this code. 

3. Materials and systems required to be installed in accor- 
dance with additional manufacturer's instructions that 
prescribe requirements not contained in this code or in 
standards referenced by this code. 

[F] 1704.16 Special inspection for smoke control. Smoke 
control systems shall be tested by a special inspector. 

[F] 1704.16.1 Testing scope. The test scope shall be as fol- 
lows: 

1 . During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment 
for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of 
device location. 

2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for 
the purposes of pressure difference testing, flow mea- 
surements and detection and control verification. 

[F] 1704.16.2 Qualifications. Special inspection agencies 
for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection 
engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as air 
balancers. 



SECTION 1705 
STATEMENT OF SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 

1705.1 General. Where special inspection or testing is 
required by Section 1704, 1707 or 1708, the registered design 
professional in responsible charge shall prepare a statement of 
special inspections in accordance with Section 1705 for 
submittal by the applicant (see Section 1704.1.1). 

1705.2 Content of statement of special inspections. The 

statement of special inspections shall identify the following: 

1. The materials, systems, components and work required 
to have special inspection or testing by the building offi- 
cial or by the registered design professional responsible 
for each portion of the work. 

2. The type and extent of each special inspection. 

3. The type and extent of each test. 

4. Additional requirements for special inspection or testing 
for seismic or wind resistance as specified in Section 
1705.3, 1705.4, 1707 or 1708. 

5. For each type of special inspection, identification as to 
whether it will be continuous special inspection or peri- 
odic special inspection. 

1705.3 Seismic resistance. The statement of special inspec- 
tions shall include seismic requirements for cases covered in 
Sections 1705.3.1 through 1705.3.5. 

Exception: Seismic requirements are permitted to be 
excluded from the statement of special inspections for struc- 



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tures designed and constructed in accordance with the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . The structure consists of light-frame construction; the 
design spectral response acceleration at short periods, 
5^,5, as determined in Section 1613.5.4, does not 
exceed 0.5g; and the height of the structure does not 
exceed 35 feet (10 668 mm) above grade plane; or 

2. The structure is constructed using a reinforced 
masonry structural system or reinforced concrete 
structural system; the design spectral response accel- 
eration at short periods, Sj^s, as determined in Section 
1613.5.4, does not exceed 0.5g, and the height of the 
structure does not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm) above 
grade plane; or 

3 . Detached one- or two-family dwellings not exceeding 
two stories above grade plane, provided the structure 
does not have any of the following plan or vertical 
irregularities in accordance with Section 12.3.2 of 
ASCE 7: 

3.1. Torsional irregularity. 

3.2. Nonparallel systems. 

3.3. Stiffness irregularity — extreme soft story and 
soft story. 

3.4. Discontinuity in capacity — weak story. 

1705.3.1 Seismic-force-resisting systems. The seismic- 
force-resisting systems in structures assigned to Seismic 
Design Category C, D, E or F, in accordance with Section 
1613. 

Exception: Requirements for the seismic-force-resist- 
ing system are permitted to be excluded from the state- 
ment of special inspections for steel systems in structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C that are not spe- 
cifically detailed for seismic resistance, with a response 
modification coefficient, R, of 3 or less, excluding canti- 
lever colunm systems. 

1705.3.2 Designated seismic systems. Designated seismic 
systems in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category 
D, E or F. 

1705.3.3 Seismic Design Category C. The following addi- 
tional systems and components in structures assigned to 
Seismic Design Category C: 

1. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) 
ductwork containing hazardous materials and 
anchorage of such ductwork. 

2. Piping systems and mechanical units containing 
flammable, combustible or highly toxic materials. 

3. Anchorage of electrical equipment used for emer- 
gency or standby power systems. 

1705.3.4 Seismic Design Category D. The following addi- 
tional systems and components in structures assigned to 
Seismic Design Category D: 

1. Systems required for Seismic Design Category C. 



2. Exterior wall panels and their anchorage. 

3. Suspended ceiling systems and their anchorage. 

4. Access floors and their anchorage. 

5. Steel storage racks and their anchorage, where the 
importance factor is equal to 1.5 in accordance with 
Section 15.5.3 of ASCE 7. 

1705.3.5 Seismic Design Category E or F. The following 
additional systems and components in structures assigned 
to Seismic Design Category E or F: 

1. Systems required for Seismic Design Categories C 
andD. 

2. Electrical equipment. 

1705.3.6 Seismic requirements in the statement of spe- 
cial inspections. When Sections 1705.3 through 1705.3.5 
specify that seismic requirements be included, the statement 
of special inspections shall identify the following: 

1. The designated seismic systems and seismic- 
force-resisting systems that are subject to special 
inspections in accordance with Sections 1705.3 
through 1705.3.5. 

2. The additional special inspections and testing to be 
provided as required by Sections 1707 and 1708 and 
other applicable sections of this code, including the 
applicable standards referenced by this code. 

1705.4 Wind resistance. The statement of special inspections 
shall include wind requirements for structures constructed in 
the following areas: 

1. In wind Exposure Category B, where the 3-second-gust 
basic wind speed is 120 miles per hour (mph) (52.8 m/s) or 
greater. 

2. In wind Exposure Category C or D, where the 3-second- 
gust basic wind speed is 1 10 mph (49 m/s) or greater. 

1705.4.1 Wind requirements in the statement of special 
inspections. When Section 1705.4 specifies that wind 
requirements be included, the statement of special inspec- 
tions shall identify the main wind-force-resisting systems 
and wind-resisting components subject to special inspec- 
tions as specified in Section 1705.4.2. 

1705.4.2 Detailed requirements. The statement of special 
inspections shall include at least the following systems and 
components: 

1 . Roof cladding and roof framing connections. 

2. Wall connections to roof and floor diaphragms and 
framing. 

3. Roof and floor diaphragm systems, including collec- 
tors, drag struts and boundary elements. 

4. Vertical wind-force-resisting systems, including 
braced frames, moment frames and shear walls. 

5. Wind-force-resisting system connections to the foun- 
dation. 



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6. Fabrication and installation of systems or compo- 
nents required to meet the impact-resistance require- 
ments of Section 1609.1.2. 



or 



Exception: Fabrication of manufactured systems ui 
components that have a label indicating compliance with 
the wind-load and impact-resistance requirements of this 
code. 



SECTION 1706 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS FOR 

WIND REQUIREMENTS 

1706.1 Special inspections for wind requirements. Special 
inspections itemized in Sections 1706,2 through 1706.4, unless 
exempted by the exceptions to Section 1704. 1, are required for 
buildings and structures constructed in the following areas: 

1. In wind Exposure Category B, where the 3-second-gust 
basic wind speed is 120 miles per hour (52.8 m/sec) or 
greater. 

2. In wind Exposure Categories C or D, where the 3-sec- 
ond-gust basic wind speed is 110 mph (49 m/sec) or 
greater. 

1706.2 Structural wood. Continuous special inspection is 
required during field gluing operations of elements of the main 
windforce-resisting system. Periodic special inspection is 
required for nailing, bolting, anchoring and other fastening of 
components within the main windforce-resisting system, 
including wood shear walls, wood diaphragms, drag struts, 
braces and hold-downs. 

Exception: Special inspection is not required for wood 
shear walls, shear panels and diaphragms, including nailing, 
bolting, anchoring and other fastening to other components 
of the main windforce-resisting system, where the fastener 
spacing of the sheathing is more than 4 inches (102 mm) on 
center. 

1706.3 Cold-formed steel light-frame construction. Peri- 
odic special inspection is required during welding operations 
of elements of the main windforce-resisting system. Periodic 
special inspection is required for screw attachment, bolting, 
anchoring and other fastening of components within the main 
windforce-resisting system, including shear walls, braces, dia- 
phragms, collectors (drag struts) and hold-downs. 

Exception: Special inspection is not required for 
cold-formed steel light-frame shear walls, braces, dia- 
phragms, collectors (drag struts) and hold-downs where 
either of the following apply: 

1 . The sheathing is gypsum board or fiberboard. 

2. The sheathing is wood structural panel or steel sheets 
on only one side of the shear wall, shear panel or dia- 
phragm assembly and the fastener spacing of the 
sheathing is more than 4 inches (102 mm) on center 

(o.c). 



1706.4 Wind-resisting components. Periodic special inspec- 
tion is required for the following systems and components: 

1. Roof cladding. 

2. Wall cladding. 



SECTION 1707 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS FOR 

SEISMIC RESISTANCE 

1707.1 Special inspections for seismic resistance. Special 
inspections itemized in Sections 1707.2 through 1707.9, unless 
exempted by the exceptions of Section 1704.1, 1705.3, or 
1705.3.1, are required for the following: 

1. The seismic-force-resisting systems in structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F, as 
determined in Section 1613. 

2. Designated seismic systems in structures assigned to 
Seismic Design Category D, E or F. 

3. Architectural, mechanical and electrical components in 
structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E 
or F that are required in Sections 1707.6 and 1707.7. 

1707.2 Structural steel. Special inspection for structural steel 
shall be in accordance with the quality assurance plan require- 
ments of AISC 341. 

Exceptions: 

1. Special inspections of structural steel in structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C that are not 
specifically detailed for seismic resistance, with a 
response modification coefficient, R, of 3 or less, 
excluding cantilever column systems. 

2. For ordinary moment frames, ultrasonic and mag- 
netic particle testing of complete joint penetration 
groove welds are only required for demand critical 
welds. 

1707.3 Structural wood. Continuous special inspection is 
required during field gluing operations of elements of the seis- 
mic-force-resisting system. Periodic special inspection is 
required for naiUng, bolting, anchoring and other fastening of 
components within the seismic-force-resisting system, includ- 
ing wood shear walls, wood diaphragms, drag struts, braces, 
shear panels and hold-downs. 

Exception: Special inspection is not required for wood 
shear walls, shear panels and diaphragms, including nailing, 
bolting, anchoring and other fastening to other components 
of the seismic-force-resisting system, where the fastener 
spacing of the sheathing is more than 4 inches (102 mm) on 
center (o.c). 

1707.4 Cold-formed steel light-frame construction. Peri- 
odic special inspection is required during welding operations 
of elements of the seismic-force-resisting system. Periodic 
special inspection is required for screw attachment, bolting, 
anchoring and other fastening of components within the seis- 



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mic-force-resisting system, including shear walls, braces, dia- 
phragms, collectors (drag struts) and hold-downs. 

Exception: Special inspection is not required for 
cold-formed steel light-frame shear walls, braces, dia- 
phragms, collectors (drag struts) and hold-downs where 
either of the following apply: 

1. The sheathing is gypsum board or fiberboard. 

2. The sheathing is wood structural panel or steel sheets 
on only one side of the shear wall, shear panel or dia- 
phragm assembly and the fastener spacing of the 
sheathing is more than 4 inches (102 mm) o.c. 

1707.5 Storage racks and access floors. Periodic special 
inspection is required during the anchorage of access floors 
and storage racks 8 feet (2438 mm) or greater in height in struc- 
tures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F. 

1707.6 Architectural components. Periodic special inspec- 
tion during the erection and fastening of exterior cladding, inte- 
rior and exterior nonbearing walls and interior and exterior 
veneer in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E 
or K 

Exceptions: 

1. Special inspection is not required for exterior clad- 
ding, interior and exterior nonbearing walls and inte- 
rior and exterior veneer 30 feet (9144 mm) or less in 
height above grade or walking surface. 

2. Special inspection is not required for exterior clad- 
ding and interior and exterior veneer weighing 5 psf 
(24.5 N/m^) or less. 

3. Special inspection is not required for interior 
nonbearing walls weighing 15 psf (73.5 N/m^) or less. 

1707.7 Mechanical and electrical components. Special 
inspection for mechanical and electrical equipment shall be as 
follows: 

1 . Periodic special inspection is required during the anchor- 
age of electrical equipment for emergency or standby 
power systems in structures assigned to Seismic Design 
Category C, D, E or F; 

2. Periodic special inspection is required during the instal- 
lation of anchorage of other electrical equipment in 
structures assigned to Seismic Design Category E or F; 

3 . Periodic special inspection is required during installation 
of piping systems intended to carry flammable, combus- 
tible or highly toxic contents and their associated 
mechanical units in structures assigned to Seismic 
Design Category C, D, E or F; 

4. Periodic special inspection is required during the instal- 
lation of HVAC ductwork that will contain hazardous 
materials in structures assigned to Seismic Design Cate- 
gory C, D, E or F; and 

5. Periodic special inspection is required during the instal- 
lation of vibration isolation systems in structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F where 
the construction documents require a nominal clearance 
of V4 inch (6.4 mm) or less between the equipment sup- 
port frame and restraint. 



1707.8 Designated seismic system verifications. The special 
inspector shall examine designated seismic systems requiring 
seismic qualification in accordance with Section 1708.4 and 
verify that the label, anchorage or mounting conforms to the 
certificate of compliance. 

1707.9 Seismic isolation system. Periodic special inspection 
is required during the fabrication and installation of isolator 
units and energy dissipation devices that are part of the seismic 
isolation system. 



SECTION 1708 

STRUCTURAL TESTING FOR 

SEISMIC RESISTANCE 

1708.1 Testing and qualification for seismic resistance. The 

testing and quahfication specified in Sections 1708.2 through 
1708.5, unless exempted from special inspections by the 
exceptions of Section 1704.1, 1705.3 or 1705.3.1 are required 
as follows: 

1. The seismic-force-resisting systems in structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F, as 
determined in Section 1613 shall meet the requirements 
of Sections 1708.2 and 1708.3, as applicable. 

2. Designated seismic systems in structures assigned to 
Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F subject to the spe- 
cial certification requirements of ASCE 7 Section 13.2.2 
are required to be tested in accordance with Section 
1708.4. 

3. Architectural, mechanical and electrical components in 
structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E 
or F with an /^ = 1 .0 are required to be tested in accor- 
dance with Section 1708.4 where the general design 
requirements of ASCE 7 Section 13.2.1, Item 2 for man- 
ufacturer's certification are satisfied by testing. 

4. The seismic isolation system in seismically isolated 
structures shall meet the testing requirements of Section 
1708.5. 

1708.2 Concrete reinforcement. Where reinforcement com- 
plying with ASTM A 615 is used to resist earthquake-induced 
flexural and axial forces in special moment frames, special 
structural walls and coupling beams connecting special struc- 
tural walls, in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category 
B, C, D, E or F as determined in Section 1613, the reinforce- 
ment shall comply with Section 21.1.5.2 of ACI 318. Certified 
mill test reports shall be provided for each shipment of such 
reinforcement. Where reinforcement complying with ASTM 
A 615 is to be welded, chemical tests shall be performed to 
determine weldabihty in accordance with Section 3.5.2 of ACI 
318. 

1708.3 Structural steel. Testing for structural steel shall be in 
accordance with the quality assurance plan requirements of 
AISC341. 

Exceptions: 

1. Testing for structural steel in structures assigned to 
Seismic Design Category C that are not specifically 
detailed for seismic resistance, with a response modi- 



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fication coefficient, R, of 3 or less, excluding cantile- 
ver column systems. 

2. For ordinary moment frames, ultrasonic and mag- 
netic particle testing of complete joint penetration 
groove welds are only required for demand critical 
welds. 

1708.4 Seismic certification of nonstructural components. 

The registered design professional shall state the applicable 
seismic certification requirements for nonstructural compo- 
nents and designated seismic systems on the construction doc- 
uments. 

1. The manufacturer of each designated seismic system 
components subject to the provisions of ASCE 7 Section 
13.2.2 shall test or analyze the component and its mount- 
ing system or anchorage and submit a certificate of com- 
pliance for review and acceptance by the registered 
design professional responsible for the design of the des- 
ignated seismic system and for approval by the building 
official. Certification shall be based on an actual test on a 
shake table, by three-dimensional shock tests, by an ana- 
lytical method using dynamic characteristics and forces, 
by the use of experience data (i.e., historical data demon- 
strating acceptable seismic performance) or by more rig- 
orous analysis providing for equivalent safety. 

2. Manufacturer's certification of compliance for the gen- 
eral design requirements of ASCE 7 Section 13.2. 1 shall 
be based on analysis, testing or experience data. 

1708.5 Seismically isolated structures. For required system 
tests, see Section 17.8 of ASCE 7. 



SECTION 1709 
CONTRACTOR RESPONSIBILITY 

1709,1 Contractor responsibility. Each contractor responsi- 
ble for the construction of a main wind- or seismic-force-resist- 
ing system, designated seismic system or a v^ind- or 
seismic-resisting component listed in the statement of special 
inspections shall submit a written statement of responsibility to 
the building official and the owner prior to the commencement 
of work on the system or component. The contractor's state- 
ment of responsibility shall contain acknowledgement of 
awareness of the special requirements contained in the state- 
ment of special inspection. 



SECTION 1710 
STRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS 

1710.1 General. Where required by the provisions of Section 

1710.2 or 1710.3, the owner shall employ a registered design 
professional to perform structural observations as defined in 
Section 1702. 

Prior to the commencement of observations, the structural 
observer shall submit to the building official a written state- 
ment identifying the frequency and extent of structural obser- 
vations. 

At the conclusion of the work included in the permit, the 
structural observer shall submit to the building official a written 



statement that the site visits have been made and identify any 
reported deficiencies which, to the best of the structural 
observer's knowledge, have not been resolved. 

1710.2 Structural observations for seismic resistance. 

Structural observations shall be provided for those structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F, as determined 
in Section 1613, where one or more of the following conditions 

exist: 

1 . The structure is classified as Occupancy Category III or 
IV in accordance with Table 1604.5. 

2. The height of the structure is greater than 75 feet (22 860 
mm) above the base. 

3. The structure is assigned to Seismic Design Category E, 
is classified as Occupancy Category I or II in accordance 
with Table 1604.5, and is greater than two stories above 
grade plane. 

4. When so designated by the registered design profes- 
sional responsible for the structural design. 

5. When such observation is specifically required by the 
building official. 

1710.3 Structural observations for wind requirements. 

Structural observations shall be provided for those structures 
sited where the basic wind speed exceeds 110 mph (49 m/sec) 
determined from Figure 1609, where one or more of the fol- 
lowing conditions exist: 

1. The structure is classified as Occupancy Category III or 
IV in accordance with Table 1604.5. 

2. The building height of the structure is greater than 75 feet 
(22 860 mm). 

3. When so designated by the registered design profes- 
sional responsible for the structural design. 

4. When such observation is specifically required by the 
building official. 



SECTION 1711 
DESIGN STRENGTHS OF MATERIALS 

1711.1 Conformance to standards. The design strengths and 
permissible stresses of any structural material that are identi- 
fied by a manufacturer's designation as to manufacture and 
grade by mill tests, or the strength and stress grade is otherwise 
confirmed to the satisfaction of the building official, shall con- 
form to the specifications and methods of design of accepted 
engineering practice or the approved rules in the absence of 
applicable standards. 

1711.2 New materials. For materials that are not specifically 
provided for in this code, the design strengths and permissible 
stresses shall be established by tests as provided for in Section 
1712. 



SECTION 1712 
ALTERNATIVE TEST PROCEDURE 

1712.1 General. In the absence of approved rules or other 
approved standards, the building official shall make, or cause to 



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STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



be made, the necessary tests and investigations; or the building 
official shall accept duly authenticated reports from approved 
agencies in respect to the quality and manner of use of new 
materials or assemblies as provided for in Section 104.11, 
Chapter 1, Division 11. The cost of all tests and other investiga- 
tions required under the provisions of this code shall be borne 
by the applicant. 

[BSC] In the absence of approved rules or other approved 
standards, the building official shall make, or cause to be 
made, the necessary tests and investigations; or the building 
official shall accept duly authenticated reports from 
approved agencies in respect to the quality and manner of 
use of new materials or assemblies as provided for in Sec- 
tion 1,2.2, Chapter 1, Division L The cost of all tests and 
other investigations required under the provisions of this 
code shall be borne by the applicant. 



SECTION 1713 
TEST SAFE LOAD 

1713.1 Where required. Where proposed construction is not 
capable of being designed by approved engineering analysis, 
or where proposed construction design method does not com- 
ply with tiie applicable material design standard, the system of 
construction or the structural unit and the connections shall be 
subjected to the tests prescribed in Section 1715. The building 
official shall accept certified reports of such tests conducted by 
an approved testing agency, provided that such tests meet the 
requirements of this code and approved procedures. 



SECTION 1714 
IN-SITU LOAD TESTS 

1714.1 GeneraL Whenever there is a reasonable doubt as to the 
stability or load-bearing capacity of a completed building, 
structure or portion thereof for the expected loads, an engineer- 
ing assessment shall be required. The engineering assessment 
shall involve either a structural analysis or an in-situ load test, 
or both. The structural analysis shall be based on actual mate- 
rial properties and other as-built conditions that affect stability 
or load-bearing capacity, and shall be conducted in accordance 
with the appHcable design standard. If the structural assess- 
ment determines that the load-bearing capacity is less than that 
required by the code, load tests shall be conducted in accor- 
dance with Section 1714.2. If the building, structure or portion 
thereof is found to have inadequate stability or load-bearing 
capacity for the expected loads, modifications to ensure struc- 
tural adequacy or the removal of the inadequate construction 
shall be required. 

1714.2 Test standards. Structural components and assemblies 
shall be tested in accordance with the appropriate material stan- 
dards listed in Chapter 35. In the absence of a standard that con- 
tains an applicable load test procedure, the test procedure shall 
be developed by a registered design professional and approved. 
The test procedure shall simulate loads and conditions of appli- 
cation that the completed structure or portion thereof will be 
subjected to in normal use. 

1714.3 In-situ load tests. In-situ load tests shall be conducted 
in accordance with Section 1714.3.1 or 1714. 3. 2 and shall be 



supervised by a registered design professional. The test shall 
simulate the applicable loading conditions specified in Chapter 
16 as necessary to address the concerns regarding structural 
stability of the building, structure or portion thereof. 

1714.3.1 Load test procedure specified. Where a standard 
listed in Chapter 35 contains an applicable load test proce- 
dure and acceptance criteria, the test procedure and accep- 
tance criteria in the standard shall apply. In the absence of 
specific load factors or acceptance criteria, the load factors 
and acceptance criteria in Section 1714.3.2 shall apply. 

1714.3.2 Load test procedure not specified. In the absence 
of applicable load test procedures contained within a stan- 
dard referenced by this code or acceptance criteria for a spe- 
cific material or method of construction, such existing 
structure shall be subjected to a test procedure developed by 
a registered design professional that simulates applicable 
loading and deformation conditions. For components that 
are not a part of the seismic-load-resisting system, the test 
load shall be equal to two times the unfactored design loads. 
The test load shall be left in place for a period of 24 hours. 
The structure shall be considered to have successfully met 
the test requirements where the following criteria are satis- 
fied: 

1 . Under the design load, the deflection shall not exceed 
the limitations specified in Section 1604.3. 

2. Within 24 hours after removal of the test load, the 
structure shall have recovered not less than 75 percent 
of the maximum deflection. 

3. During and immediately after the test, the structure 
shall not show evidence of failure. 



SECTION 1715 
PRECONSTRUCTION LOAD TESTS 

1715.1 General. In evaluating the physical properties of mate- 
rials and methods of construction that are not capable of being 
designed by approved engineering analysis or do not comply 
with applicable material design standards listed in Chapter 35, 
the structural adequacy shall be predetermined based on the 
load test criteria established in this section. 

1715.2 Load test procedures specified. Where specific load 
test procedures, load factors and acceptance criteria are 
included in the applicable design standards listed in Chapter 
35, such test procedures, load factors and acceptance criteria 
shall apply. In the absence of specific test procedures, load fac- 
tors or acceptance criteria, the corresponding provisions in 
Section 1715.3 shall apply. 

1715.3 Load test procedures not specified. Where load test 
procedures are not specified in the applicable design standards 
listed in Chapter 35, the load-bearing and deformation capacity 
of structural components and assembUes shall be determined 
on the basis of a test procedure developed by a registered 
design professional that simulates appHcable loading and 
deformation conditions. For components and assemblies that 
are not a part of the seismic-force-resisting system, the test 
shall be as specified in Section 1715.3.1. Load tests shall simu- 
late the applicable loading conditions specified in Chapter 16. 



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1715.3.1 Test procedure. The test assembly shall be sub- 
jected to an increasing superimposed load equal to not less 
than two times the superimposed design load. The test load 
shall be left in place for a period of 24 hours. The tested 
assembly shall be considered to have successfully met the 
test requirements if the assembly recovers not less than 75 
percent of the maximum deflection within 24 hours after the 
removal of the test load. The test assembly shall then be 
reloaded and subjected to an increasing superimposed load 
until either structural failure occurs or the superimposed 
load is equal to two and one-half times the load at which the 
deflection limitations specified in Section 1715.3.2 were 
reached, or the load is equal to two and one-half times the 
superimposed design load. In the case of structural compo- 
nents and assemblies for which deflection limitations are 
not specified in Section 17 15.3.2, the test specimen shall be 
subjected to an increasing superimposed load until struc- 
tural failure occurs or the load is equal to two and one-half 
times the desired superimposed design load. The allowable 
superimposed design load shall be taken as the lesser of: 

1. The load at the deflection limitation given in Section 

1715.3.2. 

2. The failure load divided by 2.5. 

3. The maximum load applied divided by 2.5. 

1715.3.2 Deflection. The deflection of structural members 
under the design load shall not exceed the limitations in Sec- 
tion 1604.3. 

1715.4 Wall and partition assemblies. Load-bearing wall 
and partition assemblies shall sustain the test load both with 
and without window framing. The test load shall include all 
design load components. Wall and partition assemblies shall be 
tested both with and without door and window framing. 

1715.5 Exterior window and door assemblies. The design 
pressure rating of exterior windows and doors in buildings 
shall be determined in accordance with Section 1715.5.1 or 
1715.5.2. 

Exception: Structural wind load design pressures for win- 
dow units smaller than the size tested in accordance with 
Section 1715.5.1 or 1715.5.2 shall be permitted to be higher 
than the design value of the tested unit provided such higher 
pressures are determined by accepted engineering analysis. 
All components of the small unit shall be the same as the 
tested unit. Where such calculated design pressures are 
used, they shall be validated by an additional test of the win- 
dow unit having the highest allowable design pressure. 

1715.5.1 Exterior windows and doors. Exterior windows 
and sliding doors shall be tested and labeled as conforming 
to AAMAAVDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440. The label shall 
state the name of the manufacturer, the approved labeling 
agency and the product designation as specified in AAMA/ 
WDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440. Exterior side-hinged doors 
shall be tested and labeled as conforming to 
AAMAAVDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440 or comply with Sec- 
tion 1715.5.2. Products tested and labeled as conforming to 



AAMAAVDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 shall not be subject 
to the requirements of Sections 2403.2 and 2403.3. 

1715.5.2 Exterior windows and door assemblies not pro- 
vided for in Section 1715.5.1, Exterior window and door 
assemblies shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E 330. 
Structural performance of garage doors shall be determined 
in accordance with either ASTM E 330 or ANSI/DASMA 
108, and shall meet the acceptance criteria of ANSI/ 
DASMA 108. Exterior window and door assemblies con- 
taining glass shall comply with Section 2403. The design 
pressure for testing shall be calculated in accordance with 
Chapter 16. Each assembly shall be tested for 10 seconds at 
a load equal to 1.5 times the design pressure. 

1715.6 Test specimens. Test specimens and construction shall 
be representative of the materials, workmanship and details 
normally used in practice. The properties of the materials used 
to construct the test assembly shall be determined on the basis 
of tests on samples taken from the load assembly or on repre- 
sentative samples of the materials used to construct the load test 
assembly. Required tests shall be conducted or witnessed by an 
approved agency. 



SECTION 1716 
MATERIAL AND TEST STANDARDS 

1716.1 Test standards for joist hangers and connectors. 

1716.1.1 Test standards for joist hangers. The vertical 
load-bearing capacity, torsional moment capacity and 
deflection characteristics of joist hangers shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with ASTM D 1761 using lumber hav- 
ing a specific gravity of 0.49 or greater, but not greater than 
0.55, as determined in accordance with AF&PA NDS for 
the joist and headers. 

Exception: The joist length shall not be required to 
exceed 24 inches (610 mm). 

1716.1.2 Vertical load capacity for joist hangers. The ver- 
tical load capacity for the joist hanger shall be determined 
by testing a minimum of three joist hanger assemblies as 
specified in ASTM D 1761 . If the ultimate vertical load for 
any one of the tests varies more than 20 percent from the 
average ultimate vertical load, at least three additional tests 
shall be conducted. The allowable vertical load of the joist 
hanger shall be the lowest value determined from the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . The lowest ultimate vertical load for a single hanger 
from any test divided by three (where three tests are 
conducted and each ultimate vertical load does not 
vary more than 20 percent from the average ultimate 
vertical load). 

2. The average ultimate vertical load for a single hanger 
from all tests divided by three (where six or more tests 
are conducted). 

3. The average from all tests of the vertical loads that 
produce a vertical movement of the joist with respect 
to the header of Vg inch (3.2 mm). 



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4. The sum of the allowable design loads for nails or 
other fasteners utilized to secure the joist hanger to the 
wood members and allowable bearing loads that con- 
tribute to the capacity of the hanger. 

5. The allowable design load for the wood members 
forming the connection. 

1716.1.3 Torsional moment capacity for joist hangers. 

The torsional moment capacity for the joist hanger shall be 
determined by testing at least three joist hanger assemblies 
as specified in ASTM D 1761. The allowable torsional 
moment of the joist hanger shall be the average torsional 
moment at which the lateral movement of the top or bottom 
of the joist with respect to the original position of the joist is 
Vg inch (3.2 mm). 

1716.1.4 Design value modifications for joist hangers. 

Allowable design values for joist hangers that are deter- 
mined by Item 4 or 5 in Section 1716.1.2 shall be permitted 
to be modified by the appropriate duration of loading factors 
as specified in AF&PA NDS but shall not exceed the direct 
loads as determined by Item 1, 2 or 3 in Section 1716.1.2. 
Allowable design values determined by Item 1, 2 or 3 in 
Section 1716.1.2 shall not be modified by duration of load- 
ing factors. 

1716.2 Concrete and clay roof tiles. 

1716.2.1 Overturning resistance. Concrete and clay roof 
tiles shall be tested to determine their resistance to overturn- 
ing due to wind in accordance with SBCCI SSTD 1 1 and 
Chapter 15. 

1716.2.2 Wind tunnel testing. When roof tiles do not sat- 
isfy the limitations in Chapter 1 6 for rigid tile, a wind tunnel 
test shall be used to determine the wind characteristics of the 
concrete or clay tile roof covering in accordance with 
SBCCI SSTD 1 1 and Chapter 15. 



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CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 17A - STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


GEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


SS 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 














X 


X 


X 






X 


















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 










































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 










































Chapter/Section 





















































































2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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150 2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 174 

STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



SECTION 17014 
GENERAL 

170M.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
quality, workmanship and requirements for materials covered. 
Materials of construction and tests shall conform to the appli- 
cable standards listed in this code. 

17 01 A, LI Application, The scope of application of Chap- 
ter 17 A is as follows: 

L Structures regulated by the Division of the State 
Architect — Structural Safety, which include those 
applications listed in Sections 1.9.2 A (DSA-SS), and 
1.9.2.2 (DSA-SS/CC). These applications include 
public elementary and secondary schools, community 
colleges and state-owned or state-leased essential 
services buildings 

2. Structures regulated by the Office of Statewide 
Health Planning and Development (OSHPD), which 
include those applications listed in Sections 1.10.1 
and 1.10.4. These applications include hospitals, 
skilled nursing facilities, intermediate care facilities 
and correctional treatment centers. 

Exception: [OSHPD 2] Single-story Type V skilled nurs- 
ing or intermediate care facilities utilizing wood-frame 
or light-steel-frame construction as defined in Health 
and Safety Code Section 129725, which shall comply 
with Chapter 17 and any applicable amendments 
therein. 

170IAJ,2 Amendments in this chapter. DSA-SS and 
OSHPD adopt this chapter and all amendments. 

Exception: Amendments adopted by only one agency 
appear in this chapter preceded with the appropriate 
acronym of the adopting agency, as follows: 

1 . Division of the State Architect - Structural Safety: 

[DSA-SS] For applications listed in Section 
L9.2.L 

[DSA-SS/CC] For applications listed in Section 
1.9.2.2. 

2. Office of Statewide Health Planning and Develop- 
ment: 

[OSHPD 1] For applications listed in Section 
1.10.1. 

[OSHPD 4] For applications listed in Section 
1.10.4. 

1701 AA. 3 Reference to other chapters. 

1701 A JJ J [DSA-SS/CC] Where reference within this 
chapter is made to sections in Chapters 16 A, 19 A, 21 A, 
22A and 34A, the provisions in Chapters 16, 19, 21, 22 
and 34 respectively shall apply instead. 



1701A.2 New materials. New building materials, equipment, 
appliances, systems or methods of construction not provided 
for in this code, and any material of questioned suitability pro- 
posed for use in the construction of a building or structure, shall 
be subjected to the tests prescribed in this chapter and in the 
approved rules to determine character, quality and limitations 
of use. 

170M.3 Used materials. The use of second-hand materials 
that meet the minimum requirements of this code for new mate- 
rials shall be permitted. 

I701A,4 Special inspectors. [OSHPD 1 and 4] In addition to 
the inspector(s) of record required by Title 24, Part 1, Section 
7-144, the owner shall employ one or more special inspectors 
who shall provide inspections during construction on the types 
ofwork listed under Chapters 17A, 18A, 19A, 20, 21 A, 22A, 23, 
25, 34A, and noted in the test, inspection and observation 
(TIO) program required by Sections 7-141, 7-145 and 7-149 of 
Title 24, Part 1, of the California Administrative Code. Test, 
inspection and observation (TIO) program shall satisfy 
requirements of Section 1704A.1.L 

1701 A.5 Special inspectors. [DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC] In 

addition to the project inspector required by Title 24, Part 1, 
Section 4-333, the owner shall employ one or more special 
inspectors who shall provide inspections during construction 
on the types ofwork listed under Chapters 17 A, ISA, 19 A, 20, 
21 A, 22 A, 23, 25, 34 and noted in the special test, inspection 
and observation plan required by Section 4-335 of Title 24, 
Part 1, of the California Administrative Code. 



SECTION 1702 A 
DEFINITIONS 

1702A.1 General. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized 
agency regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing 
inspection services, when such agency has been approved. 

APPROVED FABRICATOR. An established and qualified 
person, firm or corporation approved by the building official 
pursuant to Chapter 17 of this code. 

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. A certificate stating 
that materials and products meet specified standards or that 
work was done in compliance with approved construction doc- 
uments. 

DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM. Those architectural, 
electrical and mechanical systems and their components that 
require design in accordance with Chapter 13 of ASCE 7 and 
for which the component importance factor, 7^, is greater than 1 
in accordance with Section 13.1.3 of ASCE 7. 



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FABRICATED ITEM. Structural, load-bearing or lateral 
load-resisting assemblies consisting of materials assembled 
prior to installation in a building or structure, or subjected to 
operations such as heat treatment, thermal cutting, cold work- 
ing or reforming after manufacture and prior to installation in a 
building or structure. Materials produced in accordance with 
standard specifications referenced by this code, such as rolled 
structural steel shapes, steel-reinforcing bars, masonry units, 
and wood structural panels or in accordance with a standard, 
listed in Chapter 35, which provides requirements for quality 
control done under the supervision of a third-party quality con- 
trol agency shall not be considered "fabricated items." 

INSPECTION CERTIFICATE. An identification apphed on 
a product by an approved agency containing the name of the 
manufacturer, the function and performance characteristics, 
and the name and identification of an approved agency that 
indicates that the product or material has been inspected and 
evaluated by an approved agency (see Section 1703 A. 5 and 
''Label,'' "Manufacturer's designation" and ''Mark"). 

INTUMESCENT FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. Thin 
film hquid mixture applied to substrates by brush, roller, spray 
or trowel which expands into a protective foamed layer to pro- 
vide fire-resistant protection of the substrates when exposed to 
flame or intense heat. 

MAIN WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. An assem- 
blage of structural elements assigned to provide support and 
stability for the overall structure. The system generally 
receives wind loading from more than one surface. 

MASTIC FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. Liquid mixture 
applied to a substrate by brush, roller, spray or trowel that pro- 
vides fire-resistant protection of a substrate when exposed to 
flame or intense heat. 

PROJECT INSPECTOR [DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC] The per- 
son approved to provide inspection in accordance with Title 24, 
Partly California Administrative Code, Section 4-3 3 3(b), The 
term "project inspector" is synonymous with "inspector 
of record,'' 

SPECIAL INSPECTION. Inspection as herein required of 
the materials, installation, fabrication, erection or placement of 
components and connections requiring special expertise to 
ensure compliance with approved construction documents and 
referenced standards (see Section 1704A). 

SPECIAL INSPECTION, CONTINUOUS. The full-time 
observation of work requiring special inspection by an 
approved special inspector who is present in the area where the 
work is being performed. 

SPECIAL INSPECTION, PERIODIC. The part-time or 
intermittent observation of work requiring special inspection 
by an approved special inspector who is present in the area 
where the work has been or is being performed and at the com- 
pletion of the work. 

SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERLVLS. Cementitious 
or fibrous materials that are sprayed to provide fire-resistant pro- 
tection of the substrates. 

STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION. The visual observation of 
the structural system by a registered design professional for 



general conformance to the approved construction documents. 
Structural observation does not include or waive the responsi- 
bihty for the inspection required by Section 110, 1704 A or 
other sections of this code. 



SECTION 17034 
APPROVALS 

1703A.1 Approved agency. An approved agency shall provide 
all information as necessary for the building official to deter- 
mine that the agency meets the applicable requirements. 

1703A.1.1 Independence. An approved agency shall be 
objective, competent and independent from the contractor 
responsible for the work being inspected. The- agency shall 
also disclose possible conflicts of interest so that objectivity 
can be confirmed. 

1703A.1.2 Equipment. An approved agency shall have 
adequate equipment to perform required tests. The equip- 
ment shall be periodically calibrated. 

1703A.1.3 PersonneL An approved agency shall employ 
experienced personnel educated in conducting, supervising 
and evaluating tests and/or inspections. 

1703A.2 Written appro vaL Any material, appliance, equip- 
ment, system or method of construction meeting the require- 
ments of this code shall be approved in writing after 
satisfactory completion of the required tests and submission of 
required test reports. 

1703A.3 Approved record. For any material, appliance, 
equipment, system or method of construction that has been 
approved, a record of such approval, including the conditions 
and limitations of the approval, shall be kept on file in the build- 
ing officiaVs office and shall be open to public inspection at 
appropriate times. 

1703A.4 Performance. Specific information consisting of test 
reports conducted by an approved testing agency in accordance 
with standards referenced in Chapter 35, or other such informa- 
tion as necessary, shall be provided for the building official to 
determine that the material meets the appUcable code require- 
ments. 

1703A.4.1 Research and investigation. Sufficient technical 
data shall be submitted to the building official to substantiate 
the proposed use of any material or assembly. If it is deter- 
mined that the evidence submitted is satisfactory proof of 
performance for the use intended, the building official shall 
approve the use of the material or assembly subject to the 
requirements of this code. The costs, reports and investiga- 
tions required under these provisions shall be paid by the 
applicant. 

1703A.4.2 Research reports. Supporting data, where nec- 
essary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not 
specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid 
research reports from approved sources. 

1703A.5 Labeling. Where materials or assemblies are required 
by this code to be labeled, such materials and assemblies shall 
be labeled by an approved agency in accordance with Section 
1703 A. Products and materials required to be labeled shall be 



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m 



labeled in accordance with the procedures set forth in Sections 
1703A.5.1 through 1703A.5.3. 

1703A.5.1 Testing. An approved agency shall test a repre- 
sentative sample of the product or material being labeled to 
the relevant standard or standards. The approved agency 
shall maintain a record of the tests performed. The record 
shall provide sufficient detail to verify compliance with the 
test standard, 

1703A.5.2 Inspection and identification. The approved 
agency shall periodically perform an inspection, which 
shall be in-plant if necessary, of the product or material that 
is to be labeled. The inspection shall verify that the labeled 
product or material is representative of the product or mate- 
rial tested, 

1703A.5.3 Label information. The label shall contain the 
manufacturer's or distributor's identification, model num- 
ber, serial number or definitive information describing the 
product or material's performance characteristics and 
approved agency's identification. 

1703A.6 Evaluation and follow-up inspection services. 

Where structural components or other items regulated by this 
code are not visible for inspection after completion of a prefab- 
ricated assembly, the applicant shall submit a report of each 
prefabricated assembly. The report shall indicate the complete 
details of the assembly, including a description of the assembly 
and its components, the basis upon which the assembly is being 
evaluated, test results and similar information and other data as 
necessary for the building official to determine conformance to 
this code. Such a report shall be approved by the building offi- 
cial, 

1703A.6.1 Follow-up inspection. The applicant shall pro- 
vide for special inspections of fabricated items in accor- 
dance with Section 1704A.2. 

1703A.6.2 Test and inspection records. Copies of neces- 
sary test and inspection records shall be filed with the build- 
ing official. 



SECTION 17044 
SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 

1704A.1 General. Where application is made for construction 
as described in this section, the owner shall employ one or more 
approved agencies to perform inspections during construction 
on the types of work listed under Section 1704 A. These inspec- 
tions are in addition to the inspections identified in Section 110. 

The special inspector shall be a qualified person who shall 
demonstrate competence, to the satisfaction of the building 
official, for the inspection of the particular type of construction 
or operation requiring special inspection. The registered 
design professional in responsible charge and engineers of 
record involved in the design of the project are permitted to act 
as the approved agency and their personnel are permitted to act 
as the special inspector for the work designed by them, pro- 
vided those personnel meet the qualification requirements of 
this section to the satisfaction of the building official. The spe- 



cial inspector shall provide written documentation to the build- 
ing official demonstrating his or her competence and relevant 
experience or training. Experience or training shall be consid- 
ered relevant when the documented experience or training is 
related in complexity to the same type of special inspection 
activities for projects of similar complexity and material quali- 
ties. These qualifications are in addition to qualifications speci- 
fied in other sections of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Special inspections are not required for work of a 
minor nature or as warranted by conditions in the 
jurisdiction as approved by the building official. 

2. Special inspections are not required for building com- 
ponents unless the design involves the practice of pro- 
fessional engineering or architecture as defined by 
applicable state statutes and regulations governing 
the professional registration and certification of engi- 
neers or architects. 

3. Unless otherwise required by the building official, 
special inspections are not required for Group U 
occupancies that are accessory to a residential occu- 
pancy including, but not limited to, those listed in 
Section 312.L 

1704A.1.1 Statement of special inspections. The applicant 
shall submit a statement of special inspections prepared by 
the registered design professional in responsible charge in 
accordance with Section 107.1 as a condition for issuance. 
This statement shall be in accordance with Section 1705 A. 

Exception: The statement of special inspections is per- < 
mitted to be prepared by a qualified person approved by 
the building official for construction not designed by a 
registered design professional. 

1704A.1.2 Report requirement. The inspector of record 
and special inspectors shall keep records of inspections. 
The inspector of record and special inspector shall furnish 
inspection reports to the building official, and to the regis- 
tered design professional in responsible charge as required 
by Title 24, Part 1. Reports shall indicate that work 
inspected was or was not completed in conformance to 
approved construction documents as required by Title 24, 
Parts 1 and 2. Discrepancies shall be brought to the immedi- 
ate attention of the contractor for correction. If they are not 
corrected, the discrepancies shall be brought to the attention 
of the building official and to the registered design profes- 
sional in responsible charge prior to the completion of that 
phase of the work. A final report documenting required spe- 
cial inspections and correction of any discrepancies noted in 
the inspections shall be submitted at a point in time agreed 
upon prior to the start of work by the applicant and the build- 
ing official. 

1704A.2 Inspection of fabricators. Where fabrication of 
structural load-bearing members and assemblies is being per- 
formed on the premises of a fabricator's shop, special inspec- 
tion of the fabricated items shall be required by this section and 
as required elsewhere in this code. 



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1704A.2.1 Fabrication and implementation procedures. 

The special inspector shall verify that the fabricator main- 
tains detailed fabrication and quality control procedures that 
provide a basis for inspection control of the workmanship 
and the fabricator's ability to conform to approved con- 
struction documents and referenced standards. The special 
inspector shall review the procedures for completeness and 
adequacy relative to the code requirements for the fabrica- 
tor's scope of work. 

1704A.3 Steel construction. The special inspections for steel 
elements of buildings and structures shall be as required by 
Section 1704A.3 and Table 1704A.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Special inspection of the steel fabrication process 
shall not be required where the fabricator does not 
perform any welding, thermal cutting or heating oper- 
ation of any kind as part of the fabrication process. In 
such cases, the fabricator shall be required to submit a 
detailed procedure for material control that demon- 
strates the fabricator's ability to maintain suitable 
records and procedures such that, at any time during 
the fabrication process, the material specification, 
grade and mill test reports for the main stress-carrying 
elements are capable of being determined. 

2. The special inspector need not be continuously pres- 
ent during welding of the following items, provided 
the materials, welding procedures and qualifications 
of welders are verified prior to the start of the work; 
periodic inspections are made of the work in progress 
and a visual inspection of all welds is made prior to 
completion or prior to shipment of shop welding. 

2.1. Single-pass fillet welds not exceeding V^ 6 inch 
(7.9 mm) in size. 

2.2. Floor and roof deck welding. 

2.3. Welded studs when used for structural dia- 
phragm. 

2.4. Welded sheet steel for cold-formed steel 
members. 

2.5. Welding of stairs and railing systems. 

1704A.3.1 Welding. Welding inspection and welding 
inspector qualification shall be in accordance with this sec- 
tion. 

1704A.3.1.1 Structural steel. Welding inspection and 
welding inspector quaHfication for structural steel shall 
be in accordance with AWS DLL 

1704A.3.1.2 Cold-formed steel. Welding inspection 
and welding inspector qualification for cold-formed 
steel floor and roof decks shall be in accordance with 
AWSD1.3. 



1704A.3.1.3 Reinforcing steel. Welding inspection and 
welding inspector qualification for reinforcing steel shall 
be in accordance with AWS DL4 and ACI 318. 

1704A.3.1,4 Inspection of Structural Welding. Inspec- 
tion of all shop and field welding operations shall be 
made by a qualified welding inspector approved by the 
enforcement agency. The minimum requirements for a 
qualified welding inspector shall be as those for an AWS 
certified welding inspector (CWI), as defined in the pro- 
visions of the AWS QCl. All welding inspectors shall be 
as approved by the enforcement agency. 

The welding inspector shall make a systematic daily 
record of all welds. This record shall include in addition 
to other required records: 

1. Identification marks of welders. 

2. List of defective welds. 

3. Manner of correction of defects. 

The welding inspector shall check the material, details 
of construction and procedure, as well as workmanship 
of the welds. The inspector shall verify that the installa- 
tion of end-welded stud shear connectors is in accor- 
dance with the requirements of AWS Dl.l and the 
approved plans and specifications. The inspector shall 
furnish the architect, structural engineer and the 
enforcement agency with a verified report that the weld- 
ing is proper and has been done in conformity with AWS 
Dl.l, D1.8 and the approved construction documents. 

1704A.3.2 Details. The special inspector shall perform an 
inspection of the steel frame to verify compliance with the 
details shown on the approved construction documents, 
such as bracing, stiffening, member locations and proper 
application of joint details at each connection. 

I704A.3.2,I Steel joist and joist girder inspection. Spe- 
cial inspection is required during the manufacture and 
welding of steel joists or joist girders. The special inspec- 
tor shall verify that proper quality control procedures 
and tests have been employed for all materials and the 
manufacturing process, and shall perform visual inspec- 
tion of the finished product. The special inspector shall 
place a distinguishing mark, and/or tag with this distin- 
guishing mark, on each inspected joist or joist girder. 
This mark or tag shall remain on the joist or joist girder 
throughout the job-site receiving and erection process. 

1704A3,2,2 Light-jramed steel truss inspection. The 

manufacture of cold-formed light-framed steel trusses 
shall be continuously inspected by a qualified special 
inspector approved by the enforcement agency. The spe- 
cial inspector shall verify conformance of materials and 
manufacture with approved plans and specifications. The 
special inspector shall place a distinguishing mark, 
and/or tag with this distinguishing mark, on each 
inspected truss. This mark or tag shall remain on the truss 
throughout the job-site receiving and erection process. 



< 
< 



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TABLE 1704A3 
REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION 




VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION 


CONTINUOUS 


PERIODIC 


REFERENCED 
STANDARD^ 


CBC REFERENCE 


1 . Material verification of high-strength bolts, nuts and 
washers: 


a. Identification markings to conform to ASTM 
standards specified in the approved 
construction documents. 


— 


X 


AISC 360, 
Section A3.3 and 
applicable ASTM 
material standards 


— 


b. Manufacturer's certificate of compliance 
required. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


2. Inspection of high-strength bolting: 


a. Snug-tight joints. 


— 


X 


AISC 360, 

Section M2.5 


1704A.3.3 


b.Pretensioned and slip-critical joints using 
tum-of-nut with matchmarking, twist-off bolt or 
direct tension indicator methods of installation. 


— 


X 


c.Pretensioned and slip-critical joints using 
tum-of-nut without matchmarking or calibrated 
wrench methods of installation. 


X 


— 


3. Material verification of structural steel and 
cold-formed steel deck: 


a. For structural steel, identification markings to 
conform to AISC 360. 


— 


X 


AISC 360, 
Section M5.5 




b. For other steel, identification markings to conform 
to ASTM standards specified in the approved 
construction documents. 


— 


X 


Applicable ASTM 
material standards 


c. Manufacturer's certified test reports. 


— 


X 






4. Material verification of weld filler materials: 


a. Identification markings to conform to AWS 
specification in the approved construction 
documents. 


— 


X 


AISC 360, 

Section A3. 5 and 

applicable AWS 

A5 documents 


— 


b.Manufacturer's certificate of compliance required. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


5 . Inspection of welding : 


a. Structural steel and cold-formed steel deck: 


1) Complete and partial joint penetration groove 

welds. 


X 


— 


AWSDl.l 


1704A.3.1 


2) Multipass fillet welds. 


X 


— 


3) Single-pass fillet welds > Vj^" 


X 


— 


4) Plug and slot welds. 


X 


— 


5) Single-pass fillet welds < Vj^" 


— 


X 


6) Floor and roof deck welds. 


— 


X 


AWS D 1.3 





(continued) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



155 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



TABLE 1704^1.3— continued 
REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION 



VERIRCATION AND INSPECTION 


CONTINUOUS 


PERIODIC 


REFERENCED 
STANDARD^ 


CBC 
REFERENCE 


b. Reinforcing steel: 








— 


1) Verification of weldability of reinforcing steel 
otlier than ASTM A 706. 


— 


X 


AWS D1.4 ACI 318: Section 3.5.2 


2) Reinforcing steel resisting flexural and axial 
forces in intermediate and special moment 
frames, and boundary elements of special 
structural walls of concrete and shear 

reinforcement. 


X 


— 


3) Shear reinforcement. 


X , 


— 


4) Other reinforcing steel. 


— 


X 


6. Inspection of steel frame joint details for compliance: 


a. Details such as bracing and stiffening. 


— 


X 


— 


1704A.3.2 


b. Member locations. 


— 


X 


c. Apphcation of joint details at each connection. 


— 


X 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Where applicable, see also Section 1707A.1, Special inspection for seismic resistance. 



1704A.3.3 High-strength bolts. Installation of high- 
strength bolts shall be inspected in accordance with AISC 
360. 

1704A .3.3.1 General. While the work is in progress, the 
special inspector shall determine that the requirements 
for bolts, nuts, washers and paint; bolted parts and instal- 
lation and tightening in such standards are met. For bolts 
requiring pretensioning, the special inspector shall 
observe the preinstallation testing and calibration proce- 
dures when such procedures are required by the installa- 
tion method or by project plans or specifications; 
determine that all plies of connected materials have been 
drawn together and properly snugged and monitor the 
installation of bolts to verify that the selected procedure 
for installation is properly used to tighten bolts. For 
joints required to be tightened only to the snug-tight con- 
dition, the special inspector need only verify that the con- 
nected materials have been drawn together and properly 
snugged. 

1704A .3.3.2 Periodic monitoring. Monitoring of bolt 
installation for pretensioning is permitted to be per- 
formed on a periodic basis when using the tum-of-nut 
method with matchmarking techniques, the direct ten- 
sion indicator method or the alternate design fastener 
(twist-off bolt) method. Joints designated as snug tight 
need be inspected only on a periodic basis. 

1704A .3.3.3 Continuous monitoring. Monitoring of 
bolt installation for pretensioning using the calibrated 
wrench method or the turn-of-nut method without 
matchmarking shall be performed on a continuous basis. 



1704A.3.4 Cold-formed steel trusses spanning 60 feet or 
greater. Where a cold-formed steel truss clear span is 60 
feet (18 288 mm) or greater, the special inspector shall ver- 
ify that the temporary installation restraint/bracing and the 
permanent individual truss member restraint/bracing are 
installed in accordance with the approved truss submittal 
package. 

1704A.4 Concrete construction. The special inspections and 
verifications for concrete construction shall be as required by 
this section and Table 1704A.4. 

Exceptions: [DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC] Special inspections 
shall not be required for: 

1, Nonstructural concrete slabs supported directly on 
the ground, including prestressed slabs on grade, 
where the effective prestress in the concrete is less 
than 150 psi(L03MPa). 

2. Concrete patios, driveways and sidewalks, on grade. 

1704A.4.1 Materials. In the absence of sufficient data or 
documentation providing evidence of conformance to qual- 
ity standards for materials in Chapter 3 of ACI 318, the 
building official shall require testing of materials in accor- 
dance with the appropriate standards and criteria for the 
material in Chapter 3 of ACI 318. Weldability of reinforce- 
ment, except that which conforms to ASTM A 706, shall be 
determined in accordance with the requirements of Section 
3.5.2 of ACI 318. 

1704A.4,2 Batch plant inspection. Except as provided 
under Section 1 704A.4,3, the quality and quantity of materi- 
als used in transit-mixed concrete and in batched 
aggregates shall be continuously inspected at the location 



156 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



where materials are measured by an approved special 
inspector. 

1704A,4,3 Waiver of continuous batch plant inspection. 

Continuous batch plant inspection may be waived by the 
registered design professional in responsible charge, sub- 
ject to approval by the enforcement agency, under either of 
the following conditions: 

1. The concrete plant complies fully with the require- 
ments ofASTM C 94, Sections 8 and 9, and has a cur- 
rent certificate from the National Ready Mixed 
Concrete Association or another agency acceptable 
to the enforcement agency. The certification shall 



indicate that the plant has automatic batching and 
recording capabilities, 

2. For single-story light framed buildings and isolated 
foundations supporting equipment only, where the 
specified compressive strength f \ of the concrete 
delivered to thejobsite is 3,500 psi (24.13 MP a) and 
where thef\ used in design is not greater than 3,000 
psi (20,68 MPa). 

When continuous batch plant inspection is waived, the 
following requirements shall apply and shall be described 
in the construction documents: 

1. Qualified technician of the testing laboratory shall 
check the first batch at the start of the day. 



TABLE 1704A4 
REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION 


CONTINUOUS 


PERIODIC 


REFERENCED 
STANDARD^ 


CBC REFERENCE 


1. Inspection of reinforcing steel, including 
prestressing tendons, and placement. 


— 


X 


ACI 318: 3.5, 7.1-7.7 


1913A.4 


2. Inspection of reinforcing steel welding in 
accordance with Table 1704A.3, Item 5b. 


— 


— 


AWSD1.4 

ACI 318: 3.5.2 


— 


3. Inspection of bolts to be installed in concrete 
prior to and during placement of concrete where 
allowable loads have been increased or where 
strength design is used. 


X 


— 


ACI 318: 
8.1.3,21.2.8 


1911A.5, 
1912A,1 


4. Inspection of anchors installed in hardened 
concrete. 


— 


X 


ACI 318: 
3.8.6,8.1.3,21.2.8 


1912A.1 


5. Verifying use of requked design mix. 


— 


X 


ACI 318: Ch. 4, 5.2-5.4 


1904A.2.2, 1913A.2, 
1913A.3 


6. At the time fresh concrete is sampled to fabricate 
specimens for strength tests, perform slump and 
air content tests, and determine the temperamre 
of the concrete. 


X 


— 


ASTM C 172 

ASTMC31 

ACI 318: 5.6, 5.8 


1913A.10 


7. Inspection of concrete and shotcrete placement 
for proper application techniques. 


X 


— 


ACI 318: 5.9, 5.10 


1913A.6, 1913A.7, 
1913A.8 


8. Inspection for maintenance of specified curing 
temperature and techniques. 


— 


X 


ACI 318: 5.11-5.13 


1913A.9 


9. Inspection of prestressed concrete: 

a. Application of prestressing forces. 

b. Grouting of bonded prestressing tendons in 
the seismic-force-resisting system. 


X 
X 


— 


ACI 318: 18.20 
ACI 318: 18.18.4 


— 


10. Erection of precast concrete members. 


— 


X 


ACI 318: Ch. 16 


— 


11. Verification of in-situ concrete strength, prior to 
stressing of tendons in posttensioned concrete 
and prior to removal of shores and forms from 
beams and structural slabs. 


— 


X 


ACI 318: 6.2 


— 


12. Inspect formwork for shape, location and 
dimensions of the concrete member being 
formed. 


— 


X 


ACI 318: 6.1.1 


— 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Where applicable, see also Section 1707A.1, Special inspection for seismic resistance. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



157 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



2. Licensed weighmaster to positively identify materials 
as to quantity and certify to each load by a batch 
ticket. 

3. Batch tickets, including actual material quantities 
and weights shall accompany the load and shall be 
transmitted to the inspector of record by a truck 
driver with load identified thereon. The load shall not 
be placed without a batch ticket identifying the mix. 
The inspector will keep a daily record of placements, 
identifying each truck, its load, time of receipt and 
approximate location of deposit in the structure and 
will transmit a copy of the daily record to the enforce- 
ment agency. 

1704A.4.4 Inspection of prestressed concrete. 

i. In addition to the general inspection required for con- 
crete work, all plant fabrication of prestressed con- 
crete members or tensioning of posttensioned 
members constructed at the site shall be continuously 
inspected by an inspector specially approved for this 
purpose by the enforcement agency. 

2. The prestressed concrete plant fabrication inspector 
shall check the materials, equipment, tensioning pro- 
cedure and construction of the prestressed members 
and prepare daily written reports. The inspector shall 
make a verified report identifying the members by 
mark and shall include such pertinent data as lot 
numbers of tendons used, tendon jacking forces, age 
and strength of concrete at time of tendon release and 
such other information that may be required. 

3. The inspector of prestressed members posttensioned 
at the site shall check the condition oftheprestressing 
tendons, anchorage assemblies and concrete in the 
area of the anchorage, the tensioning equipment and 
the tensioning procedure, and prepare daily written 
reports. The inspector shall make a verified report of 
the prestressing operation identifying the members or 
tendons by mark and including such pertinent data as 
the initial cable slack, net elongation of tendons, jack- 
ing force developed, and such other information as 
may be required. 

4. The verified reports of construction shall show that of 
the inspector's own personal knowledge, the work 
covered by the report has been performed and materi- 
als used and installed in every material respect in 
compliance with the duly approved plans and specifi- 
cations for plant fabrication inspection. The verified 
report shall be accompanied by test reports required 
for materials used. For site posttensioning inspec- 
tions the verified report shall be accompanied by cop- 
ies of calibration charts, certified by an approved 
testing laboratory, showing the relationship between 
gage readings and force applied by the jacks used in 
the prestressing procedure 

1704A,4,5 Concrete preplacement inspection. Concrete 
shall not be placed until the forms and reinforcement have 
been inspected, all preparations for the placement have 



been completed, and the preparations have been checked by 
the inspector of record. 

1 704A,4, 6 Placing record, A record shall be kept on the site 
of the time and date of placing the concrete in each portion 
of the structure. Such record shall be kept until the comple- 
tion of the structure and shall be open to the inspection of 
the enforcement agency. 

1704A.5 Masonry construction. Masonry construction shall 
be inspected and verified in accordance with the requirements 
of Sections 1704A.5.1 through 1704A.5.3, depending on the 
occupancy category of the building or structure. 

1704A.5.1 Glass unit masonry and masonry veneer in 
Occupancy Category IV. The minimum special inspection 
program for glass unit masonry or masonry veneer designed 
by Chapter 21A or 14, or by Chapter 6 of TMS 402/ACI 
530/ASCE 5, in structures classified as Occupancy Category 
IV, in accordance with Section 1604A.5, shall comply with 
Table 1704A.5.1. 

1704A.5.2 Engineered masonry in Occupancy Category 

I. The minimum special inspection program for masonry 
designed by Section 2107A or 2108A or by chapters other 
than Chapter 5, 6 or 7 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 in 
structures classified as Occupancy Category I, in accor- 
dance with Section 1604A.5, shall comply with Table 
1704A.5.1. 

1704A.5.3 Engineered masonry in Occupancy Category 
//, /// or IV. The minimum special inspection program for 
masonry designed by Section 2107A or 2108A or by chap- 
ters other than Chapter 6 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 in 
structures classified as Occupancy Category 11, III, or IV, in 
accordance with Section 1604A.5, shall comply with Table 
1704A.5.3. 

1704A.6 Wood construction. Special inspections of the fabri- 
cation process of prefabricated wood structural elements and 
assemblies shall be in accordance with Section 1704A.2. Spe- 
cial inspections of site-built assemblies shall be in accordance 
with this section. 

1704A.6.1 Higli-load diaphragms. High-load diaphragms 
designed in accordance with Table 2306.2.1(2) shall be 
installed with special inspections as indicated in Section 
1704A. 1 . The special inspector shall inspect the wood struc- 
tural panel sheathing to ascertain whether it is of the grade 
and thickness shown on the approvedhmlding plans. Addi- 
tionally, the special inspector must verify the nominal size 
of framing members at adjoining panel edges, the nail or sta- 
ple diameter and length, the number of fastener lines and 
that the spacing between fasteners in each line and at edge 
margins agrees with the approved building plans. 

1704A.6.2 Metal-plate-connected wood trusses span- 
ning 60 feet or greater. Where a truss clear span is 60 feet 
(18 288 mm) or greater, the special inspector shall verify 
that the temporary installation restraint/bracing and the per- 
manent individual truss member restraint/bracing are 
installed in accordance with the approved truss submittal 
package. 



m 



< 



< 
< 



< 
< 



158 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTBONS 



1704A,6.3 Wood structural elements and assemblies. Spe- 
cial inspection of wood structural elements and assemblies 
is required, as specified in this section, to ensure confor- 
mance with approved drawings and specifications and 
applicable standards. 

The special inspector shall furnish a verified report to the 
design professional in general responsible charge of con- 
struction observation, the structural engineer and the 
enforcement agency, in accordance with Title 24, Part 1 and 
this chapter The verified report shall list all inspected mem- 
bers or trusses, and shall indicate whether or not the 
inspected members or trusses conform with applicable 
standards and the approved drawings and specifications. 
Any nonconforming items shall be indicated on the verified 
report. 

1704A.6.3,1 Structural glued-laminated timber. Manu- 
facture of all structural glued-laminated timber shall be 
continuously inspected by a qualified special inspector 
approved by the enforcement agency. 

The special inspector shall verify that proper quality 
control procedures and tests have been employed for all 
materials and the manufacturing process, and shall per- 
form visual inspection of the finished product. Each 
inspected member shall be stamped by the special 
inspector with an identification mark. 

Exception: Special inspection is not required for 
noncustom members ofS^/g inch (130 mm) maximum 
width and 18 inch (457 mm) maximum depth, and 
with a maximum clear span of 32 feet (9754 mm), 
manufactured and marked in accordance with 
ANSl/AITC A 190.1 Section 6.1.1 for noncustom 
members. 

1704A.6,3,2 Manufactured open web trusses. The man- 
ufacture of open web trusses shall be continuously 
inspected by a qualified special inspector approved by 
the enforcement agency. 

The special inspector shall verify that proper quality 
control procedures and tests have been employed for all 
materials and the manufacturing process, and shall per- 
form visual inspection of the finished product. Each 
inspected truss shall be stamped with an identification 
mark by the special inspector 

1704A.6.4 Timber connectors. The installation of all split 
ring and shear plate timber connectors, and timber rivets 
shall be continuously inspected by a qualified inspector 
approved by the enforcement agency. The inspector shall 
furnish the architect, structural engineer and the enforce- 
ment agency with a report duly verified by him that the mate- 
rials, timber connectors and workmanship conform to the 
approved plans and specifications. 

1704A.7 Soils. Special inspections for existing site soil condi- 
tions, fill placement and load-bearing requirements shall be as 
required by this section and Table 1704A.7. The approved 
geotechnical report, and the construction documents prepared 
by the registered design professionals shall be used to deter- 
mine compliance. During fill placement, the special inspector 
shall determine that proper materials and procedures are used 



in accordance with the provisions of the approved geotechnical 
report. 

Exception: Where Section 1803 does not require reporting 
of materials and procedures for fill placement, the special 
inspector shall verify that the in-place dry density of the 
compacted fill is not less than 90 percent of the maximum 
dry density at optimum moisture content determined in 
accordance with ASTM D 1557. 

1704 AJ.l Soil fill. All fills used to support the foundations 
of any building or structure shall be continuously inspected 
by the geotechnical engineer or his or her qualified repre- 
sentative. It shall be the responsibility of the geotechnical 
engineer to verify that fills meet the requirements of the 
specifications and to coordinate all fill inspection and test- 
ing during the construction involving such fills. 

The duties of the geotechnical engineer or his or her qual- 
ified representative shall include, but need not be limited to, 
the observation of cleared areas and benches prepared to 
receive fill; observation of the removal of all unsuitable 
soils and other materials; the approval of soils to be used as 
fill material; the inspection of placement and compaction of 
fill materials; the testing of the fills; and the inspection or < 
review of geotechnical drainage devices where required by 
the soils investigation, buttress fills or other similar protec- 
tive measures. 

A verified report shall be submitted to the enforcement 
agency by the geotechnical engineer The report shall indi- 
cate that all the tests required by the construction docu- 
ments were completed and that the tested materials were in 
compliance with the construction documents. 

1704A.8 Driven deep foundations. Special inspections shall 
be performed during installation and testing of driven deep 
foundation elements as required by Table 1704A.8. The 
approved geotechnical report, and the construction documents 
prepared by the registered design professionals, shall be used 
to determine compliance. 

1704A.8.1 Driven deep foundations observation. The 

installation of driven deep foundations shall be continu- 
ously observed by a qualified representative of the 
geotechnical engineer responsible for that portion of the 
project. < 

The representative of the geotechnical engineer shall 
make a report of the deep foundation -driving operation giv- 
ing such pertinent data as the physical characteristics of the 
deep foundation-driving equipment, identifying marks for 
each deep foundation, the total depth of embedment for each 
deep foundation; and when the allowable deep foundation 
loads are determined by a dynamic load formula, the design 
formula used, and the permanent penetration under the last 
10 blows. One copy of the report shall be sent to the enforce- 
ment agency. 

1704A.9 Cast-in-piace deep foundations. Special inspec- 
tions shall be performed during installation and testing of 
cast-in-place deep foundation elements as required by Table 
1704A.9. The approved gtoitohwicdX report, and the construc- 
tion documents prepared by the registered design profession- 
als, shall be used to determine compliance. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



159 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



TABLE 1704A.5.1 
LEVEL 1 REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 



VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION 


FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION 


REFERENCE FOR CRITERIA 


CONTINUOUS 


PERIODIC 


CBC SECTION 


TMS 402/ACI 
530/ASCE 5^ 


TMS 602/ACI 
530.1/ASCE 6« 


1 . Compliance with required inspection pro- 
visions of the construction documents and 
the approved submittals shall be verified. 


— . 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 1.5 


2. Verification of /^ and/^^ prior to con- 
struction except where specifically 
exempted by this code. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 1.4B 


3. Verification of slump flow and VSI as 
delivered to the site for self-consolidating 
grout. 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. L5B.l.b.3 


4, As masonry construction begins, the following shall be verified to ensure compliance: 


a. Proportions of site-prepared mortar. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 2.6A 


b. Construction of mortar joints. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 3.3B 


c. Location of reinforcement, 
connectors, prestressing tendons 
and anchorages. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 3.4, 3.6A 


d. Prestressing technique. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 3.6B 


e. Grade and size of prestressing 
tendons and anchorages. 


~ 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 2.4B, 2.4H 


5. During construction the inspection program shall verify: 


a. Size and location of structural 
elements. 


~~ 


X 


~ 


— 


Art. 3.3F 


b. Type, size and location of anchors, 
including other details of anchorage 
of masonry to structural members, 
frames or other construction. 


— 


X 


— 


Sec. 1.2.2(e), 
1.16.1 


— 


c. Specified size, grade and type of 
reinforcement, anchor bolts, 
prestressing tendons and 
anchorages. 


— 


X 


— 


Sec. 1.15 


Art. 2.4, 3.4 


d. Welding of reinforcing bars. 


X 


— . 


— 


Sec. 2.1.9.7.2, 
3.3.3.4(b) 


— 


e. Preparation, construction and 
protection of masonry during cold 
weather (temperature below 40°F) 
or hot weather (temperature above 
90^F). 


— 


X 


Sec. 2104A.3, 
2104A.4 


— 


Art. 1.8C, 
1.8D 


f . Application and measurement of 
prestressing force. 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. 3.6B 



(continued) 



160 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



TABLE 1704A.5.1— continued 
LEVEL 1 REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF M>»SONRY CONSTRUCTION 



VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION 


FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION 


REFERENCE FOR CRITERIA 


CONTINUOUS 


PERIODIC 


CSC SECTION 


TMS 402/ACI 
530/ASCE 5" 


TMS 602/ACI 
530.1/ASCE 6= 


6. Prior to grouting, the following shall be verified to ensure compliance: 


a. Grout space is clean. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 3.2D 


b. Placement of reinforcement and 
connectors, and prestressing 
tendons and anchorages. 


— 


X 


— 


Sec. 1.13 


Art. 3.4 


c. Proportions of site-prepared grout 
and prestressing grout for bonded 
tendons. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 2.6B 


d. Construction of mortar joints. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 3.3B 


7. Grout placement shall be verified to 
ensure compliance: 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. 3.5 


a. Grouting of prestressing bonded 
tendons. 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. 3.6C 


8. Preparation of any required grout speci- 
mens, mortar specimens and/or prisms 
shall be observed. 


— 


X 


Sec. 2105A.2.2, 
2105A.3 


— 


Art. 1.4 



For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32J/1.8. 

a. The specific standards referenced are those listed in Chapter 35. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



161 



STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



TABLE 1704A5.3 
LEVEL 2 REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 




VERIFiCATION AND INSPECTION 


CONTINUOUS 


PERIODIC 


REFERENCE FOR CRITERIA 


CHC SECTION 


TMS 402/ACI 
530/ASCE 5^ 


TMS 602/ACI 
530.1/ASCE 6^ 


1. Compliance with required inspection provi- 
sions of the construction documents and the 
approved submittals. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 1.5 


2. Verification of /^ and/^^ prior to construc- 
tion and for every 5,000 square feet during 
construction. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 1.4B 


3. Verification of proportions of materials in 
premixed or preblended mortar and grout as 
delivered to the site. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 1.5B 


4. Verification of slump flow and VSI as deliv- 
ered to the site for self-consohdating grout. 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. l,5B.l.b.3 


5. The following shall be verified to ensure comj 


)liance: 






a. Proportions of site-prepared mortar, 
grout and prestressing grout for bonded 
tendons. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 2.6A 


b. Placement of masonry units and 
construction of mortar joints. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 3.3B 


c. Placement of reinforcement, connectors 
and prestressing tendons and 
anchorages. 


— 


X 


— 


Sec. 1.15 


Art. 3.4, 3.6A 


d. Grout space prior to grout. 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. 3.2D 


e. Placement of grout. 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. 3.5 


f . Placement of prestressing grout. 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. 3.6C 


g. Size and location of structural elements. 


— 


X 


— 


— 


Art. 3.3F 


h. Type, size and location of anchors, 
including other details of anchorage of 
masonry to structural members, frames 
or other construction. 


X 


— 


— 


Sec. 1.2.2(e), 
1.16.1 


— 


i. Specified size, grade and type of 
reinforcement, anchor bolts, 
prestressing tendons and anchorages. 


— 


X 


— 


Sec. 1.15 


Art. 2.4, 3.4 


j. Welding of reinforcing bars. 


X 


— 


~ 


Sec. 2.1.9.7.2, 

3.3.3.4 (b) 


— 


k. Preparation, construction and protection 
of masonry during cold weather 
(temperature below 40°F) or hot 
weather (temperature above 90°F). 


— 


X 


Sec. 2104A.3, 2104A.4 




Art. 1.8C, 1.8D 


1. Application and measurement of 
prestressing force. 


X 


— 


— 


— 


Art. 3.6B 


6. Preparation of any required grout specimens 
and/or prisms shall be observed. 


X 


— 


Sec. 2105A.2.2, 2105A.3 




Art. 1.4 


7. Post-Installed anchors 


X 


— 


1615A.L14[DSA-SS& 

OSHPD] 
1615.1.12 [DSA'SS/CC] 


— 


— 



For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8, 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 

a. The specific standards referenced are those listed in Chapter 35. 



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TABLE 17044.7 
REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF SOILS 



VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION TASK 


CONTINUOUS DURING TASK LISTED 


PERIODICALLY DURING TASK LISTED 


1. Verify materials below shallow foundations are adequate to 
achieve the design bearing capacity. 


— 


X 


2. Verify excavations are extended to proper depth and have 
reached proper material. 


— 


X 


3. Perform classification and testing of compacted fill 
materials. 


— 


X 


4. Verify use of proper materials, densities and lift thicknesses 
during placement and compaction of compacted fill. 


X 


— 


5. Prior to placement of compacted fill, observe subgrade and 
verify that site has been prepared properly. 


— 


X 



TABLE 1704A8 
REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF DRIVEN DEEP FOUNDATION ELEMENTS 



VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION TASK 


CONTINUOUS DURING TASK LISTED 


PERIODICALLY DURING TASK LISTED 


1. Verify element materials, sizes and lengths comply with the 
requirements. 


X 


— 


2. Determine capacities of test elements and conduct additional 
load tests, as required. 


X 


— 


3. Observe driving operations and maintain complete and 
accurate records for each element. 


X 


— 


4. Verify placement locations and plumbness, confirm type and 
size of hammer, record number of blows per foot of 
penetration, determine required penetrations to achieve design 
capacity, record tip and butt elevations and document 
any damage to foundation element. 


X 


— 


5. For steel elements, perform additional inspections in 
accordance with Section 1704 A. 3. 


— 


— 


6. For concrete elements and concrete-filled elements, perform 
additional inspections in accordance with Section 1704A.4. 


— 


— 


7. For specialty elements, perform additional inspections as 
determined by the registered design professional in 
responsible charge. 


— 


— 



TABLE 1704A9 
REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF CAST-IN-PLACE DEEP FOUNDATION ELEMENTS 



VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION TASK 


CONTINUOUS DURING TASK LISTED 


PERIODICALLY DURING TASK LISTED 


1 . Observe driUing operations and maintain complete and 
accurate records for each element. 


X 


— 


2. Verify placement locations and plumbness, confirm element 
diameters, bell diameters (if applicable), lengths, embedment 
into bedrock (if applicable) and adequate end-bearing strata 
capacity. Record concrete or grout volumes. 


X 


— 


3. For concrete elements, perform additional inspections in 
accordance with Section 1704A.4. 


— 


— 



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1704A.10 Helical pile foundations. Special inspections shall 
be performed continuously during installation of helical pile 
foundations. The information recorded shall include installa- 
tion equipment used, pile dimensions, tip elevations, final 
depth, final installation torque and other pertinent installation 
data as required by the registered design professional in 
responsible charge. The approved geotechnical report and the 
construction documents prepared by the registered design pro- 
fessional shall be used to determine compliance. 

1704A.11 Vertical masonry foundation elements. Special 
inspection shall be performed in accordance with Section 
1704A.5 for vertical masonry foundation elements. 

1704A.12 Sprayed fire-resistant materials. Special inspec- 
tions for sprayed fire-resistant materials applied to floor, roof 
and wall assemblies and structural members shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 1704A.12.1 through 1704A.12.6. Special 
inspections shall be based on the fire-resistance design as des- 
ignated in the approved construction documents. The tests set 
forth in this section shall be based on samplings from specific 
floor, roof and wall assemblies and structural members. Spe- 
cial inspections shall be performed after the rough installation 
of electrical, automatic sprinkler, mechanical and plumbing 
systems and suspension systems for ceilings, where applicable. 

1704A.12.1 Physical and visual tests. The special inspec- 
tions shall include the following tests and observations to 
demonstrate compliance with the listing and the fire-resis- 
tance rating: 

1. Condition of substrates. 

2. Thickness of application. 

3. Density in pounds per cubic foot (kg/m^). 

4. Bond strength adhesion/cohesion. 

5. Condition of finished application. 

1704A.12.2 Structural member surface conditions. The 

surfaces shall be prepared in accordance with the approved 
fire-resistance design and the written instructions of 
approved manufacturers. The prepared surface of structural 
members to be sprayed shall be inspected before the appli- 
cation of the sprayed fire-resistant material. 

1704A.12,3 Application. The substrate shall have a mini- 
mum ambient temperature before and after apphcation as 
specified in the written instructions of approved manufac- 
turers. The area for application shall be ventilated during 
and after application as required by the written instructions 
of approved manufacturers. 

1704A.12.4 Thickness. No more than 10 percent of the 
thickness measurements of the sprayed fire-resistant mate- 
rials applied to floor, roof and wall assemblies and structural 
members shall be less than the thickness required by the 
approved fire-resistance design, but in no case less than the 
minimum allowable thickness required by Section 
1704A.12.4.1. 

1704A. 12.4.1 Minimum allowable thickness. For 

design thicknesses 1 inch (25 mm) or greater, the mini- 
mum allowable individual thickness shall be the design 
thickness minus V4 inch (6.4 mm). For design thick- 
nesses less than 1 inch (25 mm), the minimum allowable 



individual thickness shall be the design thickness minus 
25 percent. Thickness shall be determined in accordance 
with ASTM E 605. Samples of the sprayed fire-resistant 
materials shall be selected in accordance with Sections 
1704A. 12.4.2 and 1704A. 12.4.3. 

1704A. 12.4.2 Floor, roof and wall assemblies. The 

thickness of the sprayed fire-resistant material applied to 
floor, roof and wall assemblies shall be determined in 
accordance with ASTM E 605, making not less than four 
measurements for each 1,000 square feet (93 m^) of the 
sprayed area in each story or portion thereof 

1704A.12.4.2.1 Cellular decks. Thickness measure- 
ments shall be selected from a square area, 12 inches 
by 12 inches (305 mm by 305 mm) in size. A mini- 
mum of four measurements shall be made, located 
symmetrically within the square area. 

1704A. 12.4.2.2 Fluted decks. Thickness measure- 
ments shall be selected from a square area, 12 inches 
by 12 inches (305 mm by 305 mm) in size. A mini- 
mum of four measurements shall be made, located 
symmetrically within the square area, including one 
each of the following: valley, crest and sides. The 
average of the measurements shall be reported. 

1704A.12.4.3 Structural members. The thickness of 
the sprayed fire-resistant material applied to structural 
members shall be determined in accordance with ASTM 
E 605. Thickness tesfing shall be performed on not less 
than 25 percent of the structural members on each floor. 

1704A. 12.4.3.1 Beams and girders. At beams and 
girders thickness measurements shall be made at nine 
locations around the beam or girder at each end of a 
12-inch (305 mm) length. 

1704A. 12.4.3.2 Joists and trusses. At joists and 
trusses, thickness measurements shall be made at 
seven locations around the joist or truss at each end of 
a 12-inch (305 mm) length. 

1704A.12.4.3.3 Wide-flanged columns. At wide- 
flanged columns, thickness measurements shall be 
made at 1 2 locations around the colunm at each end of 
a 12-inch (305 mm) length. 

1704A.12.4.3.4 Hollow structural section and pipe 
columns. At hollow structural section and pipe col- 
umns, thickness measurements shall be made at a 
minimum of four locations around the column at each 
end of a 12-inch (305 mm) length. 

1704A.12,5 Density. The density of the sprayed fire-resis- 
tant material shall not be less than the density specified in 
the approved fire-resistance design. Density of the sprayed 
fire-resistant material shall be determined in accordance 
with ASTM E 605. The test samples for determining the 
density of the sprayed fire-resistant materials shall be 
selected as follows: 

1 . From each floor, roof and wall assembly at the rate of 
not less than one sample for every 2,500 square feet 
(232 m^) or portion thereof of the sprayed area in each 
story. 



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2. From beams, girders, trusses and columns at the rate 
of not less than one sample for each type of structural 
member for each 2,500 square feet (232 m^) of floor 
area or portion thereof in each story. 

1704A.12.6 Bond strength. The cohesive/adhesive bond 
strength of the cured sprayed fire-resistant material applied 
to floor, roof and wall assemblies and structural members 
shall not be less than 150 pounds per square foot (psf) (7.18 
kN/m^). The cohesive/adhesive bond strength shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with the field test specified in ASTM E 
736 by testing in-place samples of the sprayed fire-resistant 
material selected in accordance with Sections 1704.12,6.1 
through 1704.12.6.3. 

1704A.12.6.1 Floor, roof and wall assemblies. The test 
samples for determining the cohesive/adhesive bond 
strength of the sprayed fire-resistant materials shall be 
selected from each floor, roof and wall assembly at the rate 
of not less than one sample for every 2,500 square feet 
(232 m^) of the sprayed area in each story or portion 
thereof. 

1704A .12.6.2 Structural members. The test samples 
for determining the cohesive/adhesive bond strength of 
the sprayed fire-resistant materials shall be selected from 
beams, girders, trusses, columns and other structural 
members at the rate of not less than one sample for each 
type of structural member for each 2,500 square feet 
(232 m^) of floor area or portion thereof in each story. 

1704A.12.6.3 Primer, paint and encapsulant bond 
tests. Bond tests to quahfy a primer, paint or encapsulant 
shall be conducted when the sprayed fire-resistant mate- 
rial is applied to a primed, painted or encapsulated sur- 
face for which acceptable bond-strength performance 
between these coatings and the fire-resistant material has 
not been determined. A bonding agent approved by the 
SFRM manufacturer shall be applied to a primed, 
painted or encapsulated surface where the bond strengths 
are found to be less than required values. 

1704A.13 Mastic and intumescent fire-resistant coatings. 

Special inspections for mastic and intumescent fire-resistant 
coatings applied to structural elements and decks shall be in 
accordance with AWCI 12-B. Special inspections shall be 
based on the fire-resistance design as designated in the 
approved construction documents. 

1704A.14 Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS). 

Special inspections shall be required for all EIFS applications. 

Exceptions: 

1. Special inspections shall not be required for EIFS 
applications installed over a water-resistive barrier 
with a means of draining moisture to the exterior. 

2. Special inspections shall not be required for EIFS 
applications installed over masonry or concrete walls. 

1704A.14.1 Water-resistive barrier coating. A water- 
resistive barrier coating complying with ASTM E 2570 
requires special inspection of the water-resistive barrier 
coating when installed over a sheathing substrate. 



1704A.15 Special cases. Special inspections shall be required 
for proposed work that is, in the opinion of the building official, 
unusual in its nature, such as, but not limited to, the following 
examples: 

1. Construction materials and systems that are alternatives 
to materials and systems prescribed by this code. 

2. Unusual design applications of materials described in 
this code. 

3. Materials and systems required to be installed in accor- 
dance with additional manufacturer's instructions that 
prescribe requirements not contained in this code or in 
standards referenced by this code. 

[F] 1704A.16 Special inspection for smoke control. Smoke 
control systems shall be tested by a special inspector, 

[F] 1704A.16.1 Testing scope. The test scope shall be as 
follows: 

1 . During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment 
for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of 
device location. 

2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for 
the purposes of pressure difference testing, flow mea- 
surements and detection and control verification. 

[F] 1704A.16.2 Qualifications. Special inspection agen- 
cies for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection 
engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as air 
balancers. 

1704A,17 Shotcrete, All shotcrete work shall be continuously 
inspected by an inspector specially approved for that purpose 
by the enforcement agency. The special shotcrete inspector 
shall check the materials, placing equipment, details of con- 
struction and construction procedure. The inspector shall fur- 
nish a verified report that of his or her own personal knowledge 
the work covered by the report has been performed and materi- 
als used and installed in every material respect in compliance 
with the duly approved plans and specifications. 

1704AJ7J Visual examination for structural soundness 
of in-place shotcrete. Completed shotcrete work shall be 
checked visually for reinforcing bar embedment, voids, rock 
pockets, sand streaks and similar deficiencies by examining 
a minimum of three 3 -inch (76 mm) cores taken from three 
areas chosen by the design engineer which represent the 
worst congestion of reinforcing bars occurring in the pro- 
ject. Extra reinforcing bars may be added to noncongested 
areas and cores may be taken from these areas. The cores 
shall be examined by the special inspector and a report sub- 
mitted to the enforcement agency prior to final approval of 
the shotcrete. 

Exception: Shotcrete work fully supported on earth, 
minor repairs and when, in the opinion of the enforce- 
ment agency, no special hazard exists. 



SECTION 17054 
STATEMENT OF SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 

1705A.1 General. Where special inspection or testing is 
required by Section 1704A, 1707A or 1708A, the registered 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 



> 



design professional in responsible charge shall prepare a state- 
ment of special inspections in accordance with Section 1705A 
for submittal by the applicant (see Section 1704A.1.1). 

1705A.2 Content of statement of special inspections. The 

statement of special inspections shall identify the following: 

1. The materials, systems, components and work required 
to have special inspection or testing by the building offi- 
cial or by the registered design professional responsible 
for each portion of the work. 

2. The type and extent of each special inspection. 

3. The type and extent of each test. 

4. Additional requirements for special inspection or testing 
for seismic or wind resistance as specified in Section 
1705A.3, 1705A.4, 1707A or 1708A. 

5. For each type of special inspection, identification as to 
whether it will be continuous special inspection or peri- 
odic special inspection. 

1705A.3 Seismic resistance. The statement of special inspec- 
tions shall include seismic requirements for cases covered in 
Sections 1705A.3.1 through 1705A.3.5. 

1705A.3.1 Seismic-force-resisting systems. The seismic- 
force-resisting systems in structures assigned to Seismic 
Design Category C, D, E or F, in accordance with Section 
1613. 

Exception: Requirements for the seismic-force-resist- 
ing system are permitted to be excluded from the state- 
ment of special inspections for steel systems in structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C that are not spe- 
cifically detailed for seismic resistance, with a response 
modification coefficient, /?, of 3 or less, excluding canti- 
lever column systems. 

1705A.3.2 Designated seismic systems. Designated seis- 
mic systems in structures assigned to Seismic Design Cate- 
gory D, E or F. 

1705A.3.3 Seismic Design Category C. The following 
additional systems and components in structures assigned 
to Seismic Design Category C: 

1. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) 
ductwork containing hazardous materials and 
anchorage of such ductwork. 

2. Piping systems and mechanical units containing 
flammable, combustible or highly toxic materials, 

3. Anchorage of electrical equipment used for emer- 
gency or standby power systems. 

1705A.3.4 Seismic Design Category D. The following 
additional systems and components in structures assigned 
to Seismic Design Category D: 

1. Systems required for Seismic Design Category C. 

2. Exterior wall panels and their anchorage. 

3. Suspended ceiling systems and their anchorage. 

4. Access floors and their anchorage. 



5. Steel storage racks and their anchorage, where the 
importance factor is equal to 1.5 in accordance with 
Section 15.5.3 of ASCE 7. 

1705A.3.5 Seismic Design Category E or F. The following 
additional systems and components in structures assigned 
to Seismic Design Category E or F: 

1, Systems required for Seismic Design Categories C 
and D. 

2. Electrical equipment. 

1705A.3.6 Seismic requirements in the statement of special 
inspections. When Sections 1705A.3 through 1705A.3.5 spec- 
ify that seismic requirements be included, the statement of spe- 
cial inspections shall identify the following: 

1. The designated seismic systems and seismic-force- 
resisting systems that are subject to special inspec- 
tions in accordance with Sections 1705 A. 3 through 
1705A.3.5. 

2. The additional special inspections and testing to be 
provided as required by Sections 1707A and 1708A 
and other applicable sections of this code, including 
the applicable standards referenced by this code. 

1705A.4 Wind resistance. The statement of special inspec- 
tions shall include wind requirements for structures con- 
structed in the following areas: 

1. In wind Exposure Category B, where the 3-second-gust 
basic wind speed is 120 miles per hour (mph) (52.8 m/s) or 
greater. 

2. In wind Exposure Category C or D, where the 3-second- 
gust basic wind speed is 1 10 mph (49 m/s) or greater. 

1705A.4.1 Wind requirements in the statement of special 
inspections. When Section 1705 A. 4 specifies that wind 
requirements be included, the statement of special inspec- 
tions shall identify the main wind-force-resisting systems 
and wind-resisting components subject to special inspec- 
tions as specified in Section 1705A.4.2. 

1705A.4.2 Detailed requirements. The statement of spe- 
cial inspections shall include at least the following systems 
and components: 

1 . Roof cladding and roof framing connections. 

2. Wall connections to roof and floor diaphragms and 
framing. 

3. Roof and floor diaphragm systems, including collec- 
tors, drag struts and boundary elements. 

4. Vertical wind-force-resisting systems, including 
braced frames, moment frames and shear walls. 

5 . Wind-force-resisting system connections to the foun- 
dation. 

6. Fabrication and installation of systems or compo- 
nents required to meet the impact-resistance require- 
ments of Section 1609.1.2. 

Exception: Fabrication of manufactured systems or com- 
ponents that have a label indicating compliance with the 
wind-load and impact-resistance requirements of this 
code. 



166 



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SECTION 1706 A 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS FOR 

WIND REQUIREMENTS 

1706A.1 Special inspections for wind requirements. Special 
inspections itemized in Sections 1706A.2 through 1706A.4, 
unless exempted by the exceptions to Section 1704A.1, are 
required for buildings and structures constructed in the follow- 
ing areas: 

1. In wind Exposure Category B, where the 3 -second-gust 
basic wind speed is 120 miles per hour (52.8 m/sec) or 
greater. 

2. In wind Exposure Categories C or D, where the 3-sec- 
ond-gust basic wind speed is 110 mph (49 m/sec) or 
greater. 

1706A,2 Structural wood. Continuous special inspection is 
required during field gluing operations of elements of the main 
windforce-resisting system. Periodic special inspection is 
required for nailing, bolting, anchoring and other fastening of 
components within the main windforce-resisting system, 
including wood shear walls, wood diaphragms, drag struts, 
braces and hold-downs. 

Exception: Special inspection is not required for wood 
shear walls, shear panels and diaphragms, including nailing, 
bolting, anchoring and other fastening to other components 
of the main windforce-resisting system, where the fastener 
spacing of the sheathing is more than 4 inches (102 mm) on 
center. 

1706A.3 Cold-formed steel light-frame construction. Peri- 
odic special inspection is required during welding operations 
of elements of die main windforce-resisting system. Periodic 
special inspection is required for screw attachment, bolting, 
anchoring and other fastening of components within the main 
windforce-resisting system, including shear walls, braces, dia- 
phragms, collectors (drag struts) and hold-downs. 

Exception: Special inspection is not required for 
cold-formed steel hght-frame shear walls, braces, dia- 
phragms, collectors (drag struts) and hold-downs where 
either of the following apply: 

1. The sheathing is gypsum board or fiberboard. 

2. The sheathing is wood structural panel or steel sheets 
on only one side of the shear wall, shear panel or dia- 
phragm assembly and the fastener spacing of the 
sheathing is more than 4 inches (102 mm) on center 
(o.c). 

1706A.4 Wind-resisting components. Periodic special 
inspection is required for the following systems and compo- 
nents: 

1. Roof cladding. 

2. Wall cladding. 



SECTION 1707A 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS FOR 

SEISMIC RESISTANCE 

1707A.1 Special inspections for seismic resistance. Special 
inspections itemized in Sections 1707A.2 through 1707A.9, 
unless exempted by the exceptions of Section 1704A.1, 
1705A.3, or 1705A.3.1, are required for the following: 

1. The seismic-force-resisting systems in structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F, as 
determined in Section 1613. 

2. Designated seismic systems in structures assigned to 
Seismic Design Category D, E or F. 

3. Architectural, mechanical and electrical components in 
structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E 
or F that are required in Sections 1707A.6 and 1707A.7. 

1707/1.2 Structural steel. Special inspection for structural 
steel shall be in accordance with the quality assurance plan 
requirements of AISC 341. 

Exceptions: 

1. Special inspections of structural steel in structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C that are not 
specifically detailed for seismic resistance, with a 
response modification coefficient, R, of 3 or less, 
excluding cantilever column systems. 

2. For ordinary moment frames, ultrasonic and mag- 
netic particle testing of complete joint penetration 
groove welds are only required for demand critical 
welds. 

1707A.3 Structural wood. Continuous special inspection is 
required during field gluing operations of elements of the seis- 
mic-force-resisting system. Periodic special inspection is 
required for nailing, bolting, anchoring and other fastening of 
components within the seismic-force-resisting system, includ- 
ing wood shear walls, wood diaphragms, drag struts, braces, 
shear panels and hold-downs. 

Exception: Special inspection is not required for wood 
shearwalls, shear panels and diaphragms, including nailing, 
bolting, anchoring and other fastening to other components 
of the seismic-force-resisting system, where the fastener 
spacing of the sheathing is more than 4 inches (102 mm) on 
center (o.c.) 

1707A.4 Cold-formed steel light-frame construction. Peri- 
odic special inspection is required during welding operations 
of elements of the seismic-force-resisting system. Periodic 
special inspection is required for screw attachment, bolting, 
anchoring and other fastening of components within the seis- 
mic-force-resisting system, including shear walls, braces, dia- 
phragms, collectors (drag struts) and hold-downs. 

1707A.5 Storage racks and access floors. Periodic special 
inspection is required during the anchorage of access floors 
and storage racks 8 feet (2438 mm) or greater in height in struc- 
tures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F. 

1707A.6 Architectural components. Periodic special inspec- 
tion during the erection and fastening of exterior cladding, inte- 
rior and exterior nonbearing walls and interior and exterior 



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veneer in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E 
orF. 

Exception: [DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC] Special inspection is 
not required for interior nonbearing walls weighing 15 psf 
(73.5 N/m^) or less. 

1707A.7 Mechanical and electrical components. Special 
inspection for mechanical and electrical equipment shall be as 
follows: 

1 . Periodic special inspection is required during the anchor- 
age of electrical equipment for emergency or standby 
power systems in structures assigned to Seismic Design 
Category C, D, E or F; 

2. Periodic special inspection is required during the instal- 
lation of anchorage of other electrical equipment in 
structures assigned to Seismic Design Category E or F; 

3 . Periodic special inspection is required during installation 
of piping systems intended to carry flammable, combus- 
tible or highly toxic contents and their associated 
mechanical units in structures assigned to Seismic 
Design Category C, D, E or F; 

4. Periodic special inspection is required during the instal- 
lation of HVAC ductwork that will contain hazardous 
materials in structures assigned to Seismic Design Cate- 
gory C, D, E or F; and 

5. Periodic special inspection is required during the instal- 
lation of vibration isolation systems in structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F where 
the construction documents require a nominal clearance 
of V4 inch (6.4 mm) or less between the equipment sup- 
port frame and restraint. 

1707A.8 Designated seismic system verifications. The spe- 
cial inspector shall examine designated seismic systems requir- 
ing seismic qualification in accordance with Section 1708A.4 
and verify that the label, anchorage or mounting conforms to 
the certificate of compliance, 

1707 A,9 Seismic isolation and damping systems. Periodic 
special inspection is required during the fabrication and instal- 
lation of isolator units and damping devices. Continuous spe- 
cial inspection is required for prototype and production testing 
of isolator units and damping devices. 



SECTION 17084 

STRUCTURAL TESTING FOR 

SEISMIC RESISTANCE 

1708A.1 Testing and qualification for seismic resistance. 

The testing and qualification specified in Sections 1708A.2 
through 1708A.5, unless exempted from special inspections by 
the exceptions of Section 1704A.1, 1705A.3 or 1705A.3.1 are 
required as follows: 

1. The seismic-force-resisting systems in structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F, as deter- 
mined in Section 161 3A shall meet the requirements of 
Sections 1708A.2 and 1708A.3, as applicable. 

2. Designated seismic systems in structures assigned to 
Seismic Design Category D, E or F subject to the special 



certification requirements of ASCE 7 Section 13.2.2 are 
required to be tested in accordance with Section 
1708A.4. 

3. Architectural, mechanical and electrical components in 
structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F 
are required to be tested in accordance with Section 
1708A.4 where the general design requirements of 
ASCE 7 Section 13.2. 1, Item 2 for manufacturer's certif- 
ication are satisfied by testing. 

4. The seismic isolation system in seismically isolated 
structures and damping devices shall meet the testing 
requirements of Section 1708A.5. 

1708A.2 Concrete reinforcement. Where reinforcement 
complying with ASTM A 615 is used to resist earth- 
quake-induced flexural and axial forces in special moment 
frames, special structural walls and coupling beams connecting 
special structural walls, in structures assigned to Seismic 
Design Category B, C, D, E or F as determined in Section 1613, 
the reinforcement shall comply with Section 21.1.5.2 of ACI 
318. Certified mill test reports shall be provided for each ship- 
ment of such reinforcement. Where reinforcement complying 
with ASTM A 615 is to be welded, chemical tests shall be per- 
formed to determine weldability in accordance with Section 
3.5.2 of ACI 318. 

1708A.3 Structural steel. Testing for structural steel shall be 
in accordance with the quality assurance plan requirements of 
AISC341. 

Exception: For ordinary moment frames, ultrasonic and 
magnetic particle testing of complete joint penetration 
groove welds are only required for demand critical welds. 

1708A.4 Seismic certification of nonstructural compo- 
nents. The registered design professional shall state the appli- 
cable seismic certification requirements for nonstructural 
components and designated seismic systems on the construc- 
tion documents. 

1 . The manufacturer of each designated seismic system 
components subject to the provisions of ASCE 7 Section 
13.2.2 shall test or analyze the component and its mount- 
ing system or anchorage and submit a certificate of com- 
pliance for review and acceptance by the registered 
design professional responsible for the design of the des- 
ignated seismic system and for approval by the building 
official. Certification shall be based on an actual test on a 
shake table, by three-dimensional shock tests, by an ana- 
lytical method using dynamic characteristics and forces, 
by the use of experience data (i.e., historical data demon- 
strating acceptable seismic performance) or by more rig- 
orous analysis providing for equivalent safety. 

[OSHPD 1 & 4] Active or energized components shall 
be certified exclusively on the basis of approved shake 
table testing in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 13.2.5 
or experience data in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 
13,2,6 unless it can be shown that the component is 
inherently rugged by comparison with similar seismi- 
cally certified components. 

Unless specified otherwise in the test standard, a mini- 
mum of two tests are required. Where a range of products 



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are tested, the two tests can be on different size products 
as required by design changes in the internal structures. 

Exception: When a single product (and not a product 
line with more than one product with variations) is 
certified and manufacturing process is ISO 9001 cer- 
tified, one dynamic test shall be permitted. 

For a multicomponent system, where active or ener- 
gized components are certified by tests or experience 
data, connecting elements, attachments and supports 
can be justified by supporting analysis. 

Special seismic certification in accordance withASCE 
7 Section 13.2.2 shall be required for the following sys- 
tems, equipment, and components, unless specified oth- 
erwise by the enforcement agency: 

1. Emergency and standby power systems includ- 
ing generators, turbines, fuel tanks and auto- 
matic transfer switches 

2. Elevator equipment (excluding elevator cabs) 

3. Components with hazardous contents (excluding 
pipes, ducts, and underground tanks) 

4. Smoke control fans 

5. Exhaust fans 

6. Switchgear 

7. Motor control centers 

8. X-Ray machines in fluoroscopy rooms 

9. CT (computerized tomography) Scanners 

10. Air conditioning units 

11. Air handling un its 

12. Chillers 

13. Cooling towers (excluding cooling towers 
designed as nonbuilding structures) 

14. Transformers 

15. Electrical substations 

16. UPS (Inverters) and associated batteries 

17. Distribution panels including electrical panel 
boards 

18. Control panels including fire alarm, fire sup- 
pression, preaction, and auxiliary or remote 
power supplies 

Exceptions: 

1. Equipment and components installed in 
nonconforming buildings, unless the equip- 
ment or component provides a service/system 
or utility to conforming buildings, or building is 
designated as SPC 3 or higher. 

2. Equipment and components weighing not more 
than 20 lbs supported directly on structures 
(and not mounted on other equipment or com- 
ponents) with supports and attachments in 
accordance with ASCE 7 Chapter 13 as modi- 
fied by Section 161 5 A. 



2. Manufacturer's certification of compliance for the gen- < 
eral design requirements of ASCE 7 Section 13.2.1 shall 
be based on analysis, testing or experience data. 

1708A.5 Seismically isolated structures and structures with 
damping devices. For required system tests, see Sections 17.8 
and 18.9 oi ASCEl . 

Prototype and production testing and associated acceptance 
criteria for isolator units and damping devices shall be subject 
to preapproval by the building official. Testing exemption for 
similar units shall require approval by the building official 



SECTION 17094 
CONTRACTOR RESPONSIBILITY 

1709A.1 Contractor responsibility. Each contractor respon- 
sible for the construction of a main wind- or seis- 
mic-force-resisting system, designated seismic system or a 
wind- or seismic-resisting component listed in the statement of 
special inspections shall submit a written statement of respon- 
sibility to the building official and the owner prior to the com- 
mencement of work on the system or component. The 
contractor's statement of responsibility shall contain acknowl- 
edgement of awareness of the special requirements contained 
in the statement of special inspection. 

SECTION 17104 
STRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS 

1710A.1 General. Where required by the provisions of Section 
1710A.2 or 1710A.3, the owner shall employ a registered 
design professional to perform structural observations as 
defined in Section 1702A. 

Prior to the commencement of observations, the structural 
observer shall submit to the building official a written state- 
ment identifying the frequency and extent of structural obser- 
vations. 

At the conclusion of the work included in the permit, the 
structural observer shall submit to the building official a written 
statement that the site visits have been made and identify any 
reported deficiencies which, to the best of the structural 
observer's knowledge, have not been resolved. 

1710A.2 Structural observations for seismic resistance. 

Observation of the construction shall be provided by the archi- 
tect or engineer in responsible charge as set forth in Title 24, 
Parti. 



1710A.3 Structural observations for wind requirements. 

Observation of the construction shall be provided by the archi- 
tect or engineer in responsible charge as set forth in Title 24, 
Part 1. 

SECTION 17114 
DESIGN STRENGTHS OF MATERIALS 

1711A.1 Conformance to standards. The design strengths 
and permissible stresses of any structural material that are iden- 
tified by a manufacturer's designation as to manufacture and 
grade by mill tests, or the strength and stress grade is otherwise 
confirmed to the satisfaction of the building official, shall con- 
form to the specifications and methods of design of accepted 



< 

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engineering practice or the approved rules in the absence of 
applicable standards. 

171 lA .2 New materials. For materials that are not specifically 
provided for in this code, the design strengths and permissible 
stresses shall be established by tests as provided for in Section 

1712A. 



SECTION 17124 
ALTERNATIVE TEST PROCEDURE 

1712A.1 General. In the absence of approved rules or other 
approved standards, the building official shall make, or cause to 
be made, the necessary tests and investigations; or the building 
official shall accept duly authenticated reports from approved 
agencies in respect to the quality and manner of use of new 
materials or assemblies as provided for in Section 104. 1 1. The 
cost of all tests and other investigations required under the pro- 
visions of this code shall be borne by the applicant. 



SECTION 17134 
TEST SAFE LOAD 

1713A.1 Where required. Where proposed construction is not 
capable of being designed by approved engineering analysis, 
or where proposed construction design method does not com- 
ply with the applicable material design standard, the system of 
construction or the structural unit and the connections shall be 
subjected to the tests prescribed in Section 1715A. The build- 
ing official shall accept certified reports of such tests conducted 
by an approved testing agency, provided that such tests meet 
the requirements of this code and approved procedures. 



SECTION 17144 
IN-SITU LOAD TESTS 

1714A.1 GeneraL Whenever there is a reasonable doubt as to 
the stability or load-bearing capacity of a completed building, 
structure or portion thereof for the expected loads, an engineer- 
ing assessment shall be required. The engineering assessment 
shall involve either a structural analysis or an in-situ load test, 
or both. The structural analysis shall be based on actual mate- 
rial properties and other as-built conditions that affect stability 
or load-bearing capacity, and shall be conducted in accordance 
with the applicable design standard. If the structural assess- 
ment determines that the load-bearing capacity is less than that 
required by the code, load tests shall be conducted in accor- 
dance with Section 1714A.2. If the building, structure or por- 
tion thereof is found to have inadequate stability or 
load-bearing capacity for the expected loads, modifications to 
ensure structural adequacy or the removal of the inadequate 
construction shall be required. 

1714A.2 Test standards. Structural components and assem- 
blies shall be tested in accordance with the appropriate material 
standards listed in Chapter 35. In the absence of a standard that 
contains an applicable load test procedure, the test procedure 
shall be developed by a registered design professional and 
approved. The test procedure shall simulate loads and condi- 
tions of application that the completed structure or portion 
thereof will be subjected to in normal use. 



1714A.3 In-situ load tests. In-situ load tests shall be con- 
ducted in accordance with Section 1714A.3.1 or 1714A.3.2and 
shall be supervised by a registered design professional The test 
shall simulate the applicable loading conditions specified in 
Chapter 16 as necessary to address the concerns regarding 
structural stability of the building, structure or portion thereof. 

1714A.3.1 Load test procedure specified. Where a stan- 
dard listed in Chapter 35 contains an applicable load test 
procedure and acceptance criteria, the test procedure and 
acceptance criteria in the standard shall apply. In the 
absence of specific load factors or acceptance criteria, the 
load factors and acceptance criteria in Section 1714A.3.2 
shall apply. 

17144.3.2 Load test procedure not specified. In the 

absence of applicable load test procedures contained within 
a standard referenced by this code or acceptance criteria for 
a specific material or method of construction, such existing 
structure shall be subjected to a test procedure developed by 
a registered design professional that simulates applicable 
loading and deformation conditions. For components that 
are not a part of the seismic-load-resisting system, the test 
load shall be equal to two times the unfactored design loads. 
The test load shall be left in place for a period of 24 hours. 
The structure shall be considered to have successfully met 
the test requirements where the following criteria are satis- 
fied: 

1 . Under the design load, the deflection shall not exceed 
the limitations specified in Section 1604.3. 

2. Within 24 hours after removal of the test load, the 
structure shall have recovered not less than 75 percent 
of the maximum deflection, 

3. During and immediately after the test, the structure 
shall not show evidence of failure. 



SECTION 17154 
PRECONSTRUCTION LOAD TESTS 

1715A.1 General. In evaluating the physical properties of 
materials and methods of construction that are not capable of 
being designed by approved engineering analysis or do not 
comply with applicable material design standards Usted in 
Chapter 35, the structural adequacy shall be predetermined 
based on the load test criteria established in this section. 

1715A.2 Load test procedures specified. Where specific load 
test procedures, load factors and acceptance criteria are 
included in the applicable design standards listed in Chapter 
35, such test procedures, load factors and acceptance criteria 
shall apply. In the absence of specific test procedures, load fac- 
tors or acceptance criteria, the corresponding provisions in 
Section 1715A.3 shall apply. 

1715A.3 Load test procedures not specified. Where load test 
procedures are not specified in the applicable design standards 
listed in Chapter 35, the load-bearing and deformation capacity 
of structural components and assemblies shall be determined 
on the basis of a test procedure developed by a registered 
design professional that simulates applicable loading and 
deformation conditions. For components and assemblies that 



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are not a part of the seismic-force-resisting system, the test 
shall be as specified in Section 17 15A.3 . 1 . Load tests shall sim- 
ulate the applicable loading conditions specified in Chapter 16. 

1715A.3.1 Test procedure. The test assembly shall be sub- 
jected to an increasing superimposed load equal to not less 
than two times the superimposed design load. The test load 
shall be left in place for a period of 24 hours. The tested 
assembly shall be considered to have successfully met the 
test requirements if the assembly recovers not less than 75 
percent of the maximum deflection within 24 hours after the 
removal of the test load. The test assembly shall then be 
reloaded and subjected to an increasing superimposed load 
until either structural failure occurs or the superimposed 
load is equal to two and one-half times the load at which the 
deflection limitations specified in Section 1715A.3.2 were 
reached, or the load is equal to two and one-half times the 
superimposed design load. In the case of structural compo- 
nents and assemblies for which deflection limitations are 
not specified in Section 1715A.3.2, the test specimen shall 
be subjected to an increasing superimposed load until struc- 
tural failure occurs or the load is equal to two and one-half 
times the desired superimposed design load. The allowable 
superimposed design load shall be taken as the lesser of: 

1. The load at the deflection limitation given in Section 

1715A.3.2. 

2. The failure load divided by 2.5. 

3. The maximum load applied divided by 2.5. 

17 ISA .3.2 Deflection. The deflection of structural mem- 
bers under the design load shall not exceed the limitations in 
Section 1604.3. 

1715A.4 Wall and partition assemblies. Load-bearing wall 
and partition assemblies shall sustain the test load both with 
and without window framing. The test load shall include all 
design load components. Wall and partition assemblies shall be 
tested both with and without door and window framing. 

1715A.5 Exterior window and door assemblies. The design 
pressure rating of exterior windows and doors in buildings 
shall be determined in accordance with Section 1715A.5.1 or 
1715A.5.2. 

Exception: Structural wind load design pressures for win- 
dow units smaller than the size tested in accordance with 
Section 1715A.5.1 or 1715A.5.2 shall be permitted to be 
higher than the design value of the tested unit provided such 
higher pressures are determined by accepted engineering 
analysis. All components of the small unit shall be the same 
as the tested unit. Where such calculated design pressures 
are used, they shall be validated by an additional test of the 
window unit having the highest allowable design pressure. 

1715A.5.1 Exterior windows and doors. Exterior windows 
and sliding doors shall be tested and labeled as conforming to 
AAMAAVDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440. The label shall state 
the name of the manufacturer, the approved labeling agency 
and the product designation as specified in AAMA/ 
WDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440. Exterior side-hinged doors 
shall be tested and labeled as conforming to AAMA/ 
WDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440 or comply with Section 



1715A.5.2. Products tested and labeled as conforming to 
AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 shall not be subject to 
the requirements of Sections 2403.2 and 2403.3. 

1715A.5.2 Exterior windows and door assemblies not 
provided for in Section 1715A.5.1. Exterior window and 
door assemblies shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E 
330. Structural performance of garage doors shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with either ASTM E 330 or 
ANSI/DASMA 108, and shall meet the acceptance criteria 
of ANSI/DASMA 108. Exterior window and door assem- 
blies containing glass shall comply with Section 2403. The 
design pressure for testing shall be calculated in accordance 
with Chapter 16. Each assembly shall be tested for 10 sec- 
onds at a load equal to 1.5 times the design pressure. 

1715A.6 Test specimens. Test specimens and construction 
shall be representative of the materials, workmanship and 
details normally used in practice. The properties of the materi- 
als used to construct the test assembly shall be determined on 
the basis of tests on samples taken from the load assembly or on 
representative samples of the materials used to construct the 
load test assembly. Required tests shall be conducted or wit- 
nessed by an approved agency. 



SECTION 17164 
MATERIAL AND TEST STANDARDS 

1716A.1 Test standards for joist hangers and connectors. 

1716A.1.1 Test standards for joist hangers. The vertical 
load-bearing capacity, torsional moment capacity and 
deflection characteristics of joist hangers shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with ASTM D 1761 using lumber hav- 
ing a specific gravity of 0.49 or greater, but not greater than 
0.55, as determined in accordance with AF&PA NDS for 
the joist and headers. 

Exception: The joist length shall not be required to 
exceed 24 inches (610 mm). 

1716A.1.2 Vertical load capacity for joist hangers. The 

vertical load capacity for the joist hanger shall be deter- 
mined by testing a minimum of three joist hanger assem- 
blies as specified in ASTM D 1761. If the ultimate vertical 
load for any one of the tests varies more than 20 percent 
from the average ultimate vertical load, at least three addi- 
tional tests shall be conducted. The allowable vertical load 
of the joist hanger shall be the lowest value determined from 
the following: 

1 . The lowest ultimate vertical load for a single hanger 
from any test divided by three (where three tests are 
conducted and each ultimate vertical load does not 
vary more than 20 percent from the average ultimate 
vertical load). 

2. The average ultimate vertical load for a single hanger 
from all tests divided by three (where six or more tests 
are conducted). 

3. The average from all tests of the vertical loads that 
produce a vertical movement of the joist with respect 
to the header of Vg inch (3.2 mm). 



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4. The sum of the allowable design loads for nails or 
other fasteners utilized to secure the joist hanger to the 
wood members and allowable bearing loads that con- 
tribute to the capacity of the hanger. 

5. The allowable design load for the wood members 
forming the connection. 

1716A.1.3 Torsional moment capacity for joist hangers. 

The torsional moment capacity for the joist hanger shall be 
determined by testing at least three joist hanger assemblies 
as specified in ASTM D 1761. The allowable torsional 
moment of the joist hanger shall be the average torsional 
moment at which the lateral movement of the top or bottom 
of the joist with respect to the original position of the joist is 
Vg inch (3.2 mm). 

1716A.1.4 Design value modifications for joist hangers. 

Allowable design values for joist hangers that are deter- 
mined by Item 4 or 5 in Section 1716A.1.2 shall be permit- 
ted to be modified by the appropriate duration of loading 
factors as specified in AF&PA NDS but shall not exceed the 
direct loads as determined by Item 1, 2 or 3 in Section 
1716A.1.2. Allowable design values determined by Item 1, 
2 or 3 in Section 1716A.1.2 shall not be modified by dura- 
tion of loading factors. 

1716A.2 Concrete and clay roof tiles. 

1716A.2.1 Overturning resistance. Concrete and clay roof 
tiles shall be tested to determine their resistance to overturn- 
ing due to wind in accordance with SBCCI SSTD 11 and 
Chapter 15. 

1716A.2.2 Wind tunnel testing. When roof tiles do not sat- 
isfy the limitations in Chapter 16 for rigid tile, a wind tunnel 
test shall be used to determine the wind characteristics of the 
concrete or clay tile roof covering in accordance with 
SBCCI SSTD 11 and Chapter 15. 



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CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 18 - SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


SS 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire cliapter 


X 




















X 




















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 






X 


X 












X 






















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 










































Chapter/Section 










































1801.2 






X 


X 


































1803.1.1 -1803.1.1.3 






X 


X 


































1803.2 




















X 






















1803.6 




















X 






















1803.7 




















X 






















1810.3.1.5.1 




















X 






















1810.3.10.4.1 




















X 

































































2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



173 



174 2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 18 

SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



This chapter has been revised in its entirety; there will be no marginal markings. 



SECTION 1801 
GENERAL 

1801.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to 
building and foundation systems. 

1801.2 Design basis. Allowable bearing pressures, allowable 
stresses and design formulas provided in this chapter shall be 
used with the allowable stress design load combinations speci- 
fied in Section 1605.3. The quality and design of materials used 
structurally in excavations and foundations shall comply with 
the requirements specified in Chapters 16, 19, 21, 22 and 23 of 
this code. Excavations and fills shall also comply with Chapter 
33. 

[HCD 1] For limited-density owner-built rural dwellings, 
pier foundations, stone masonry footings and foundations, 
pressure-treated lumber, poles or equivalent foundation mate- 
rials or designs may be used, provided that the bearing is suffi- 
cient for the purpose intended. 



SECTION 1802 
DEFINITIONS 

1802.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter, have the meanings shown herein. 

DEEP FOUNDATION. A deep foundation is a foundation 
element that does not satisfy the definition of a shallow founda- 
tion. 

DRILLED SHAFT. A drilled shaft is a cast-in-place deep 
foundation element constructed by drilling a hole (with or 
without permanent casing) into soil or rock and filling it with 
fluid concrete. 

Socketed drilled shaft. A socketed drilled shaft is a drilled 
shaft with a permanent pipe or tube casing that extends 
down to bedrock and an uncased socket drilled into the bed- 
rock. 

HELICAL PILE. Manufactured steel deep foundation ele- 
ment consisting of a central shaft and one or more helical bear- 
ing plates. A helical pile is installed by rotating it into the 
ground. Each helical bearing plate is formed into a screw thread 
with a uniform defined pitch. 

MICROPILE. A micropile is a bored, grouted-in-place deep 
foundation element that develops its load-carrying capacity by 
means of a bond zone in soil, bedrock or a combination of soil 
and bedrock. 

SHALLOW FOUNDATION. A shallow foundation is an 
individual or strip footing, a mat foundation, a slab-on-grade 
foundation or a similar foundation element. 



SECTION 1803 
GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS 

1803.1 General. Geotechnical investigations shall be con- 
ducted in accordance with Section 1803.2 and reported in 
accordance with Section 1803.6. Where required by the build- 
ing official or where geotechnical investigations involve in-situ 
testing, laboratory testing or engineering calculations, such 
investigations shall be conducted by a registered design profes- 
sional, 

1803,1,1 General and where required for applications 
listed in Section 1.8.2,1,1 regulated by the Department of 
Housing and Community Development, [HCD 1] Founda- 
tion and soils investigations shall be conducted in confer- 
ence with Health and Safety Code Sections 17953 through 
17955 as summarized below. 

1803.1.1.1 Preliminary soil report. Each city, county, or 
city and county shall enact an ordinance which requires 
a preliminary soil report, prepared by a civil engineer 
who is registered by the state. The report shall be based 
upon adequate test borings or excavations, of every sub- 
division, where a tentative and final map is required pur- 
suant to Section 66426 of the Government Code, 

The preliminary soil report may be waived if the build- 
ing department of the city, county or city and county, or 
other enforcement agency charged with the administra- 
tion and enforcement of the provisions of this part, shall 
determine that, due to the knowledge such department 
has as to the soil qualities of the soil of the subdivision or 
lot, no preliminary analysis is necessary, 

1803.1.1.2 Soil investigation by lot, necessity, prepara- 
tion^ and recommendations. If the preliminary soil 
report indicates the presence of critically expansive soils 
or other soil problems which, if not corrected, would lead 
to structural defects, such ordinance shall require a soil 
investigation of each lot in the subdivision. 

The soil investigation shall be prepared by a civil engi- 
neer who is registered in this state. It shall recommend 
corrective action which is likely to prevent structural 
damage to each dwelling proposed to be constructed on 
the expansive soil. 

1803.1.1.3 Approval, building permit conditions, 
appeal The building department of each city, county or 
city and county, or other enforcement agency charged 
with the administration and enforcement of the provi- 
sions of this part, shall approve the soil investigation if it 
determines that the recommended action is likely to pre- 
vent structural damage to each dwelling to be con- 
structed. As a condition to the building permit, the 
ordinance shall require that the approved recommended 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



action be incorporated in the construction of each dwell- 
ing. Appeal from such determination shall be to the local 
appeals board. 

1803.2 Investigations required. Geotechnical investigations 
shall be conducted in accordance with Sections 1 803.3 through 
1803.5. 

Exception: The building official shall be permitted to waive 
the requirement for a geotechnical investigation where sat- 
isfactory data from adjacent areas is available that demon- 
strates an investigation is not necessary for any of the 
conditions in Sections 1803.5.1 through 1803.5.6 and Sec- 
tions 1803.5.10 and 1803.5.11. 

[OSHPD 2] Geotechnical reports are not required for 
one-story, wood-frame and light-steel-frame buildings 
of Type V construction and 4,000 square feet (371 m^) or 
less in floor area, not located within Earthquake Fault 
Zones or Seismic Hazard Zones as shown in the most 
recently published nmps from the California Geological 
Survey (CGS). Allowable foundation and lateral soil 
pressure values may be determined from Table 1804.2. 

1803.3 Basis of investigation. Soil classification shall be 
based on observation and any necessary tests of the materials 
disclosed by borings, test pits or other subsurface exploration 
made in appropriate locations. Additional studies shall be 
made as necessary to evaluate slope stability, soil strength, 
position and adequacy of load-bearing soils, the effect of mois- 
ture variation on soil-bearing capacity, compressibility, lique- 
faction and expansiveness. 

1803.3.1 Scope of investigation. The scope of the 
geotechnical investigation including the number and types 
of borings or soundings, the equipment used to drill or sam- 
ple, the in- situ testing equipment and the laboratory testing 
program shall be determined by a registered design profes- 
sional. 

1803.4 Qualified representative. The investigation procedure 
and apparatus shall be in accordance with generally accepted 
engineering practice. The registered design professional shall 
have a fully qualified representative on site during all boring or 
sampling operations. 

1803.5 Investigated conditions. Geotechnical investigations 
shall be conducted as indicated in Sections 1803.5.1 through 
1803.5.12. 

1803.5.1 Classification. Soil materials shall be classified in 
accordance with ASTM D 2487. 

1803.5.2 Questionable soil. Where the classification, 
strength or compressibility of the soil is in doubt or where a 
load-bearing value superior to that specified in this code is 
claimed, the building official shall be permitted to require 
that a geotechnical investigation be conducted. 

1803.5.3 Expansive soil. In areas likely to have expansive 
soil, the building official shall require soil tests to determine 
where such soils do exist. 

Soils meeting all four of the following provisions shall be 
considered expansive, except that tests to show compliance 



with Items 1, 2 and 3 shall not be required if the test pre- 
scribed in Item 4 is conducted: 

1. Plasticity index (PI) of 15 or greater, determined in 
accordance with ASTM D 43 1 8. 

2. More than 10 percent of the soil particles pass a No. 
200 sieve (75 |im), determined in accordance with 
ASTM D 422. 

3. More than 10 percent of the soil particles are less than 
5 micrometers in size, determined in accordance with 
ASTM D 422. 

4. Expansion index greater than 20, determined in 
accordance with ASTM D 4829. 

1803.5.4 Ground-water table. A subsurface soil investiga- 
tion shall be performed to determine whether the existing 
ground- water table is above or within 5 feet (1524 mm) 
below the elevation of the lowest floor level where such 
floor is located below the finished ground level adjacent to 
the foundation. 

Exception: A subsurface soil investigation to determine 
the location of the ground-water table shall not be 
required where waterproofing is provided in accordance 
with Section 1805. 

1803.5.5 Deep foundations. Where deep foundations will 
be used, a geotechnical investigation shall be conducted and 
shall include all of the following, unless sufficient data upon 
which to base the design and installation is otherwise avail- 
able: 

1. Recommended deep foundation types and installed 
capacities. 

2. Recommended center-to-center spacing of deep 
foundation elements. 

3. Driving criteria. 

4. Installation procedures. 

5. Field inspection and reporting procedures (to include 
procedures for verification of the installed bearing 
capacity where required). 

6. Load test requirements. 

7. Suitability of deep foundation materials for the 
intended environment. 

8. Designation of bearing stratum or strata. 

9. Reductions for group action, where necessary. 

1803.5.6 Rock strata. Where subsurface explorations at the 
project site indicate variations or doubtful characteristics in 
the structure of the rock upon which foundations are to be 
constructed, a sufficient number of borings shall be made to 
a depth of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) below the level of 
the foundations to provide assurance of the soundness of the 
foundation bed and its load-bearing capacity. 

1803.5.7 Excavation near foundations. Where excavation 
will remove lateral support from any foundation, an investi- 



176 



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SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



gation shall be conducted to assess the potential conse- 
quences and address mitigation measures. 

1803.5.8 Compacted fill material. Where shallow founda- 
tions will bear on compacted fill material more than 12 
inches (305 mm) in depth, a geotechnical investigation shall 
be conducted and shall include all of the following: 

1 . Specifications for the preparation of the site prior to 
placement of compacted fill material. 

2. Specifications for material to be used as compacted 
fill. 

3. Test methods to be used to determine the maximum 
dry density and optimum moisture content of the 
material to be used as compacted fill, 

4. Maximum allowable thickness of each lift of com- 
pacted fill material. 

5. Field test method for determining the in-place dry 
density of the compacted fill. 

6. Minimum acceptable in-place dry density expressed 
as a percentage of the maximum dry density deter- 
mined in accordance with Item 3. 

7. Number and frequency of field tests required to deter- 
mine compliance with Item 6. 

1803.5.9 Controlled low-strength material (CLSM). 

Where shallow foundations will bear on controlled low- 
strength material (CLSM), a geotechnical investigation 
shall be conducted and shall include all of the following: 

1 . Specifications for the preparation of the site prior to 
placement of the CLSM. 

2. Specifications for the CLSM. 

3. Laboratory or field test method(s) to be used to deter- 
mine the compressive strength or bearing capacity of 
the CLSM. 

4. Test methods for determining the acceptance of the 
CLSM in the field. 

5 . Number and frequency of field tests required to deter- 
mine compliance with Item 4. 

1803.5.10 Alternate setback and clearance. Where set- 
backs or clearances other than those required in Section 
1 808.7 are desired, the building official shall be permitted to 
require a geotechnical investigation by a registered design 
professional to demonstrate that the intent of Section 1 808.7 
would be satisfied. Such an investigation shall include con- 
sideration of material, height of slope, slope gradient, load 
intensity and erosion characteristics of slope material. 

1803.5.11 Seismic Design Categories C through E For 

structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F 
in accordance with Section 1613, a geotechnical investiga- 
tion shall be conducted, and shall include an evaluation of 
all of the following potential geologic and seismic hazards: 

1. Slope instability. 

2. Liquefaction. 

3. Differential settlement. 



4. Surface displacement due to faulting or lateral 
spreading. 

1803.5.12 Seismic Design Categories D through F. For 

structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F in 
accordance with Section 1613, the geotechnical investiga- 
tion required by Section 1803.5.11, shall also include: 

1 . The determination of lateral pressures on foundation 
walls and retaining walls due to earthquake motions. 

2. The potential for liquefaction and soil strength loss 
evaluated for site peak ground accelerations, magni- 
tudes and source characteristics consistent with the 
design earthquake ground motions. Peak ground 
acceleration shall be permitted to be determined 
based on a site-specific study taking into account soil 
amplification effects, as specified in Chapter 21 of 
ASCE 7, or, in the absence of such a study, peak 
ground accelerations shall be assumed equal to 
5^5/2.5, where Sj^s is determined in accordance with 
Section 1613.5,4. 

3 . An assessment of potential consequences of liquefac- 
tion and soil strength loss, including estimation of dif- 
ferential settlement, lateral movement, lateral loads 
on foundations, reduction in foundation soil-bearing 
capacity, increases in lateral pressures on retaining 
walls and flotation of buried structures. 

4. Discussion of mitigation measures such as, but not 
limited to, ground stabilization, selection of appropri- 
ate foundation type and depths, selection of appropri- 
ate structural systems to accommodate anticipated 
displacements and forces, or any combination of 
these measures and how they shall be considered in 
the design of the structure. 

1803.6 Reporting. Where geotechnical investigations are 
required, a written report of the investigations shall be submit- 
ted to the building official by the owner or authorized agent at 
the time of permit application. This geotechnical report shall 
include, but need not be limited to, the following information: 

1 . A plot showing the location of the soil investigations. 

2. A complete record of the soil boring and penetration 
test logs and soil samples. 

3. A record of the soil profile. 

4. Elevation of the water table, if encountered. 

5. Recommendations for foundation type and design cri- 
teria, including but not limited to: bearing capacity of 
natural or compacted soil; provisions to mitigate the 
effects of expansive soils; mitigation of the effects of 
liquefaction, differential settlement and varying soil 
strength; and the effects of adjacent loads. 

6. Expected total and differential settlement. 

7. Deep foundation information in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1803.5.5. 

8 . Special design and construction provisions for founda- 
tions of structures founded on expansive soils, as nec- 
essary. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



177 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



9. Compacted fill material properties and testing in accor- 
dance with Section 1803.5.8. 

1 0. Controlled low-strength material properties and testing 
in accordance with Section 1803.5.9. 

11. [OSHPD 2] The report shall consider the ejfects of 
>l I seismic hazard in accordance with Section 1803.7, 

1803.7 Engineering geologic reports, [OSHPD 2] 

1803.7.1 Geologic and earthquake engineering reports 
shall be required for all proposed construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. Reports are not required for one-story, wood- 
frame and light- steel-frame buildings of Type V 
construction and 4,000 square feet (371 m^) or less 
in floor area, not located within Earthquake Fault 
Zones or Seismic Hazard Zones as shown in the 
most recently published maps from the California 
Geological Survey (CGS); nonstructural, associ- 

I I ated structural or voluntary structural alterations 

and incidental structural additions or alterations, 
and structural repairs for other than earthquake 
damage (See Section 3402 A. 1 for definitions of 
terms in this section). 

2. A previous report for a specific site may be resub- 
mitted, provided that a reevaluation is made and 
the report is found to be currently appropriate. 

1803.7.2 The purpose of the engineering geologic report 
shall be to identify geologic and seismic conditions that may 
require project mitigations. The reports shall contain data 
which provide an assessment of the nature of the site and 
potential for earthquake damage based on appropriate 
investigations of the regional and site geology, project foun- 
dation conditions and the potential seismic shaking at the 
site. The report shall be prepared by a California-certified 
engineering geologist in consultation with a California-reg- 
istered geotechnical engineer 

The preparation of the engineering geologic report shall 
consider the most recent CGS Note 48; Checklist for the 
Review of Engineering Geology and Seismology Reports for 
California Public School, Hospitals, and Essential Services 
Buildings. In addition, the most recent version of CGS Spe- 
cial Publication 42, Fault Rupture Hazard Zones in Califor- 
nia, shall be considered for project sites proposed within an 
Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zone. The most recent ver- 
sion of CGS Special Publication 117, Guidelines for Evalu- 
ating and Mitigating Seismic Hazards in California, shall 
be considered for project sites proposed within a Seismic 
Hazard Zone. All conclusions shall be fully supported by 
satisfactory data and analysis. 

In addition to requirements in Sections 1803.5.11 and 
1803.5.12, the report shall include, but shall not be limited 
to, the following. • 

1. Geologic investigation. 

2. Evaluation of the known active and potentially active 
faults, both regional and local. 



3. Ground-motion parameters, as required by Section 
1613andASCE7. 



SECTION 1804 
EXCAVATION, GRADING AND FILL 

1504.1 Excavation near foundations. Excavation for any pur- 
pose shall not remove lateral support from any foundation 
without first underpinning or protecting the foundation against 
settlement or lateral translation. 

1804.2 Placement of backfilL The excavation outside the 
foundation shall be backfilled with soil that is free of organic 
material, construction debris, cobbles and boulders or with a 
controlled low-strength material (CLSM). The backfill shall be 
placed in lifts and compacted in a manner that does not damage 
the foundation or the waterproofing or dampproofing material. 

Exception: CLSM need not be compacted. 

1804.3 Site grading. The ground immediately adjacent to the 
foundation shall be sloped away from the building at a slope of 
not less than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5 -percent 
slope) for a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) measured 
perpendicular to the face of the wall. If physical obstructions or 
lot lines prohibit 10 feet (3048 mm) of horizontal distance, a 
5-percent slope shall be provided to an approved alternative 
method of diverting water away from the foundation. Swales 
used for this purpose shall be sloped a minimum of 2 percent 
where located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the building foun- 
dation. Impervious surfaces within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the 
building foundation shall be sloped a minimum of 2 percent 
away from the building. 

Exception: Where climatic or soil conditions warrant, the 
slope of the ground away from the building foundation shall 
be permitted to be reduced to not less than one unit vertical 
in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope). 

The procedure used to establish the final ground level adja- 
cent to the foundation shall account for additional settlement of 
the backfill. 

1804.4 Grading and fill in flood hazard areas. In flood haz- 
ard areas established in Section 1612.3, grading and/or fill 
shall not be approved: 

1 . Unless such fill is placed, compacted and sloped to mini- 
mize shifting, slumping and erosion during the rise and 
fall of flood water and, as applicable, wave action. 

2. In floodways, unless it has been demonstrated through 
hydrologic and hydraulic analyses performed by a regis- 
tered design professional in accordance with standard 
engineering practice that the proposed grading or fill, or 
both, will not result in any increase in flood levels during 
the occurrence of the design flood. 

3. In flood hazard areas subject to high- velocity wave 
action, unless such fill is conducted and/or placed to 
avoid diversion of water and waves toward any building 
or structure. 

4. Where design flood elevations are specified but 
floodways have not been designated, unless it has been 
demonstrated that the cumulative effect of the proposed 



178 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



flood hazard area encroachment, when combined with 
all other existing and anticipated flood hazard area 
encroachment, will not increase the design flood eleva- 
tion more than 1 foot (305 mm) at any point. 

1804.5 Compacted fill material. Where shallow foundations 
will bear on compacted fill material, the compacted fill shall 
comply with the provisions of an approved geotechnical report, 
as set forth in Section 1803. 

Exception: Compacted fill material 12 inches (305 mm) in 
depth or less need not comply with an approved report, pro- 
vided the in-place dry density is not less than 90 percent of 
the maximum dry density at optimum moisture content 
determined in accordance with ASTM D 1557. The com- 
paction shall be verified by special inspection in accordance 
with Section 1704.7. 

1804.6 Controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Where 
shallow foundations will bear on controlled low-strength mate- 
rial (CLSM), the CLSM shall comply with the provisions of an 
approved geotechnical report, as set forth in Section 1803. 



SECTION 1805 
DAMPPROOFING AND WATERPROOFING 

1805.1 General. Walls or portions thereof that retain earth and 
enclose interior spaces and floors below grade shall be water- 
proofed and dampproofed in accordance with this section, with 
the exception of those spaces containing groups other than resi- 
dential and institutional where such omission is not detrimental 
to the building or occupancy. 

Ventilation for crawl spaces shall comply with Section 
1203.4. 

1805.1.1 Story above grade plane. Where a basement is 
considered a story above grade plane and the finished 
ground level adjacent to the basement wall is below the 
basement floor elevation for 25 percent or more of the per- 
imeter, the floor and walls shall be dampproofed in accor- 
dance with Section 1805.2 and a foundation drain shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 1805.4,2. The founda- 
tion drain shall be installed around the portion of the perim- 
eter where the basement floor is below ground level. The 
provisions of Sections 1803.5.4, 1805.3 and 1805.4.1 shall 
not apply in this case. 

1805.1.2 Under-floor space. The finished ground level of 
an under-floor space such as a crawl space shall not be 
located below the bottom of the footings. Where there is evi- 
dence that the ground-water table rises to within 6 inches 
(1 52 mm) of the ground level at the outside building perime- 
ter, or that the surface water does not readily drain from the 
building site, the ground level of the under-floor space shall 
be as high as the outside finished ground level, unless an 
approved drainage system is provided. The provisions of 
Sections 1803.5.4, 1805.2, 1805.3 and 1805.4 shall not 
apply in this case. 

1805.1.2.1 Flood hazard areas. For buildings and struc- 
tures in flood hazard areas as established in Section 
1612.3, the finished ground level of an under-floor space 



such as a crawl space shall be equal to or higher than the 
outside finished ground level on at least one side. 

Exception: Under-floor spaces of Group R-3 build- 
ings ±at meet the requirements of FEMA/FIA-TB-1 1 . 

1805.1.3 Ground- water control. Where the ground- water 
table is lowered and maintained at an elevation not less than 
6 inches (152 mm) below the bottom of the lowest floor, the 
floor and walls shall be dampproofed in accordance with 
Section 1805.2. The design of the system to lower the 
ground-water table shall be based on accepted principles of 
engineering that shall consider, but not necessarily be lim- 
ited to, permeability of the soil, rate at which water enters 
the drainage system, rated capacity of pumps, head against 
which pumps are to operate and the rated capacity of the dis- 
posal area of the system. 

1805.2 Dampproofing. Where hydrostatic pressure will not 
occur as determined by Section 1803.5.4, floors and walls for 
other than wood foundation systems shall be dampproofed in 
accordance with this section. Wood foundation systems shall 
be constructed in accordance with AF&PA PWF. 

1805.2.1 Floors. Dampproofing materials for floors shall 
be installed between the floor and the base course required 
by Section 1805.4.1, except where a separate floor is pro- 
vided above a concrete slab. 

Where installed beneath the slab, dampproofing shall 
consist of not less than 6-mil (0.006 inch; 0.152 mm) poly- 
ethylene with joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm), 
or other approved methods or materials. Where permitted to 
be installed on top of the slab, dampproofing shall consist of 
mopped-on bitumen, not less than 4-mil (0.004 inch; 0.102 
mm) polyethylene, or other approved methods or materials. 
Joints in the membrane shall be lapped and sealed in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

1805.2.2 Walls. Dampproofing materials for walls shall be 
installed on the exterior surface of the wall, and shall extend 
from the top of the footing to above ground level. 

Dampproofing shall consist of a bituminous material, 3 
pounds per square yard (16 N/m^) of acrylic modified 
cement, Vg inch (3.2 mm) coat of surface-bonding mortar 
complying with ASTM C 887, any of the materials permit- 
ted for waterproofing by Section 1805.3.2 or other 
approved methods or materials. 

1805.2.2.1 Surface preparation of walls. Prior to appli- 
cation of dampproofing materials on concrete walls, 
holes and recesses resulting from the removal of form 
ties shall be sealed with a bituminous material or other 
approved methods or materials. Unit masonry walls shall 
be parged on the exterior surface below ground level with 
not less than Vg inch (9.5 mm) of portland cement mortar. 
The parging shall be coved at the footing. 

Exception: Parging of unit masonry walls is not 
required where a material is approved for direct appli- 
cation to the masonry. 

1805.3 Waterproofing. Where the ground- water investigation 
required by Section 1803.5.4 indicates that a hydrostatic pres- 
sure condition exists, and the design does not include a 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



179 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



ground- water control system as described in Section 1 805. 1 .3, 
walls and floors shall be waterproofed in accordance with this 
section. 

1805.3.1 Floors. Floors required to be waterproofed shall 
be of concrete and designed and constructed to withstand 
the hydrostatic pressures to which the floors will be sub- 
jected. 

Waterproofing shall be accomplished by placing a mem- 
brane of rubberized asphalt, butyl rubber, ftilly adhered/fully 
bonded HDPE or polyolefin composite membrane or not less 
than 6-mil [0.006 inch (0.152 mm)] polyvinyl chloride with 
joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm) or other 
approved materials under the slab. Joints in the membrane 
shall be lapped and sealed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. 

1805.3.2 Walls. Walls required to be waterproofed shall be 
of concrete or masonry and shall be designed and con- 
structed to withstand the hydrostatic pressures and other lat- 
eral loads to which the walls will be subjected. 

Waterproofing shall be applied from the bottom of the 
wall to not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the maxi- 
mum elevation of the ground-water table. The remainder of 
the wall shall be dampproofed in accordance with Section 
1805.2.2. Waterproofing shall consist of two-ply 
hot-mopped felts, not less than 6-mil (0.006 inch; 0.152 
mm) polyvinyl chloride, 40-mil (0.040 inch; 1.02 mm) 
polymer-modified asphalt, 6-mil (0.006 inch; 0.152 mm) 
polyethylene or other approved methods or materials capa- 
ble of bridging nonstructural cracks. Joints in the membrane 
shall be lapped and sealed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. 

1805.3.2.1 Surface preparation of walls. Prior to the 
application of waterproofing materials on concrete or 
masonry walls, the walls shall be prepared in accordance 
with Section 1805.2.2.1. 

1805.3.3 Joints and penetrations. Joints in walls and 
floors, joints between the wall and floor and penetrations of 
the wall and floor shall be made water-tight utilizing 
approved methods and materials. 

1805.4 Subsoil drainage system. Where a hydrostatic pres- 
sure condition does not exist, dampproofing shall be provided 
and a base shall be installed under the floor and a drain installed 
around the foundation perimeter, A subsoil drainage system 
designed and constructed in accordance with Section 1805. 1 .3 
shall be deemed adequate for lowering the ground- water table. 

1805.4.1 Floor base course. Floors of basements, except as 
provided for in Section 1 805 .1.1, shall be placed over a floor 
base course not less than 4 inches ( 1 02 mm) in thickness that 
consists of gravel or crushed stone containing not more than 
lOpercentof material that passes throughaNo. 4(4.75 mm) 
sieve. 

Exception: Where a site is located in well-drained gravel 
or sand/gravel mixture soils, a floor base course is not 
required. 

1805.4.2 Foundation drain. A drain shall be placed around 
the perimeter of a foundation that consists of gravel or 



crushed stone containing not more than 10-percent material 
that passes through a No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve. The drain shall 
extend a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) beyond the out- 
side edge of the footing. The thickness shall be such that the 
bottom of the drain is not higher than the bottom of the base 
under the floor, and that the top of the drain is not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) above the top of the footing. The top of the 
drain shall be covered with an approved filter membrane 
material. Where a drain tile or perforated pipe is used, the 
invert of the pipe or tile shall not be higher than the floor ele- 
vation. The top of joints or the top of perforations shall be 
protected with an approved filter membrane material. The 
pipe or tile shall be placed on not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
of gravel or crushed stone complying with Section 
1805.4.1, and shall be covered with not less than 6 inches 
(152 mm) of the same material. 

1805.4.3 Drainage discharge. The floor base and founda- 
tion perimeter drain shall discharge by gravity or mechani- 
cal means into an approved drainage system that complies 
with the California Plumbing Code. 

Exception: Where a site is located in well-drained gravel 
or sand/gravel mixture soils, a dedicated drainage system 
is not required. 



SECTION 1806 
PRESUMPTIVE LOAD-BEARING VALUES OF SOILS 

1806.1 Load combinations. The presumptive load-bearing 
values provided in Table 1806.2 shall be used with the allow- 
able stress design load combinations specified in Section 
1605.3. The values of vertical foundation pressure and lateral 
bearing pressure given in Table 1806.2 shall be permitted to be 
increased by one-third where used with the alternative basic 
load combinations of Section 1605.3.2 that include wind or 
earthquake loads. 

1806.2 Presumptive load-bearing values. The load-bearing 
values used in design for supporting soils near the surface shall 
not exceed the values specified in Table 1806.2 unless data to 
substantiate the use of higher values are submitted and 
approved. Where the building official has reason to doubt the 
classification, strength or compressibility of the soil, the 
requirements of Section 1803.5.2 shall be satisfied. 

Presumptive load-bearing values shall apply to materials 
with similar physical characteristics and dispositions. Mud, 
organic silt, organic clays, peat or unprepared fill shall not be 
assumed to have a presumptive load-bearing capacity unless 
data to substantiate the use of such a value are submitted. 

Exception: A presumptive load-bearing capacity shall be 
permitted to be used where the building official deems the 
load-bearing capacity of mud, organic silt or unprepared fill 
is adequate for the support of lightweight or temporary 
structures. 

1806.3 Lateral load resistance. Where the presumptive val- 
ues of Table 1806.2 are used to determine resistance to lateral 
loads, the calculations shall be in accordance with Sections 
1806.3.1 through 1806.3.4. 



180 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



1806.3.1 Combined resistance. The total resistance to lat- 
eral loads shall be permitted to be determined by combining 
the values derived from the lateral bearing pressure and the 
lateral sliding resistance specified in Table 1806.2. 

1806.3.2 Lateral sliding resistance limit. For clay, sandy 
clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt and sandy silt, in no case shall 
the lateral sliding resistance exceed one-half the dead load. 

1806.3.3 Increase for depth. The lateral bearing pressures 
specified in Table 1806.2 shall be permitted to be increased 
by the tabular value for each additional foot (305 mm) of 
depth to a maximum of 15 times the tabular value. 

1806.3.4 Increase for poles. Isolated poles for uses such as 
flagpoles or signs and poles used to support buildings that 
are not adversely affected by a V2 inch (12.7 mm) motion at 
the ground surface due to short-term lateral loads shall be 
permitted to be designed using lateral bearing pressures 
equal to two times the tabular values. 



SECTION 1807 

FOUNDATION WALLS, RETAINING WALLS AND 

EMBEDDED POSTS AND POLES 

1807.1 Foundation walls. Foundation walls shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with Sections 1807.1.1 through 
1807.1.6. Foundation walls shall be supported by foundations 
designed in accordance with Section 1808. 

1807.1.1 Design lateral soil loads. Foundation walls shall 
be designed for the lateral soil loads set forth in Section 
1610. 

1807.1.2 Unbalanced backfill height. Unbalanced backfill 
height is the difference in height between the exterior finish 
ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing 
that supports the foundation wall or the interior finish 
ground level. Where an interior concrete slab on grade is 



provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the 
foundation wall, the unbalanced backfill height shall be per- 
mitted to be measured from the exterior finish ground level 
to the top of the interior concrete slab. 

1807.1.3 Rubble stone foundation walls. Foundafion 
walls of rough or random rubble stone shall not be less than 
1 6 inches (406 mm) thick. Rubble stone shall not be used for 
foundation walls of structures assigned to Seismic Design 
Category C, D, E or F. 

1807.1.4 Permanent wood foundation systems. Permanent 
wood foundation systems shall be designed and installed in 
accordance with AF&PA PWF. Lumber and plywood shall 
be treated in accordance with AWPA Ul (Commodity Speci- 
fication A, Use Category 4B and Section 5.2) and shall be 
identified in accordance with Section 2303.1.8.1. 

1807.1.5 Concrete and masonry foundation walls. Con- 
crete and masonry foundation walls shall be designed in 
accordance with Chapter 19 or 21, as applicable. 

Exception: Concrete and masonry foundation walls shall 
be permitted to be designed and constructed in accordance 
with Section 1807.1.6. 

1807.1.6 Prescriptive design of concrete and masonry 
foundation walls. Concrete and masonry foundation walls 
that are laterally supported at the top and bottom shall be 
permitted to be designed and constructed in accordance 
with this section, 

1807.1.6.1 Foundation wall thickness. The thickness 
of prescriptively designed foundation walls shall not be 
less than the thickness of the wall supported, except that 
foundation walls of at least 8-inch (203 mm) nominal 
width shall be permitted to support brick- veneered frame 
walls and 10-inch- wide (254 mm) cavity walls provided 
the requirements of Section 1807.1.6.2 or 1807.1.6.3 are 
met. 



TABLE 1806.2 
PRESUMPTIVE LOAD-BEARING VALUES 



CLASS OF MATERIALS 


VERTICAL FOUNDATION 
PRESSURE (psf) 


LATERAL BEARING 

PRESSURE 

(psf/ft below natural grade) 


LATERAL SLIDING RESISTANCE 


Coefficient of friction^ 


Cohesion (psf)** 


1 . Crystalline bedrock 


12,000 


1,200 


0.70 


— 


2. Sedimentary and foliated rock 


4,000 


400 


0.35 


— 


3. Sandy gravel and/or gravel (GW and 
GP) 


3,000 


200 


0,35 


~ 


4. Sand, silty sand, clayey sand, silty 
gravel and clayey gravel (SW, SP, 
SM, SC, GM and GC) 


2,000 


150 


0.25 


— 


5. Clay, sandy clay, silty clay, clayey 
silt, silt and sandy silt (CL, ML, MH 
and CH) 


1,500 


100 


~ 


130 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/m. 

a. Coefficient to be multiplied by the dead load. 

b. Cohesion value to be multiplied by the contact area, as limited by Section 1806.3.2. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



181 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



1807.1.6.2 Concrete foundation walls. Concrete foun- 
dation walls shall comply with the following: 

1. The thickness shall comply with the requirements 
of Table 1807.1.6.2. 



2. 



The size and spacing of vertical reinforcement 
shown in Table 1807.1.6.2 is based on the use of 
reinforcement with a minimum yield strength of 
60,000 pounds per square inch (psi) (414 MPa). 
Vertical reinforcement with a minimum yield 
strength of 40,000 psi (276 MPa) or 50,000 psi 
(345 MPa) shall be permitted, provided the same 
size bar is used and the spacing shown in the table 
is reduced by multiplying the spacing by 0.67 or 
0.83, respectively. 



3. Vertical reinforcement, when required, shall be 
placed nearest the inside face of the wall a dis- 
tance, d, from the outside face (soil face) of the 
wall. The distance, d, is equal to the wall thickness, 
f, minus 1.25 inches (32 nam) plus one-half the bar 
diameter, J^, [ J = f - ( 1 .25 -i- J^, / 2) ] . The reinforce- 
ment shall be placed within a tolerance of ± % inch 
(9.5 mm) where d is less than or equal to 8 inches 
(203 mm) or ± Vj inch ( 1 2.7 mm) where d is greater 
than 8 inches (203 mm). 

4. In lieu of the reinforcement shown in Table 
1807.1.6.2, smaller reinforcing bar sizes with 
closer spacings that provide an equivalent 
cross-sectional area of reinforcement per unit 
length shall be permitted. 



TABLE 1807.1.6.2 
CONCRETE FOUNDATION WALLS" ' 



MAXIMUM 


MAXIMUM 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Design lateral soil load° (psf per foot of depth) 


30^ 


45^ 


60 


WALL 
HEIGHT 


UNBALANCED 
BACKFILL 


Minimum wall thickness (inches) 




















(feet) 


HEIGHr (feet) 


7.5 


9.5 


11.5 


7.5 


9.5 


11.5 


7.5 


9.5 


11.5 


5 


4 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


5 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 




4 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


6 


5 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 




6 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 




4 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


7 


5 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


6 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#5 at 48 


PC 


PC 




7 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#5 at 46 


PC 


PC 


#6 at 48 


PC 


PC 




4 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 




5 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


8 


6 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#5 at 43 


PC 


PC 




7 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#5 at 41 


PC 


PC 


#6 at 43 


PC 


PC 




8 


#5 at 47 


PC 


PC 


#6 at 43 


PC 


PC 


#6 at 32 


#6 at 44 


PC 




4 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 




5 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


9 


6 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#5 at 39 


PC 


PC 


7 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#5 at 37 


PC 


PC 


#6 at 38 


#5 at 37 


PC 




8 


#5 at 41 


PC 


PC 


#6 at 38 


#5 at 37 


PC 


#7 at 39 


#6 at 39 


#4 at 48 




9d 


#6 at 46 


PC 


PC 


#7 at 41 


#6 at 41 


PC 


#7 at 31 


#7 at 41 


#6 at 39 




4 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 




5 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 




6 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#5 at 37 


PC 


PC 


10 


7 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#6 at 48 


PC 


PC 


#6 at 35 


#6 at 48 


PC 




8 


#5 at 38 


PC 


PC 


#7 at 47 


#6 at 47 


PC 


#7 at 35 


#7 at 47 


#6 at 45 




9d 


#6 at 41 


#4 at 48 


PC 


#7 at 37 


#7 at 48 


#4 at 48 


#6 at 22 


#7 at 37 


#7 at 47 




10^ 


#7 at 45 


#6 at 45 


PC 


#7 at 31 


#7 at 40 


#6 at 38 


#6 at 22 


#7 at 30 


#7 at 38 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157kPa/m. 

a. For design lateral soil loads, see Section 1610. 

b. Provisions for this table are based on design and construction requirements specified in Section 1807.1.6.2. 

c. "PC" means plain concrete. 

d. Where unbalanced backfill height exceeds 8 feet and design lateral soil loads from Table 16 10. 1 are used, the requirements for 30 and 45 psf per foot of depth are 
not applicable (see Section 1610). 

e. For height of unbalanced backfill, see Section 1807.1.2. 



182 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SOILS AND FOUNDATBONS 



5. Concrete cover for reinforcement measured from 
the inside face of the wall shall not be less than V4 
inch (19.1 mm). Concrete cover for reinforcement 
measured from the outside face of the wall shall 
not be less than 1 V2 inches (38 mm) for No. 5 bars 
and smaller, and not less than 2 inches (5 1 nmi) for 
larger bars. 

6. Concrete shall have a specified compressive 
strength,/^, of not less than 2,500 psi (17.2 MPa). 

7. The unfactored axial load per linear foot of wall 
shall not exceed 1.2 tf\ where t is the specified 
wall thickness in inches. 

1807.1.6.2.1 Seismic requirements. Based on the 
seismic design category assigned to the structure in 
accordance with Section 1613, concrete foundation 
walls designed using Table 1807.1.6.2 shall be sub- 
ject to the following limitations: 

1. Seismic Design Categories A and B. No addi- 
tional seismic requirements, except provide 
reinforcement around openings in accordance 
with Section 1909.6.3. 

2. Seismic Design Categories C, D, E and F. 
Tables shall not be used except as allowed for 
plain concrete members in Section 1908.1.8. 

1807.1.6.3 Masonry foundation walls. Masonry foun- 
dation walls shall comply with the following: 



1. The thickness shall comply with the require- 
ments of Table 1807.1.6.3(1) for plain masonry 
walls or Table 1807.1.6.3(2), 1807.1.6.3(3) or 
1807.1.6.3(4) for masonry walls with reinforce- 
ment. 

2. Vertical reinforcement shall have a minimum 
yield strength of 60,000 psi (414 MPa). 

3 . The specified location of the reinforcement shall 
equal or exceed the effective depth distance, d, 
noted in Tables 1807.1.6.3(2), 1807.1.6.3(3) and 
1807.1.6.3(4) and shall be measured from the 
face of the exterior (soil) side of the wall to the 
center of the vertical reinforcement. The rein- 
forcement shall be placed within the tolerances 
specified in TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6, Arti- 
cle 3.3.B.8 of the specified location. 

4. Grout shall comply with Section 2103.12. 

5. Concrete masonry units shall comply with 
ASTM C 90. 

6. Clay masonry units shall comply with ASTM C 
652 for hollow brick, except compliance with 
ASTM C 62 or ASTM C 216 shall be permitted 
where solid masonry units are installed in accor- 
dance with Table 1807.1.6.3(1) for plain 
masonry. 



TABLE 1807.1.6.3(1) 
PLAIN MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS^*' '^ 



MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 
BACKFILL HEIGHr(feet) 


MINIMUM NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS (inches) 


Design lateral soil load° (psf per foot of depth) 


30^ 


45^ 


60 


7 


4 (or less) 
5 
6 
7 


8 
8 

10 
12 


8 

10 

12 

10 (solid'=) 


8 

10 
10 (solid'=) 
10 (solid'^) 


8 


4 (or less) 
5 
6 
7 
8 


8 

8 

10 

12 

10 (solid'^) 


8 

10 

12 
12 (solid^) 
12 (solid^) 


8 

12 

12 (solid^) 

Noted 

Noted 


9 


4 (or less) 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9f 


8 

8 

12 

12 (solid^) 

12 (solid'^) 

Noted 


8 

10 

12 

12 (solid^) 

Noted 

Noted 


8 

12 

12 (solid^) 

Noted 

Noted 

Noted 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157kPa/m. 

a. For design lateral soil loads, see Section 1610. 

b. Provisions for this table are based on design and construction requirements speciied in Section 1807.1.6.3. 

c. Solid grouted hollow units or solid masonry units. 

d. A design in compliance with Chapter 21 or reinforcement in accordance with 'Eible 1807.1.6.3(2) is required. 

e. For height of unbalanced backfill, see Section 1807.1.2. 

f. Where unbalanced backfill height exceeds 8 feet and design lateral soil loads from Table 1 61 0. 1 are used, the requirements for 30 and 45 psf per foot of depth are 
not applicable (see Section 1610). 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



183 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



7. Masonry units shall be laid in running bond and 
installed with Type M or S mortar in accordance 
with Section 2103.8. 

8. The unfactored axial load per linear foot of wall 
shall not exceed 1.2 tf'^ where t is the specified 
wall thickness in inches and/'^ is the specified 
compressive strength of masonry in pounds per 
square inch. 

9 . At least 4 inches ( 1 02 mm) of solid masonry shall 
be provided at girder supports at the top of hol- 
low masonry unit foundation walls. 

10. Corbeling of masonry shall be in accordance 
with Section 2104.2. Where an 8-inch (203 mm) 
wall is corbeled, the top corbel shall not extend 
higher than the bottom of the floor framing and 



shall be a full course of headers at least 6 inches 
(152 mm) in length or the top course bed joint 
shall be tied to the vertical wall projection. The 
tie shall be W2.8 (4.8 mm) and spaced at a maxi- 
mum horizontal distance of 36 inches (914 mm). 
The hollow space behind the corbelled masonry 
shall be filled with mortar or grout. 

1807.1.6.3.1 Alternative foundation wall reinforce- 
ment. In lieu of the reinforcement provisions for 
masonry foundation walls in Table 1807.1.6.3(2), 
1807.1.6.3(3) or 1807.1.6.3(4), alternative reinforcing 
bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sec- 
tional area of reinforcement per linear foot (nma) of 
wall shall be permitted to be used, provided the spacing 
of reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches (1 829 mm) 
and reinforcing bar sizes do not exceed No. 1 1 . 



TABLE 1807.1.6.3(2) 
8-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCEMENT WHERE d > 5 INCHES^'* * 



MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT 
(feet-inches) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT*^ 

(feet-inches) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Design lateral soil load^(psf per foot of depth) 


30® 


45® 


60 


7-4 


4-0 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 
7-4 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 


. #4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#7 at 48 


8-0 


4-0 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 
7-0 
8-0 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#5 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#6 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#7 at 48 
#7 at 48 


8-8 


4-0 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 
7-0 
8-8^ 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#7 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#7 at 48 
#8 at 48 


9-4 


4-0 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 
7-0 
8-0 
9-4^ 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#7 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#7 at 48 
#8 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#7 at 48 
#8 at 48 
#9 at 48 


10-0 


4-0 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 
7-0 
8-0 
9-0^ 
10-0^ 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#7 at 48 
#7 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#7 at 48 
#8 at 48 
#9 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#7 at 48 
#8 at 48 
#9 at 48 
#9 at 48 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157kPa/m. 

a. For design lateral soil loads, see Section 1610. 

b. Provisions for this table are based on design and construction requirements specified in Section 1807.1.6.3. 

c. For alternative reinforcement, see Section 1807.1.6.3.1. 

d. For height of unbalanced backfill, see Section 1 807. 1 .2. 

e. Where unbalanced backfill height exceeds 8 feet and design lateral soil loads from Table 16 1 0. 1 are used, the requirements for 30 and 45 psf per foot of depth are 
not applicable. See Section 1610. 



184 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



1807.1.6.3.2 Seismic requirements. Based on the 
seismic design category assigned to the structure in 
accordance with Section 1613, masonry foundation 
walls designed using Tables 1807.1.6.3(1) through 
1 807. 1 .6.3(4) shall be subject to the following limita- 
tions: 

1. Seismic Design Categories A and B. No addi- 
tional seismic requirements. 

2. Seismic Design Category C. A design using 
Tables 1807.1.6.3(1) through 1807.1.6.3(4) is 
subject to the seismic requirements of Section 
1.17.4.3 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5. 

3. Seismic Design Category D. A design using 
Tables 1807.1.6.3(2) through 1807.1.6.3(4) is 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



subject to the seismic requirements of Section 
1.17.4.4 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5. 

4. Seismic Design Categories E and F. A design 
using Tables 1807.1.6.3(2) through 
1807.1.6.3(4) is subject to the seismic require- 
ments of Section 1.17.4.5 of TMS 402/ACI 
530/ASCE 5. 

1807.2 Retaining walls. Retaining walls shall be designed in 
accordance with Sections 1807.2.1 through 1807.2.3. 

1807.2.1 General, Retaining walls shall be designed to 
ensure stability against overturning, sliding, excessive foun- 
dation pressure and water uplift. Where a key way is extended 
below the wall base with the intent to engage passive pressure 
and enhance sliding stability, lateral soil pressures on both 



TABLE 1807,1.6.3(3) 
10-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCEMENT WHERE d > 6.75 INCHES ^'^"^ 



MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT 
(feet-inches) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHr* 

(feet-Inches) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Design lateral soil ioad° (psf per foot of depth) 


30® 


45® 


60 


7-4 


4-0 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 
7-4 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#5 at 56 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#5 at 56 
#6 at 56 


8-0 


4-0 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 
7-0 
8-0 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#5 at 56 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 5 
#4 at 56 
#5 at 56 
#6 at 56 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#5 at 56 
#6 at 56 
#7 at 56 


8-8 


4-0 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 
7-0 
8-8^ 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#5 at 56 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#5 at 56 
#7 at 56 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#5 at 56 
#6 at 56 
#8 at 56 


9-4 


4-0 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 
7-0 
8-0 
9-4^ 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#5 at 56 
#6 at 56 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#5 at 56 
#5 at 56 
#6 at 56 
#7 at 56 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#5 at 56 

#6 at 56 
#7 at 56 
#7 at 56 


10-0 


4-0 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 
7-0 
8-0 
9-0^ 
10-0^ 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#5 at 56 
#5 at 56 
#6 at 56 
#7 at 56 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#5 at 56 
#6 at 56 
#7 at 56 
#7 at 56 
#8 at 56 


#4 at 56 
#4 at 56 
#5 at 56 
#7 at 56 
#8 at 56 
#9 at 56 
#9 at 56 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 1.157k:Pa/m. 

a. For design lateral soil loads, see Section 1610. 

b. Provisions for this table are based on design and construction requirements specified in Section 1807.1.6.3. 

c. For alternative reinforcement, see Section 1807.1.6.3.1. 

d. For height of unbalanced backfill, See Section 1 807 .1.2. 

e. Where unbalanced backfill height exceeds 8 feet and design lateral soil loads from Table 1610. 1 are used, the requirements for 30 and 45 psf per foot of depth are 
not applicable. See Section 1610. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



185 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



sides of the key way shall be considered in the sliding analy- 
sis. 

1807.2.2 Design lateral soil loads. Retaining walls shall be 
designed for the lateral soil loads set forth in Section 1610. 

1807.2.3 Safety factor. Retaining walls shall be designed to 
resist the lateral action of soil to produce sliding and over- 
turning with a minimum safety factor of 1.5 in each case. 
The load combinations of Section 1605 shall not apply to 
this requirement. Instead, design shall be based on 0.7 times 
nominal earthquake loads, 1.0 times other nominal loads, 
and investigation with one or more of the variable loads set 
to zero. The safety factor against lateral sliding shall be 
taken as the available soil resistance at the base of the retain- 
ing wall foundation divided by the net lateral force applied 
to the retaining wall. 



Exception: Where earthquake loads are included, the 
minimum safety factor for retaining wall sliding and 
overturning shall be 1.1. 

1807.3 Embedded posts and poles. Designs to resist both 
axial and lateral loads employing posts or poles as columns 
embedded in earth or in concrete footings in earth shall be in 
accordance with Sections 1807.3.1 through 1807.3.3. 

1807.3.1 Limitations. The design procedures outlined in 
this section are subject to the following limitations: 

1 . The frictional resistance for structural walls and slabs 
on silts and clays shall be limited to one-half of the 
normal force imposed on the soil by the weight of the 
footing or slab. 

2. Posts embedded in earth shall not be used to provide 
lateral support for structural or nonstructural materi- 



TABLE 1807.1.6.3(4) 
12-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCEMENT WHERE d > 8.75 INCHES^' '^'^ 



MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT 
(feet-inches) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT* 

(feet-Inches) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Design lateral soil load° (psf per foot of depth) 


30« 


45° 


60 


7-4 


4 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 

7-4 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#5 at 72 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#5 at 72 
#6 at 72 


8-0 


4 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 
7-0 
8-0 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#5 at 72 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#5 at 72 
#6 at 72 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#5 at 72 
#6 at 72 
#8 at 72 


8-8 


4 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 
7-0 
8-8^ 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#5 at 72 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#5 at 72 
#7 at 72 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#5 at 72 
#6 at 72 
#8 at 72 


9-4 


4 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 
7-0 
8-0 
9-4^ 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#5 at 72 
#6 at 72 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#5 at 72 
#5 at 72 
#6 at 72 
#7 at 72 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#5 at 72 
#6 at 72 
#7 at 72 
#8 at 72 


10-0 


4 (or less) 
5-0 
6-0 
7-0 
8-0 
9-0^ 
10-0^ 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#5 at 72 
#6 at 72 
#7 at 72 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#5 at 72 
#6 at 72 
#6 at 72 
#7 at 72 
#8 at 72 


#4 at 72 
#4 at 72 
#5 at 72 
#6 at 72 
#7 at 72 
#8 at 72 
#9 at 72 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/m. 

a. For design lateral soil loads, see Section 1610. 

b. Provisions for this table are based on design and construction requirements specified in Section 1807.1.6.3. 

c. For alternative reinforcement, see Section 1 807. 1 .6.3. 1 . 

d. For height of unbalanced backfill, see Section 1807.1.2, 

e. Where unbalanced backfill height exceeds 8 feet and design lateral soil loads from Table 1610. 1 are used, the requirements for 30 and 45 psf per foot of depth are 
not applicable. See Section 1610. 



186 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



als such as plaster, masonry or concrete unless brac- 
ing is provided that develops the limited deflection 
required. 

Wood poles shall be treated in accordance with AWPA 
Ul for sawn timber posts (Commodity Specification A, Use 
Category 4B) and for round timber posts (Commodity 
Specification B, Use Category 4B). 

1807.3.2 Design criteria. The depth to resist lateral loads 
shall be determined using the design criteria established in 
Sections 1807.3.2.1 through 1807.3.2.3, or by other meth- 
ods approved by the building official. 

1807.3.2.1 Nonconstrained. The following formula 
shall be used in determining the depth of embedment 
required to resist lateral loads where no lateral constraint 
is provided at the ground surface, such as by a rigid floor 
or rigid ground surface pavement, and where no lateral 
constraint is provided above the ground surface, such as 
by a structural diaphragm. 



d=0,5A{l + [l+(4.36h/A)y^^} 
where: 



(Equation 18-1) 



d = 



h = 



A = 234P/S^b, 

b = Diameter of round post or footing or diagonal 
dimension of square post or footing, feet (m). 

Depth of embedment in earth in feet (m) but not 
over 12 feet (3658 mm) for purpose of comput- 
ing lateral pressure. 

Distance in feet (m) from ground surface to point 
of application of "P." 

P = Applied lateral force in pounds (kN). 

Si = Allowable lateral soil-bearing pressure as set 
forth in Section 1806.2 based on a depth of 
one-third the depth of embedment in pounds per 
square foot (psf) (kPa). 

1807.3.2.2 Constrained. The following formula shall be 
used to determine the depth of embedment required to 
resist lateral loads where lateral constraint is provided at 
the ground surface, such as by a rigid floor or pavement. 



d = 



425Ph 

S^b 



or alternatively 



4.25M^ 
S^b 



(Equation 18-2) 



(Equation 18-3) 



where: 

Mg = Moment in the post at grade, in foot-pounds 

(kN-m). 

53 = Allowable lateral soil-bearing pressure as set 
forth in Section 1806,2 based on a depth equal to 



the depth of embedment in pounds per square 
foot (kPa). 

1807.3.2.3 Vertical load. The resistance to vertical loads 
shall be determined using the vertical foundation pres- 
sure set forth in Table 1806.2. 

1807.3.3 Backfill. The backfill in the annular space around 
columns not embedded in poured footings shall be by one of 
the following methods: 

1. Backfill shall be of concrete with a specified com- 
pressive strength of not less than 2,000 psi (13.8 
MPa). The hole shall not be less than 4 inches (102 
mm) larger than the diameter of the column at its bot- 
tom or 4 inches (102 mm) larger than the diagonal 
dimension of a square or rectangular colunrn. 

2. Backfill shall be of clean sand. The sand shall be thor- 
oughly compacted by tamping in layers not more than 
8 inches (203 mm) in depth. 

3. Backfill shall be of controlled low-strength material 
(CLSM). 



SECTION 1808 
FOUNDATIONS 

1808.1 General. Foundations shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 1808.2 through 1808.9. 
Shallow foundations shall also satisfy the requirements of Sec- 
tion 1809. Deep foundations shall also satisfy the requirements 
of Section 1810. 

1808.2 Design for capacity and settlement. Foundations 
shall be so designed that the allowable bearing capacity of the 
soil is not exceeded, and that differential settlement is mini- 
mized. Foundations in areas with expansive soils shall be 
designed in accordance with the provisions of Section 1808.6. 

1808.3 Design loads. Foundations shall be designed for the 
most unfavorable effects due to the combinations of loads spec- 
ified in Section 1605.2 or 1605.3. The dead load is permitted to 
include the weight of foundations and overlying fill. Reduced 
live loads, as specified in Sections 1607.9 and 1607. 11, shall be 
permitted to be used in the design of foundations. 

1808.3.1 Seismic overturning. Where foundations are pro- 
portioned using the load combinations of Section 1605.2 or 
1605.3.1, and the computation of seismic overturning 
effects is by equivalent lateral force analysis or modal anal- 
ysis, the proportioning shall be in accordance with Section 
12.13.4 of ASCE 7. 

1808.4 Vibratory loads. Where machinery operations or other 
vibrations are transmitted through the foundation, consider- 
ation shall be given in the foundation design to prevent detri- 
mental disturbances of the soil. 

1808.5 Shifting or moving soils. Where it is known that the 
shallow subsoils are of a shifting or moving character, founda- 
tions shall be carried to a sufficient depth to ensure stability. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



187 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



1808.6 Design for expansive soils. Foundations for buildings 
and structures founded on expansive soils shall be designed in 
accordance with Section 1808.6.1 or 1808.6.2. 

Exception: Foundation design need not comply with Sec- 
tion 1808.6.1 or 1808.6.2 where one of the following condi- 
tions is satisfied: 

1. The soil is removed in accordance with Section 
1808.6.3; or 

2. The building official approves stabilization of the soil 
in accordance with Section 1808.6.4. 

1808.6.1 Foundations. Foundations placed on or within the 
active zone of expansive soils shall be designed to resist dif- 
ferential volume changes and to prevent structural damage 
to the supported structure. Deflection and racking of the 
supported structure shall be limited to that which will not 
interfere with the usability and serviceability of the struc- 
ture. 

Foundations placed below where volume change occurs 
or below expansive soil shall comply with the following 
provisions: 

1. Foundations extending into or penetrating expansive 
soils shall be designed to prevent uplift of the sup- 
ported structure. 

2. Foundations penetrating expansive soils shall be 
designed to resist forces exerted on the foundation 
due to soil volume changes or shall be isolated from 
the expansive soil. 

1808.6.2 Slab-on-ground foundations. Moments, shears 
and deflections for use in designing slab-on-ground, mat or 
raft foundations on expansive soils shall be determined in 
accordance with WRI/CRSI Design of Slah-on-Ground Foun- 
dations or PTI Standard Requirements for Analysis of Shal- 
low Concrete Foundations on Expansive Soils. Using the 
moments, shears and deflections determined above, 
nonprestressed slabs-on-ground, mat or raft foundations on 
expansive soils shall be designed in accordance with 
WRI/CRSI Design of Slah-on-Ground Foundations and 
post-tensioned slab-on-ground, mat or raft foundations on 
expansive soils shall be designed in accordance with PTI 
Standard Requirements for Design of Shallow Post- 



Tensioned Concrete Foundations on Expansive Soils, It shall 
be permitted to analyze and design such slabs by other meth- 
ods that account for soil- structure interaction, the deformed 
shape of the soil support, the plate or stiffened plate action of 
the slab as well as both center lift and edge lift conditions. 
Such alternative methods shall be rational and the basis for all 
aspects and parameters of the method shall be available for 
peer review. 

1808.6.3 Removal of expansive soil. Where expansive soil 
is removed in Heu of designing foundations in accordance 
with Section 1808,6.1 or 1808.6.2, the soil shall be removed 
to a depth sufficient to ensure a constant moisture content in 
the remaining soil. Fill material shall not contain expansive 
soils and shall comply with Section 1804.5 or 1804.6. 

Exception: Expansive soil need not be removed to the 
depth of constant moisture, provided the confining pres- 
sure in the expansive soil created by the fill and sup- 
ported structure exceeds the swell pressure. 

1808.6.4 Stabilization. Where the active zone of expansive 
soils is stabilized in Heu of designing foundations in accor- 
dance with Section 1808.6.1 or 1808.6.2, the soil shall be 
stabilized by chemical, dewatering, presaturation or equiva- 
lent techniques. 

1808.7 Foundations on or adjacent to slopes. The placement 
of buildings and structures on or adjacent to slopes steeper than 
one unit vertical in three units horizontal (33.3-percent slope) 
shall comply with Sections 1808.7.1 through 1808.7.5. 

1808.7.1 Building clearance from ascending slopes. In 

general, buildings below slopes shall be set a sufficient dis- 
tance from the slope to provide protection from slope drain- 
age, erosion and shallow failures. Except as provided in 
Section 1808.7.5 and Figure 1808.7.1, the following criteria 
will be assumed to provide this protection. Where the exist- 
ing slope is steeper than one unit vertical in one unit hori- 
zontal (100-percent slope), the toe of the slope shall be 
assumed to be at the intersection of a horizontal plane drawn 
from the top of the foundation and a plane drawn tangent to 
the slope at an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizon- 
tal. Where a retaining wall is constructed at the toe of the 
slope, the height of the slope shall be measured from the top 
of the wall to the top of the slope. 



FACE OF 
FOOTING 



FACE OF 
STRUCTURE 




For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



AT LEAST THE SMALLER OF H/2 AND 15 FEET 



FIGURE 1808.7.1 
FOUNDATION CLEARANCES FROM SLOPES 



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1808.7.2 Foundation setback from descending slope sur- 
face. Foundations on or adjacent to slope surfaces shall be 
founded in firm material with an embedment and set back 
from the slope surface sufficient to provide vertical and lat- 
eral support for the foundation without detrimental settle- 
ment. Except as provided for in Section 1808.7.5 and Figure 
1808.7.1, the following setback is deemed adequate to meet 
the criteria. Where the slope is steeper than 1 unit vertical in 1 
unit horizontal (100-percent slope), the required setback shall 
be measured from an imaginary plane 45 degrees (0.79 rad) 
to the horizontal, projected upward from the toe of the slope. 

1808.7.3 Pools. The setback between pools regulated by 
this code and slopes shall be equal to one-half the building 
footing setback distance required by this section. That por- 
tion of the pool wall within a horizontal distance of 7 feet 
(2134 mm) from the top of the slope shall be capable of sup- 
porting the water in the pool without soil support. 

1808.7.4 Foundation elevation. On graded sites, the top of 
any exterior foundation shall extend above the elevation of 
the street gutter at point of discharge or the inlet of an 
approved drainage device a minimum of 12 inches (305 
mm) plus 2 percent. Alternate elevations are permitted sub- 
ject to the approval of the building official, provided it can 
be demonstrated that required drainage to the point of dis- 
charge and away from the structure is provided at all loca- 
tions on the site. 

1808.7.5 Alternate setback and clearance. Alternate set- 
backs and clearances are permitted, subject to the approval 
of the building official. The building official shall be permit- 
ted to require a geotechnical investigation as set forth in Sec- 
tion 1803.5.10. 

1808.8 Concrete foundations. The design, materials and con- 
struction of concrete foundations shall comply with Sections 
1808.8.1 through 1808.8.6 and the provisions of Chapter 19. 

Exception: Where concrete footings supporting walls of 
light-frame construction are designed in accordance with 
Table 1809.7, a specific design in accordance with Chapter 
19 is not required. 

1808.8.1 Concrete or grout strength and mix propor- 
tioning. Concrete or grout in foundations shall have a speci- 
fied compressive strength (f 'c) not less than the largest 
applicable value indicated in Table 1808.8.1. 

Where concrete is placed through a funnel hopper at the 
top of a deep foundation element, the concrete mix shall be 
designed and proportioned so as to produce a cohesive 
workable mix having a slump of not less than 4 inches (102 
mm) and not more than 8 inches (204 mm). Where concrete 
or grout is to be pumped, the mix design including slump 
shall be adjusted to produce a pumpable mixture. 

1808.8.2 Concrete cover. The concrete cover provided for 
prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement in foundations 
shall be no less than the largest applicable value specified in 
Table 1 808.8.2. Longitudinal bars spaced less than 1 V2 inches 
(38 mm) clear distance apart shall be considered bundled bars 
for which the concrete cover provided shall also be no less 
than that required by Section 7.7.4 of ACI 318. Concrete 
cover shall be measured from the concrete surface to the out- 



ermost surface of the steel to which the cover requirement 
applies. Where concrete is placed in a temporary or perma- 
nent casing or a mandrel, the inside face of the casing or man- 
drel shall be considered the concrete surface. 

1808.8.3 Placement of concrete. Concrete shall be placed in 
such a manner as to ensure the exclusion of any foreign mat- 
ter and to secure a full-size foundation. Concrete shall not be 
placed through water unless a tremie or other method 
approved by the building official is used. Where placed under 
or in the presence of water, the concrete shall be deposited by 
approved means to ensure minimum segregation of the mix 
and negUgible turbulence of the water. Where depositing 
concrete from the top of a deep foundation element, the con- 
crete shall be chuted directly into smooth-sided pipes or tubes 
or placed in a rapid and continuous operation through a fun- 
nel hopper centered at the top of the element. 

1808.8.4 Protection of concrete. Concrete foundations 
shall be protected from freezing during depositing and for a 
period of not less than five days thereafter. Water shall not 
be allowed to flow through the deposited concrete. 

1808.8.5 Forming of concrete. Concrete foundations are 
permitted to be cast against the earth where, in the opinion 
of the building official, soil conditions do not require 
formwork. Where formwork is required, it shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 6 of ACI 318. 

1808.8.6 Seismic requirements. See Section 1908 for 
additional requirements for foundations of structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F. 

For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E 
or F, provisions of ACI 318, Sections 21,12.1 through 
21.12.4, shall apply where not in conflict with the provi- 
sions of Sections 1808 through 1810. 

Exceptions: 

1. Detached one- and two-family dwellings of 
light- frame construction and two stories or less 
above grade plane are not required to comply with 
the provisions of ACI 318, Sections 21.12.1 
through 21.12.4. 

2. Section 21.12.4.4(a) of ACI 318 shall not apply. 

1808.9 Vertical masonry foundation elements. Vertical 
masonry foundation elements that are not foundation piers as 
defined in Section 2102.1 shall be designed as piers, walls or 
columns, as applicable, in accordance with TMS 402/ACI 
530/ASCE 5. 



SECTION 1809 
SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS 

1809.1 General. Shallow foundations shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with Sections 1809.2 through 
1809.13. 

1809.2 Supporting soils. Shallow foundations shall be built on 
undisturbed soil, compacted fill material or controlled 
low-strength material (CLSM). Compacted fill material shall 
be placed in accordance with Section 1804.5. CLSM shall be 
placed in accordance with Section 1804.6. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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TABLE 1808.8.1 
MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH f'c OF CONCRETE OR GROUT 



FOUNDATION ELEMENT OR CONDITION 


SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE 
STRENGTH, f '^ 


1. Foundations for structures assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or C 


2,500 psi 


2a. Foundations for Group R or U occupancies of light-frame construction, two stories or less in height, 
assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F 


2,500 psi 


2b. Foundations for other structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F 


3,000 psi 


3. Precast nonprestressed drived piles 


4,000 psi 


4. Socketed drilled shafts 


4,000 psi 


5. Micropiles 


4,000 psi 


6. Precast prestressed driven piles 


5,000 psi 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa. 



TABLE 1808.8.2 
MINIMUM CONCRETE COVER 



FOUNDATION ELEMENT OR CONDITION 


MINIMUM COVER 


1. Shallow foundations 


In accordance with Section 7.7 of ACI 318 


2. Precast nonprestressed deep foundation elements 
Exposed to seawater 
Not manufactured under plant conditions 
Manufactured under plant control conditions 


3 inches 
2 inches 
In accordance with Section 7.7.3 of ACI 318 


3. Precast prestressed deep foundation elements 
Exposed to seawater 
Other 


2.5 inches 

In accordance with Section 7.7.3 of ACI 318 


4. Cast-in-place deep foundation elements not enclosed by a steel pipe, tube or permanent 
casing 


2.5 inches 


5. Cast-in-place deep foundation elements enclosed by a steel pipe, tube or permanent casing 


1 inch 


6. Structural steel core within a steel pipe, tube or permanent casing 


2 inches 


7. Cast-in-place drilled shafts enclosed by a stable rock socket 


1.5 inches 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



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1809.3 Stepped footings. The top surface of footings shall be 
level. The bottom surface of footings shall be permitted to have 
a slope not exceeding one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal 
(10-percent slope). Footings shall be stepped where it is neces- 
sary to change the elevation of the top surface of the footing or 
where the surface of the ground slopes more than one unit verti- 
cal in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope). 

1809.4 Depth and width of footings. The minimum depth of 
footings below the undisturbed ground surface shall be 12 
inches (305 mm). Where applicable, the requirements of Sec- 
tion 1809.5 shall also be satisfied. The minimum width of foot- 
ings shall be 12 inches (305 mm). 

1809.5 Frost protection. Except where otherwise protected 
from frost, foundations and other permanent supports of build- 
ings and structures shall be protected from frost by one or more 
of the following methods: 

1. Extending below the frost line of the locality; 

2. Constructing in accordance with ASCE 32; or 

3. Erecting on solid rock. 

Exception: Free-standing buildings meeting all of the fol- 
lowing conditions shall not be required to be protected: 

1. Assigned to Occupancy Category I, in accordance 
with Section 1604.5; 

2. Area of 600 square feet (56 m^) or less for light-frame 
construction or 400 square feet (37 m^) or less for 
other than light-frame construction; and 

3. Eave height of 10 feet (3048 mm) or less. 

Shallow foundations shall not bear on frozen soil unless such 
frozen condition is of a permanent character. 

1809.6 Location of footings. Footings on granular soil shall be 
so located that the line drawn between the lower edges of 
adjoining footings shall not have a slope steeper than 30 
degrees (0.52 rad) with the horizontal, unless the material sup- 
porting the higher footing is braced or retained or otherwise lat- 
erally supported in an approved manner or a greater slope has 
been properly established by engineering analysis. 

1809.7 Prescriptive footings for light-frame construction. 

Where a specific design is not provided, concrete or 
masonry-unit footings supporting walls of light-frame con- 
struction shall be permitted to be designed in accordance with 
Table 1809.7. 

1809.8 Plain concrete footings. The edge thickness of plain 
concrete footings supporting walls of other than light-frame 
construction shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm) where 
placed on soil or rock. 

Exception: For plain concrete footings supporting Group 
R-3 occupancies, the edge thickness is permitted to be 6 
inches (152 mm), provided that the footing does not extend 
beyond a distance greater than the thickness of the footing 
on either side of the supported wall. 



TABLE 1809.7 

PRESCRIPTIVE FOOTINGS SUPPORTING WALLS OF 

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION^- "' «=' «*' ^ 



NUMBER OF FLOORS 

SUPPORTED BY THE 

FOOTING* 


WIDTH OF FOOTING 
(inches) 


THICKNESS OF 
FOOTING (inches) 


1 


12 


6 


2 


15 


6 


3 


18 


gg 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Depth of footings shall be in accordance with Section 1809.4. 

b. The ground under the floor shall be permitted to be excavated to the elevation 
of the top of the footing. 

c. Interior stud-bearing walls shall be permitted to be supported by isolated 
footings. The footing width and length shall be twice the width shown in this 
table, and footings shall be spaced not more than 6 feet on center 

d. See Section 1908 for additional requirements for concrete footings of struc- 
tures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F. 

e. For thickness of foundation walls, see Section 1 807. 1 .6. 

f. Footings shall be permitted to support a roof in addition to the stipulated 
number of floors. Footings supporting roof only shall be as required for sup- 
porting one floor. 

g. Plain concrete footings for Group R-3 occupancies shall be permitted to be 6 
inches thick. 

1809.9 Masonry-unit footings. The design, materials and 
construction of masonry-unit footings shall comply with Sec- 
tions 1809.9.1 and 1809.9.2, and the provisions of Chapter 21. 

Exception: Where a specific design is not provided, 
masonry-unit footings supporting walls of light-frame con- 
struction shall be permitted to be designed in accordance 
with Table 1809.7. 

1809.9.1 Dimensions. Mansonry-unit footings shall be 
laid in Type M or S mortar complying with Section 2103.8 
and the depth shall not be less than twice the projection 
beyond the wall, pier or column. The width shall not be less 
than 8 inches (203 mm) wider than the wall supported 
thereon. 

1809.9.2 Offsets. The maximum offset of each course in 
brick foundation walls stepped up from the footings shall be 
IV2 inches (38 mm) where laid in single courses, and 3 
inches (76 mm) where laid in double courses. 

1809.10 Pier and curtain wall foundations. Except in 5'^/^- 
mic Design Categories D, E and F, pier and curtain wall foun- 
dations shall be permitted to be used to support light-frame 
construction not more than two stories above grade plane, pro- 
vided the following requirements are met: 

1. All load-bearing walls shall be placed on continuous 
concrete footings bonded integrally with the exterior 
wall footings. 

2. The minimum actual thickness of a load-bearing 
masonry wall shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) 
nominal or 3Vg inches (92 mm) actual thickness, and 
shall be bonded integrally with piers spaced 6 feet (1829 
mm) on center (o.c). 



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SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



3. Piers shall be constructed in accordance with Chapter 21 
and the following: 

3.1. The unsupported height of the masonry piers 
shall not exceed 10 times their least dimension. 

3.2. Where structural clay tile or hollow concrete 
masonry units are used for piers supporting 
beams and girders, the cellular spaces shall be 
filled solidly with concrete or Type M or S mor- 
tar. 

Exception: Unfilled hollow piers shall be permitted 
where the unsupported height of the pier is not more 
than four times its least dimension. 

3.3. Hollow piers shall be capped with 4 inches 
(102 mm) of solid masonry or concrete or the 
cavities of the top course shall be filled with 
concrete or grout. 

4. The maximum height of a 4-inch ( 1 02 mm) load-bearing 
masonry foundation wall supporting wood frame walls 
and floors shall not be more than 4 feet (1219 mm) in 
height. 

5. The unbalanced fill for 4-inch (102 mm) foundation 
walls shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) for solid 
masonry, nor 12 inches (305 mm) for hollow masonry. 

1809.11 Steel grillage footings. Grillage footings of structural 
steel shapes shall be separated with approved steel spacers and 
be entirely encased in concrete with at least 6 inches (152 mm) 
on the bottom and at least 4 inches (102 mm) at all other points. 
The spaces between the shapes shall be completely filled with 
concrete or cement grout. 

1809.12 Timber footings. Timber footings shall be permitted 
for buildings of Type V construction and as otherwise 
approved by the building official Such footings shall be treated 
in accordance with AWPA Ul (Commodity Specification A, 
Use Category 4B). Treated timbers are not required where 
placed entirely below permanent water level, or where used as 
capping for wood piles that project above the water level over 
submerged or marsh lands. The compressive stresses perpen- 
dicular to grain in untreated timber footings supported upon 
treated piles shall not exceed 70 percent of the allowable 
stresses for the species and grade of timber as specified in the 
AF&PANDS. 



1809.13 Footing seismic ties. Where a structure is assigned to 
Seismic Design Category D, E or F in accordance with Section 
1613, individual spread footings founded on soil defined in 
Section 1613.5.2 as Site Class E or F shall be interconnected by 
ties. Unless it is demonstrated that equivalent restraint is pro- 
vided by reinforced concrete beams within slabs on grade or 
reinforced concrete slabs on grade, ties shall be capable of car- 
rying, in tension or compression, a force equal to the lesser of 
the product of the larger footing design gravity load times the 
seismic coefficient, ^^i^, divided by 10 and 25 percent of the 
smaller footing design gravity load. 



SECTION 1810 
DEEP FOUNDATIONS 

1810.1 General. Deep foundations shall be analyzed, 
designed, detailed and installed in accordance with Sections 

1810.1 through 1810.4. 

1810.1.1 Geotechnical investigation. Deep foundations 
shall be designed and installed on the basis of a geotechnical 
investigation as set forth in Section 1803. 

1810.1.2 Use of existing deep foundation elements. Deep 
foundation elements left in place where a structure has been 
demolished shall not be used for the support of new con- 
struction unless satisfactory evidence is submitted to the 
building official, which indicates that the elements are 
sound and meet the requirements of this code. Such ele- 
ments shall be load tested or redriven to verify their capaci- 
ties. The design load applied to such elements shall be the 
lowest allowable load as determined by tests or redriving 
data. 

1810.1.3 Deep foundation elements classified as col- 
umns. Deep foundation elements standing unbraced in air, 
water or fluid soils shall be classified as columns and 
designed as such in accordance with the provisions of this 
code from their top down to the point where adequate lateral 
support is provided in accordance with Section 1810.2.1. 

Exception: Where the unsupported height to least hori- 
zontal dimension of a cast-in-place deep foundation ele- 
ment does not exceed three, it shall be permitted to 
design and construct such an element as a pedestal in 
accordance with ACI 318. 

1810.1.4 Special types of deep foundations. The use of 

types of deep foundation elements not specifically men- 
tioned herein is permitted, subject to the approval of the 
building official, upon the submission of acceptable test 
data, calculations and other information relating to the 
structural properties and load capacity of such elements. 
The allowable stresses for materials shall not in any case 
exceed the limitations specified herein. 

1810.2 Analysis. The analysis of deep foundations for design 
shall be in accordance with Sections 1810.2.1 through 
1810.2.5. 

1810.2.1 Lateral support. Any soil other than fluid soil 
shall be deemed to afford sufficient lateral support to pre- 
vent buckling of deep foundation elements and to permit the 
design of the elements in accordance with accepted engi- 
neering practice and the applicable provisions of this code. 

Where deep foundation elements stand unbraced in air, 
water or fluid soils, it shall be permitted to consider them 
laterally supported at a point 5 feet (1524 mm) into stiff soil 
or 10 feet (3048 mm) into soft soil unless otherwise 
approved by the building official on the basis of a geotechni- 
cal investigation by a registered design professional. 

1810.2.2 Stability. Deep foundation elements shall be 
braced to provide lateral stability in all directions. Three or 
more elements connected by a rigid cap shall be considered 
braced, provided that the elements are located in radial 
directions from the centroid of the group not less than 60 



192 



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degrees (1 rad) apart. A two-element group in a rigid cap 
shall be considered to be braced along the axis connecting 
the two elements. Methods used to brace deep foundation 
elements shall be subject to the approval of the building offi- 
cial. 

Deep foundation elements supporting walls shall be 
placed alternately in lines spaced at least 1 foot (305 mm) 
apart and located symmetrically under the center of gravity 
of the wall load carried, unless effective measures are taken 
to provide for eccentricity and lateral forces, or the founda- 
tion elements are adequately braced to provide for lateral 
stability. 

Exceptions: 

1. Isolated cast-in-place deep foundation elements 
without lateral bracing shall be permitted where 
the least horizontal dimension is no less than 2 feet 
(610 mm), adequate lateral support in accordance 
with Section 1810.2.1 is provided for the entire 
height and the height does not exceed 12 times the 
least horizontal dimension. 

2. A single row of deep foundation elements without 
lateral bracing is permitted for one- and two-fam- 
ily dwellings and lightweight construction not 
exceeding two stories above grade plane or 35 feet 
(10 668 mm) in building height, provided the cen- 
ters of the elements are located within the width of 
the supported wall. 

1810.2.3 Settlement. The settlement of a single deep foun- 
dation element or group thereof shall be estimated based on 
approved methods of analysis. The predicted settlement 
shall cause neither harmful distortion of, nor instability in, 
the structure, nor cause any element to be loaded beyond its 
capacity. 

1810.2.4 Lateral loads. The moments, shears and lateral 
deflections used for design of deep foundation elements 
shall be estabUshed considering the nonlinear interaction of 
the shaft and soil, as determined by a registered design pro- 
fessional. Where the ratio of the depth of embedment of the 
element to its least horizontal dimension is less than or equal 
to six, it shall be permitted to assume the element is rigid. 

1810.2.4.1 Seismic Design Categories D through F. 

For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E 
or F, deep foundation elements on Site Class E or F sites, 
as determined in Section 1613.5.2, shall be designed and 
constructed to withstand maximum imposed curvatures 
from earthquake ground motions and structure response. 
Curvatures shall include free-field soil strains modified 
for soil-foundation-structure interaction coupled with 
foundation element deformations associated with earth- 
quake loads imparted to the foundation by the structure. 

Exception: Deep foundation elements that satisfy the 
following additional detailing requirements shall be 
deemed to comply with the curvature capacity 
requirements of this section. 

1. Precast prestressed concrete piles detailed in 
accordance with Section 1810.3.8.3.3. 



2. Cast-in-place deep foundation elements with a 
minimum longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 
0.005 extending the full length of the element 
and detailed in accordance with Sections 
21.6.4.2, 21.6.4.3 and 21.6.4.4 of ACT 318 as 
required by Section 1810.3.9.4.2.2. 

1810.2.5 Group effects. The analysis shall include group 
effects on lateral behavior where the center-to-center spac- 
ing of deep foundation elements in the direction of lateral 
force is less than eight times the least horizontal dimension 
of an element. The analysis shall include group effects on 
axial behavior where the center-to-center spacing of deep 
foundation elements is less than three times the least hori- 
zontal dimension of an element. 

1810.3 Design and detailing. Deep foundations shall be 
designed and detailed in accordance with Sections 1810.3.1 
through 1810.3.12. 

1810.3.1 Design conditions. Design of deep foundations 
shall include the design conditions specified in Sections 
1810.3.1.1 through 1810.3.1.6, as applicable. 

1810.3.1.1 Design methods for concrete elements. 

Where concrete deep foundations are laterally supported 
in accordance with Section 1810.2. 1 for the entire height 
and applied forces cause bending moments no greater 
than those resulting from accidental eccentricities, struc- 
tural design of the element using the load combinations 
of Section 1605.3 and the allowable stresses specified in 
this chapter shall be permitted. Otherwise, the structural 
design of concrete deep foundation elements shall use 
the load combinations of Section 1605.2 and approved 
strength design methods. 

1810.3.1.2 Composite elements. Where a single deep 
foundation element comprises two or more sections of 
different materials or different types spliced together, 
each section of the composite assembly shall satisfy the 
applicable requirements of this code, and the maximum 
allowable load in each section shall be limited by the 
structural capacity of that section. 

1810.3.1.3 Mislocation. The foundation or superstruc- 
ture shall be designed to resist the effects of the 
mislocation of any deep foundation element by no less 
than 3 inches (76 mm). To resist the effects of 
mislocation, compressive overload of deep foundation 
elements to 110 percent of the allowable design load 
shall be permitted. 

1810.3.1.4 Driven piles. Driven piles shall be designed 
and manufactured in accordance with accepted engineer- 
ing practice to resist all stresses induced by handling, 
driving and service loads. 

1810.3.1.5 Helical piles. Helical piles shall be designed 
and manufactured in accordance with accepted engineer- 
ing practice to resist all stresses induced by installation 
into the ground and service loads. 

1810JJ.5.1 Helical Piles Seismic Requirements, 

[OSHPD 2] For structures assigned to Seismic 
Design Category D.EorF, capacities of helical piles 
shall be determined in accordance with Section 



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SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



1810.3.3 by at least two project specific preproduc- 
tion tests for each soil profile, size and depth of helical 
pile. At least two percent of all production piles shall 
be proof tested to design ultimate strength determined 
by using load combinations in Section 1605.2.1. 

Helical piles shall satisfy corrosion resistance 
requirements oflCC-ESAC 358. In addition, all heli- 
cal pile materials that are subject to corrosion shall 
include at least Vj^-inch corrosion allowance. 

Helical piles shall not be considered as carrying 
any horizontal loads. 

1810.3.1.6 Casings. Temporary and permanent casings 
shall be of steel and shall be sufficiently strong to resist 
collapse and sufficiently water tight to exclude any for- 
eign materials during the placing of concrete. Where a 
permanent casing is considered reinforcing steel, the 
steel shall be protected under the conditions specified in 
Section 1810.3.2.5. Horizontal joints in the casing shall 
be spliced in accordance with Section 1810.3.6. 

1810.3.2 Materials. The materials used in deep foundation 
elements shall satisfy the requirements of Sections 
1810.3.2.1 through 1810.3.2.8, as applicable. 

1810.3.2.1 Concrete. Where concrete is cast in a steel 
pipe or where an enlarged base is formed by compacting 
concrete, the maximum size for coarse aggregate shall be 
V4 inch (19.1 mm). Concrete to be compacted shall have 
a zero slump. 

1810.3.2.1.1 Seismic hooks. For structures assigned 
to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F in accor- 
dance with Section 1613, the ends of hoops, spirals 
and ties used in concrete deep foundation elements 
shall be terminated with seismic hooks, as defined in 
ACI 318, and shall be turned into the confined con- 
crete core. 

1810.3.2.1.2 ACI 318 Equation (10-5). Where this 
chapter requires detailing of concrete deep founda- 
tion elements in accordance with Section 21.6.4.4 of 
ACI 318, compliance with Equation (10-5) of ACI 
318 shall not be required. 

1810.3.2.2 Prestressing steel. Prestressing steel shall 
conform to ASTM A 416. 

1810.3.2.3 Structural steel. Structural steel piles, steel 
pipe and fully welded steel piles fabricated from plates 
shall conform to ASTM A 36, ASTM A 252, ASTM A 
283, ASTM A 572, ASTM A 588, ASTM A 690, ASTM 
A 913 or ASTM A 992. 

1810.3.2.4 Timber. Timber deep foundation elements 
shall be designed as piles or poles in accordance with 
AF&PA NDS. Round timber elements shall conform to 
ASTM D 25. Sawn timber elements shall conform to 
DOC PS-20. 

1810.3.2.4.1 Preservative treatment. Timber deep 
foundation elements used to support permanent struc- 
tures shall be treated in accordance with this section 
unless it is established that the tops of the untreated 
timber elements will be below the lowest 



ground-water level assumed to exist during the life of 
the structure. Preservative and minimum final reten- 
tion shall be in accordance with AWPA Ul (Com- 
modity Specification E, Use Category 4C) for round 
timber elements and AWPA Ul (Commodity Specifi- 
cation A, Use Category 4B) for sawn timber elements. 
Preservative-treated timber elements shall be subject 
to a quality control program administered by an 
approved agency. Element cutoffs shall be treated in 
accordance with AWPA M4. 

1810.3.2.5 Protection of materials. Where boring 
records or site conditions indicate possible deleterious 
action on the materials used in deep foundation elements 
because of soil constituents, changing water levels or 
other factors, the elements shall be adequately protected 
by materials, methods or processes approved by the 
building official. Protective materials shall be applied to 
the elements so as not to be rendered ineffective by 
installation. The effectiveness of such protective mea- 
sures for the particular purpose shall have been thor- 
oughly established by satisfactory service records or 
other evidence. 

1810.3.2.6 Allowable stresses. The allowable stresses 
for materials used in deep foundation elements shall not 
exceed those specified in Table 1810.3.2.6. 

1810.3.2.7 Increased allowable compressive stress for 
cased cast-in-place elements. The allowable compres- 
sive stress in the concrete shall be permitted to be 
increased as specified in Table 1810.3.2.6 for those por- 
tions of permanently cased cast-in-place elements that 
satisfy all of the following conditions: 

1. The design shall not use the casing to resist any 
portion of the axial load imposed. 

2. The casing shall have a sealed tip and be mandrel 
driven. 

3. The thickness of the casing shall not be less than 
manufacturer's standard gage No. 14 (0.068 inch) 
(1.75 mm). 

4. The casing shall be seamless or provided with 
seams of strength equal to the basic material and be 
of a configuration that will provide confinement to 
the cast-in-place concrete. 

5. The ratio of steel yield strength {Fy) to specified 
compressive strength {f '^) shall not be less than 
six. 

6. The nominal diameter of the element shall not be 
greater than 16 inches (406 mm). 

1810.3.2.8 Justification of higher allowable stresses. 

Use of allowable stresses greater than those specified in 
Section 1810.3.2.6 shall be permitted where supporting 
data justifying such higher stresses is filed with the build- 
ing official. Such substantiating data shall include: 

1. A geotechnical investigation in accordance with 
Section 1803; and 



194 



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2. Load tests in accordance with Section 
1810.3.3.1.2, regardless of the load supported by 
the element. 

The design and installation of the deep foundation ele- 
ments shall be under the direct supervision of a regis- 
tered design professional knowledgeable in the field of 
soil mechanics and deep foundations who shall submit a 
report to the building official stating that the elements as 
installed satisfy the design criteria. 

1810.3.3 Determination of allowable loads. The allow- 
able axial and lateral loads on deep foundation elements 
shall be determined by an approved formula, load tests or 
method of analysis. 

1810.3.3.1 Allowable axial load. The allowable axial 
load on a deep foundation element shall be determined in 
accordance with Sections 1810.3.3.1.1 through 

1810.3.3.1.9. 

1810.3.3.1.1 Driving criteria. The allowable com- 
pressive load on any driven deep foundation element 
where determined by the apphcation of an approved 
driving formula shall not exceed 40 tons (356 kN). 
For allowable loads above 40 tons (356 kN), the wave 
equation method of analysis shall be used to estimate 



driveability for both driving stresses and net displace- 
ment per blow at the ultimate load. Allowable loads 
shall be verified by load tests in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1810.3.3.1.2. The formula or wave equation load 
shall be determined for gravity-drop or power-actu- 
ated hammers and the hammer energy used shall be 
the maximum consistent with the size, strength and 
weight of the driven elements. The use of a follower is 
permitted only with the approval of the building offi- 
cial. The introduction of fresh hammer cushion or pile 
cushion material just prior to final penetration is not 
permitted. 

1810.3.3.1.2 Load tests. Where design compressive 
loads are greater than those determined using the 
allowable stresses specified in Section 1810.3.2.6, 
where the design load for any deep foundation ele- 
ment is in doubt, or where cast-in-place deep founda- 
tion elements have an enlarged base formed either by 
compacting concrete or by driving a precast base, 
control test elements shall be tested in accordance 
with ASTM D 1 143 or ASTM D 4945. At least one 
element shall be load tested in each area of uniform 
subsoil conditions. Where required by the building 
official, additional elements shall be load tested where 



TABLE 1810.3.2.6 
ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR MATERIALS USED IN DEEP FOUNDATION ELEMENTS 



MATERIAL TYPE AND CONDITION 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS ^ 


1 . Concrete or grout in compression" 

Cast-in-place with a permanent casing in accordance with Section 1810,3.2.7 
Cast-in-place in a pipe, tube, other permanent casing or rock 
Cast-in-place without a permanent casing 
Precast nonprestressed 
Precast prestressed 


0.4/', 
0.33/', 

0.3/', 

0.33/', 

0.33/', -0.27/,, 


2. Nonprestressed reinforcement in compression 


0.4/3, < 30,000 psi 


3. Structural steel in compression 

Cores within concrete-filled pipes or tubes 

Pipes, tubes or H-piles, where justified in accordance with Section 1810.3.2.8 

Pipes or tubes for micropiles 

Other pipes, tubes or H-piles 

Helical piles 


0.5 Fy < 32,000 psi 
0,5 F3,< 32,000 psi 
0.4 Fy < 32,000 psi 
0.35 Fy < 16,000 psi 
0.6F^<0.5F, 


4. Nonprestressed reinforcement in tension 
Within micropiles 
Other conditions 


0.6/, 
0.5/^ < 24,000 psi 


5. Structural steel in tension 

Pipes, tubes or H-piles, where justified in accordance with Section 1810.3.2.8 
Other pipes, tubes or H-piles 
Hehcal piles 


0.5 Fy< 32,000 psi 

0.35 F^< 16,000 psi 

0.6F,.<0.5F„ 


6. Timber 


In accordance with the AF&PA NDS 



a. / \ is the specified compressive strength of the concrete or grout;^^ is the compressive stress on the gross concrete section due to effective prestress forces only /^ is 
the specified yield strength of reinforcement; Fy is the specified minimum yield stress of structural steel; F,, is the specified minimum tensile stress of structural 
steel. 

b. The stresses specified apply to the gross cross-sectional area within the concrete surface. Where a temporary or permanent casing is used, the inside face of the cas- 
ing shall be considered the concrete surface. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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necessary to establish the safe design capacity. The 
resulting allowable loads shall not be more than 
one-half of the ultimate axial load capacity of the test 
element as assessed by one of the published methods 
hsted in Section 1810.3.3.1.3 with consideration for 
the test type, duration and subsoil. The ultimate axial 
load capacity shall be determined by a registered 
design professional with consideration given to toler- 
able total and differential settlements at design load in 
accordance with Section 1810.2.3, In subsequent 
installation of the balance of deep foundation ele- 
ments, all elements shall be deemed to have a support- 
ing capacity equal to that of the control element where 
such elements are of the same type, size and relative 
length as the test element; are installed using the same 
or comparable methods and equipment as the test ele- 
ment; are installed in similar subsoil conditions as the 
test element; and, for driven elements, where the rate 
of penetration (e.g., net displacement per blow) of 
such elements is equal to or less than that of the test 
element driven with the same hammer through a com- 
parable driving distance. 

1810.3.3.1.3 Load test evaluation methods. It shall 
be permitted to evaluate load tests of deep foundation 
elements using any of the following methods: 

1. Davisson Offset Limit. 

2. Brinch-Hansen 90% Criterion. 

3. Butler-Hoy Criterion. 

4. Other methods approved by the building offi- 
cial. 

1810.3.3.1.4 Allowable frictional resistance. The 

assumed frictional resistance developed by any 
uncased cast-in-place deep foundation element shall 
not exceed one-sixth of the bearing value of the soil 
material at minimum depth as set forth in Table 
1 806.2, up to a maximum of 500 psf (24 kPa), unless a 
greater value is allowed by the building official on the 
basis of a geotechnical investigation as specified in 
Section 1 803 or a greater value is substantiated by a 
load test in accordance with Section 1810.3.3.1.2. 
Frictional resistance and bearing resistance shall not 
be assumed to act simultaneously unless determined 
by a geotechnical investigation in accordance with 
Section 1803. 

1810.3.3.1.5 Uplift capacity of a single deep foun- 
dation element. Where required by the design, the 
uplift capacity of a single deep foundation element 
shall be determined by an approved method of analy- 
sis based on a minimum factor of safety of three or by 
load tests conducted in accordance with ASTM D 
3689. The maximum allowable uplift load shall not 
exceed the ultimate load capacity as determined in 
Section 1810.3.3.1.2, using the results of load tests 
conducted in accordance with ASTM D 3689, divided 
by a factor of safety of two. 

Exception: Where uplift is due to wind or seismic 
loading, the minimum factor of safety shall be two 



where capacity is determined by an analysis and 
one and one-half where capacity is determined by 
load tests. 

1810.3.3.1.6 Uplift capacity of grouped deep foun- 
dation elements. For grouped deep foundation ele- 
ments subjected to uplift, the allowable working uplift 
load for the group shall be calculated by an approved 
method of analysis where the deep foundation ele- 
ments in the group are placed at a center-to-center 
spacing of at least 2.5 times the least horizontal 
dimension of the largest single element, the allowable 
working uplift load for the group is permitted to be 
calculated as the lesser of: 

1. The proposed individual uplift working load 
times the number of elements in the group. 

2. Two-thirds of the effective weight of the group 
and the soil contained within a block defined by 
the perimeter of the group and the length of the 
element. 

1810.3.3.1.7 Load-bearing capacity. Deep founda- 
tion elements shall develop ultimate load capacities of 
at least twice the design working loads in the desig- 
nated load-bearing layers. Analysis shall show that no 
soil layer underlying the designated load-bearing lay- 
ers causes the load-bearing capacity safety factor to 
be less than two. 

1810.3.3.1.8 Bent deep foundation elements. The 

load-bearing capacity of deep foundation elements 
discovered to have a sharp or sweeping bend shall be 
determined by an approved method of analysis or by 
load testing a representative element. 

1810.3.3.1.9 Helical piles. The allowable axial 
design load, P^, of helical piles shall be determined as 
follows: 



P. = 0.5P„ 



(Equation 18-4) 



where P„ is the least value of: 

1. Sum of the areas of the helical bearing plates 
times the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil or 
rock comprising the bearing stratum. 

2. Ultimate capacity determined from well-docu- 
mented correlations with installation torque. 

3. Ultimate capacity determined from load tests. 

4. Ultimate axial capacity of pile shaft. 

5. Ultimate axial capacity of pile shaft couplings. 

6. Sum of the ultimate axial capacity of helical 
bearing plates affixed to pile. 

1810.3.3.2 Allowable lateral load. Where required by 
the design, the lateral load capacity of a single deep foun- 
dation element or a group thereof shall be determined by 
an approved method of analysis or by lateral load tests to 
at least twice the proposed design working load. The 
resulting allowable load shall not be more than one-half 
of the load that produces a gross lateral movement of 1 
inch (25 mm) at the lower of the top of foundation ele- 



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merit and the ground surface, unless it can be shown that 
the predicted lateral movement shall cause neither harm- 
ful distortion of, nor instability in, the structure, nor 
cause any element to be loaded beyond its capacity. 

1810.3.4 Subsiding soils. Where deep foundation elements 
are installed through subsiding fills or other subsiding strata 
and derive support from underlying firmer materials, con- 
sideration shall be given to the downward frictional forces 
that may be imposed on the elements by the subsiding upper 
strata. 

Where the influence of subsiding fills is considered as 
imposing loads on the element, the allowable stresses speci- 
fied in this chapter shall be permitted to be increased where 
satisfactory substantiating data are submitted. 

1810.3.5 Dimensions of deep foundation elements. The 

dimensions of deep foundation elements shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 1810.3.5.1 through 1810.3.5.3, as 
applicable. 

1810.3.5.1 Precast. The minimum lateral dimension of 
precast concrete deep foundation elements shall be 8 
inches (203 mm). Comers of square elements shall be 
chamfered. 

1810.3.5.2 Cast-in-place or grouted-in-place. Cast- 
in-place and grouted-in-place deep foundation elements 
shall satisfy the requirements of this section. 

1810.3.5.2.1 Cased. Cast-in-place deep foundation 
elements with a permanent casing shall have a nomi- 
nal outside diameter of not less than 8 inches (203 
mm). 

1810.3.5.2.2 Uncased. Cast-in-place deep founda- 
tion elements without a permanent casing shall have a 
diameter of not less than 12 inches (305 nmi). The ele- 
ment length shall not exceed 30 times the average 
diameter. 

Exception: The length of the element is permitted 
to exceed 30 times the diameter, provided the 
design and installation of the deep foundations are 
under the direct supervision of a registered design 
professional knowledgeable in the field of soil 
mechanics and deep foundations. The registered 
design professional shall submit a report to the 
building official stating that the elements were 
installed in compliance with the approved con- 
struction documents. 

1810.3.5.2.3 Micropiles. Micropiles shall have an 
outside diameter of 12 inches (305 mm) or less. The 
minimum diameter set forth elsewhere in Section 
1810.3.5 shall not apply to micropiles. 

1810.3.5.3 Steel. Steel deep foundation elements shall 
satisfy the requirements of this section. 

1810.3.5.3.1 H-piles. Sections of H-piles shall com- 
ply with the following: 

1. The flange projections shall not exceed 14 
times the minimum thickness of metal in either 
the flange or the web and the flange widths shall 



not be less than 80 percent of the depth of the 
section. 

2. The nominal depth in the direction of the web 
shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm). 

3. Ranges and web shall have a minimum nomi- 
nal thickness of Vg inch (9.5 mm). 

1810.3.5.3.2 Steel pipes and tubes. Steel pipes and 
tubes used as deep foundation elements shall have a 
nominal outside diameter of not less than 8 inches 
(203 mm). Where steel pipes or tubes are driven open 
ended, they shall have a minimum of 0.34 square inch 
(219 mm^) of steel in cross section to resist each 1,000 
foot-pounds (1356 Nm) of pile hammer energy, or 
shall have the equivalent strength for steels having a 
yield strength greater than 35,000 psi (241 MPa) or 
the wave equation analysis shall be permitted to be 
used to assess compression stresses induced by driv- 
ing to evaluate if the pile section is appropriate for the 
selected hammer. Where a pipe or tube with wall 
thickness less than 0.179 inch (4.6 nmi) is driven open 
ended, a suitable cutting shoe shall be provided. Con- 
crete-filled steel pipes or tubes in structures assigned 
to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F shall have a 
wall thickness of not less than Vjg inch (5 mm). The 
pipe or tube casing for socketed drilled shafts shall 
have a nominal outside diameter of not less than 18 
inches (457 mm), a wall thickness of not less than Vg 
inch (9.5 mm) and a suitable steel driving shoe welded 
to the bottom; the diameter of the rock socket shall be 
approximately equal to the inside diameter of the cas- 
ing. 

Exceptions: 

1. There is no minimum diameter for steel 
pipes or tubes used in micropiles. 

2. For mandrel-driven pipes or tubes, the mini- 
mum wall thickness shall be Vjq inch (2.5 
mm). 

1810.3.5.3.3 Helical piles. Dimensions of the central 
shaft and the number, size and thickness of helical 
bearing plates shall be sufficient to support the design 
loads. 

1810.3.6 Splices. Splices shall be constructed so as to pro- 
vide and maintain true alignment and position of the compo- 
nent parts of the deep foundation element during installation 
and subsequent thereto and shall be designed to resist the 
axial and shear forces and moments occurring at the loca- 
tion of the splice during driving and for design load combi- 
nations. Where deep foundation elements of the same type 
are being spliced, splices shall develop not less than 50 per- 
cent of the bending strength of the weaker section. Where 
deep foundation elements of different materials or different 
types are being spliced, sphces shall develop the full com- 
pressive strength and not less than 50 percent of the tension 
and bending strength of the weaker section. Where struc- 
tural steel cores are to be spliced, the ends shall be milled or 
ground to provide full contact and shall be full-depth 
welded. 



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Splices occurring in the upper 10 feet (3048 mm) of the 
embedded portion of an element shall be designed to resist at 
allowable stresses the moment and shear that would result 
from an assumed eccentricity of the axial load of 3 inches (76 
nmi), or the element shall be braced in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1810.2.2 to other deep foundation elements that do not 
have splices in the upper 10 feet (3048 mm) of embedment. 

1810.3.6.1 Seismic Design Categories C through F. 

For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, 
E or F splices of deep foundation elements shall develop 
the lesser of the following: 

1. The full strength of the deep foundation element; 
and 

2, The axial and shear forces and moments from the 
load combinations with overstrength factor in Sec- 
tion 12 A3. 2 of ASCE 7. 

1810.3.7 Top of element detailing at cutoffs. Where a mini- 
mum length for reinforcement or the extent of closely spaced 
confinement reinforcement is specified at the top of a deep 
foundation element, provisions shall be made so that those 
specified lengths or extents are maintained after cutoff. 

1810.3.8 Precast concrete piles. Precast concrete piles 
shall be designed and detailed in accordance with Sections 
1810.3.8.1 through 1810.3.8.3. 

1810.3.8.1 Reinforcement. Longitudinal steel shall be 
arranged in a symmetrical pattern and be laterally tied 
with steel ties or wire spiral spaced center to center as fol- 
lows: 

1 . At not more than 1 inch (25 mm) for the first five 
ties or spirals at each end; then 

2. At not more than 4 inches (102 nam), for the 
remainder of the first 2 feet (610 mm) from each 
end; and then 

3. At not more than 6 inches (152 mm) elsewhere. 
The size of ties and spirals shall be as follows: 

1 . For piles having a least horizontal dimension of 1 6 
inches (406 mm) or less, wire shall not be smaller 
than 0.22 inch (5.6 mm) (No. 5 gage). 

2. For piles having a least horizontal dimension of 
more than 16 inches (406 mm) and less than 20 
inches (508 mm), wire shall not be smaller than 
0.238 inch (6 mm) (No. 4 gage). 

3 . For piles having a least horizontal dimension of 20 
inches (508 mm) and larger, wire shall not be 
smaller than V4 inch (6.4 mm) round or 0.259 inch 
(6.6 mm) (No. 3 gage). 

1810.3.8.2 Precast nonprestressed piles. Precast 
nonprestressed concrete piles shall comply with the 
requirements of Sections 1810.3.8.2.1 through 
1810.3.8.2.3. 

1810.3.8.2.1 Minimum reinforcement. Longitudi- 
nal reinforcement shall consist of at least four bars 
with a minimum longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 
0.008. 



1810.3.8.2.2 Seismic reinforcement in Seismic 
Design Categories C through F. For structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F in 
accordance with Section 1613, precast nonpre- 
stressed piles shall be reinforced as specified in this 
section. The minimum longitudinal reinforcement 
ratio shall be 0.01 throughout the length. Transverse 
reinforcement shall consist of closed ties or spirals 
with a minimum Vg inch (9.5 mm) diameter. Spacing 
of transverse reinforcement shall not exceed the 
smaller of eight times the diameter of the smallest lon- 
gitudinal bar or 6 inches (152 mm) within a distance 
of three times the least pile dimension from the bot- 
tom of the pile cap. Spacing of transverse reinforce- 
ment shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm) throughout 
the remainder of the pile. 

1810.3.8.2.3 Additional seismic reinforcement in 
Seismic Design Categories D through F. For struc- 
tures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F 
in accordance with Section 1613, transverse rein- 
forcement shall be in accordance with Section 
1810.3.9.4,2. 

1810.3.8.3 Precast prestressed piles. Precast pre- 
stressed concrete piles shall comply with the require- 
ments of Sections 1810.3.8.3.1 through 1810.3.8.3.3. 

1810.3.8.3.1 Effective prestress. The effective pre- 
stress in the pile shall not be less than 400 psi (2.76 
MPa) for piles up to 30 feet (9144 mm) in length, 550 
psi (3.79 MPa) for piles up to 50 feet (15 240 mm) in 
length and 700 psi (4.83 MPa) for piles greater than 
50 feet (15 240 mm) in length. 

Effective prestress shall be based on an assumed 
loss of 30,000 psi (207 MPa) in the prestressing steel. 
The tensile stress in the prestressing steel shall not 
exceed the values specified in ACI 318. 

1810.3.8.3.2 Seismic reinforcement in Seismic 
Design Category C. For structures assigned to 5^/^- 
mic Design Category C in accordance with Section 
1613, precast prestressed piles shall have transverse 
reinforcement in accordance with this section. The 
volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement shall not be 
less than the amount required by the following for- 
mula for the upper 20 feet (6096 mm) of the pile. 



p,=0.12/V/,. 
where: 



(Equation 18-5) 



f\ = Specified compressive strength of concrete, 

psi (MPa). 

fyh = Yield strength of spiral reinforcement 
< 85,000 psi (586 MPa). 

p^ = Spiral reinforcement index (vol, spiral/vol. 

core). 

At least one-half the volumetric ratio required by 
Equation 18-5 shall be provided below the upper 20 
feet (6096 mm) of the pile. 



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1810.3.8.3.3 Seismic reinforcement in Seismic 
Design Categories D through F. For structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F in 
accordance with Section 1613, precast prestressed 
piles shall have transverse reinforcement in accor- 
dance with the following: 

1 . Requirements in ACI 318, Chapter 2 1 , need not 
apply, unless specifically referenced, 

2. Where the total pile length in the soil is 35 feet 
(10 668 mm) or less, the lateral transverse rein- 
forcement in the ductile region shall occur 
through the length of the pile. Where the pile 
length exceeds 35 feet (10 668 mm), the ductile 
pile region shall be taken as the greater of 35 
feet (10 668 nun) or the distance from the 
underside of the pile cap to the point of zero cur- 
vature plus three times the least pile dimension. 

3. In the ductile region, the center-to-center spac- 
ing of the spirals or hoop reinforcement shall 
not exceed one-fifth of the least pile dimension, 
six times the diameter of the longitudinal strand 
or 8 inches (203 mm), whichever is smallest. 

4. Circular spiral reinforcement shall be spliced 
by lapping one full turn and bending the end of 
each spiral to a 90-degree hook or by use of a 
mechanical or welded splice complying with 
Section 12.14.3 of ACI 318. 

5. Where the transverse reinforcement consists of 
circular spirals, the volumetric ratio of spiral 
transverse reinforcement in the ductile region 
shall comply with the following: 

Ps =025(f\/fy,)(A^/A,,-L0) 
[0.5 + 1.4P/(f',A,)] 



(Equation 18-6) 



but not less than: 



Ps =0.12(f',//J[0.5 + 1.4P/(/-',Ap] 
>0.12/V/,. 



and need not exceed: 



p, =0.021 



where: 



(Equation 18-7) 



(Equation 18-8) 



Ag = Pile cross-sectional area, square inches 
(mm^). 

A^ft = Core area defined by spiral outside diam- 
eter, square inches (mm^). 

f\= Specified compressive strength of con- 
crete, psi (MPa) 

fyf^ = Yield strength of spiral reinforcement 
< 85,000 psi (586 MPa). 



P = Axial load on pile, pounds (kN), as deter- 
mined from Equations 16-5 and 16-7. 

p= Volumetric ratio (vol. spiral/ vol. core). 

This required amount of spiral reinforcement 
is permitted to be obtained by providing an 
inner and outer spiral. 

Where transverse reinforcement consists of 
rectangular hoops and cross ties, the total 
cross-sectional area of lateral transverse rein- 
forcement in the ductile region with spacing, 5, 
and perpendicular dimension, /z^, shall conform 
to: 

A,,=03sKrc/fyk)(A,/A,,'hO) 
[0,5 + lAP/(f\A^)] 

(Equation 18-9) 

but not less than: 

A,, = 0. 12^ K (f'c Ifyn) [0.5 + 1 APHfc \)^ 



(Equation 18-10) 



where: 



/,, = < 70,000 psi (483 MPa). 

h^ = Cross-sectional dimension of pile core 
measured center to center of hoop rein- 
forcement, inch (mm). 

s = Spacing of transverse reinforcement 
measured along length of pile, inch 
(mm). 

A^f^ = Cross-sectional area of tranverse rein- 
forcement, square inches (mm^). 

f\ = Specified compressive strength of con- 
crete, psi (MPa). 

The hoops and cross ties shall be equivalent to 
deformed bars not less than No. 3 in size. Rectangular 
hoop ends shall terminate at a comer with seismic 
hooks. 

Outside of the length of the pile requiring trans- 
verse confinement reinforcing, the spiral or hoop 
reinforcing with a volumetric ratio not less than 
one-half of that required for transverse confinement 
reinforcing shall be provided. 

1810.3.9 Cast-in-place deep foundations. Cast-in-place 
deep foundation elements shall be designed and detailed in 
accordance with Sections 1810.3.9.1 through 1810.3.9.6. 

1810.3.9.1 Design cracliing moment. The design 
cracking moment ((|)M„) for a cast-in-place deep founda- 
tion element not enclosed by a structural steel pipe or 
tube shall be determined using the following equation: 



<l>M„=34fX. 



(Equation 18-11) 



where: 



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SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



f'c=- Specified compressive strength of concrete or 
grout, psi (MPa) 

S^ = Elastic section modulus, neglecting reinforce- 
ment and casing, cubic inches (mm^) 

1810.3.9.2 Required reinforcement. Where subject to 
uplift or where the required moment strength determined 
using the load combinations of Section 1605.2 exceeds 
the design cracking moment determined in accordance 
with Section 1810.3,9.1, cast-in-place deep foundations 
not enclosed by a structural steel pipe or tube shall be 
reinforced. 

1810.3.9.3 Placement of reinforcement. Reinforce- 
ment where required shall be assembled and tied 
together and shall be placed in the deep foundation ele- 
ment as a unit before the reinforced portion of the ele- 
ment is filled with concrete. 

Exceptions: 

1. Steel dowels embedded 5 feet (1524 mm) or 
less shall be permitted to be placed after con- 
creting, while the concrete is still in a semifluid 
state. 

2. For deep foundation elements installed with a 
hollow-stem auger, tied reinforcement shall be 
placed after elements are concreted, while the 
concrete is still in a semifluid state. Longitudi- 
nal reinforcement without lateral ties shall be 
placed either through the hollow stem of the 
auger prior to concreting or after concreting, 
while the concrete is still in a semifluid state. 

3. For Group R-3 and U occupancies not exceed- 
ing two stories of light-frame construction, 
reinforcement is permitted to be placed after 
concreting, while the concrete is still in a semi- 
fluid state, and the concrete cover requirement 
is permitted to be reduced to 2 inches (51 mm), 
provided the construction method can be dem- 
onstrated to the satisfaction of the building offi- 
cial 

1810.3.9.4 Seismic reinforcement. Where a structure is 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C, reinforcement 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 
1810.3.9.4.1. Where a structure is assigned to Seismic 
Design Category D, E or F, reinforcement shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 1810.3.9.4.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Isolated deep foundation elements supporting 
posts of Group R-3 and U occupancies not 
exceeding two stories of light-frame construc- 
tion shall be permitted to be reinforced as 
required by rational analysis but with not less 
than one No. 4 bar, without ties or spirals, 
where detailed so the element is not subject to 
lateral loads and the soil provides adequate lat- 
eral support in accordance with Section 
1810.2.1. 



2. Isolated deep foundation elements supporting 
posts and bracing from decks and patios appur- 
tenant to Group R-3 and U occupancies not 
exceeding two stories of light- frame construc- 
tion shall be permitted to be reinforced as 
required by rational analysis but with not less 
than one No. 4 bar, without ties or spirals, 
where the lateral load, E, to the top of the ele- 
ment does not exceed 200 pounds (890 N) and 
the soil provides adequate lateral support in 
accordance with Section 1810.2.1. 

3. Deep foundation elements supporting the con- 
crete foundation wall of Group R-3 and U occu- 
pancies not exceeding two stories of 
light-frame construction shall be permitted to 
be reinforced as required by rational analysis 
but with not less than two No. 4 bars, without 
ties or spirals, where the design cracking 
moment determined in accordance with Section 
1810.3.9.1 exceeds the required moment 
strength determined using the load combina- 
tions with overstrength factor in Section 
12.4.3.2 of ASCE 7 and the soil provides ade- 
quate lateral support in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1810.2.1. 

4. Closed ties or spirals where required by Section 
1810.3.9.4.2 shall be permitted to be limited to 
the top 3 feet (914 nun) of deep foundation ele- 
ments 10 feet (3048 mm) or less in depth sup- 
porting Group R-3 and U occupancies of 
Seismic Design Category D, not exceeding two 
stories of light-frame construction. 

1810.3.9.4.1 Seismic reinforcement in Seismic 
Design Category C. For structures assigned to Seis- 
mic Design Category C in accordance with Section 
1613, cast-in-place deep foundation elements shall be 
reinforced as specified in this section. Reinforcement 
shall be provided where required by analysis. 

A minimum of four longitudinal bars, with a mini- 
mum longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 0.0025, shall 
be provided for throughout the minimum reinforced 
length of the element as defined below starting at the 
top of the element. The minimum reinforced length of 
the element shall be taken as the greatest of the fol- 
lowing: 

1. One-third of the element length; 

2. A distance of 10 feet (3048 mm); 

3. Three times the least element dimension; and 

4. The distance from the top of the element to the 
point where the design cracking moment deter- 
mined in accordance with Section 1810.3.9.1 
exceeds the required moment strength deter- 
mined using the load combinations of Section 
1605.2. 

Transverse reinforcement shall consist of closed 
ties or spirals with a minimum Vg inch (9.5 mm) diam- 
eter. Spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not 



200 



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SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



exceed the smaller of 6 inches (152 mm) or 8-longitu- 
dinal-bar diameters, within a distance of three times 
the least element dimension from the bottom of the 
pile cap. Spacing of transverse reinforcement shall 
not exceed 16 longitudinal bar diameters throughout 
the remainder of the reinforced length. 

Exceptions: 

1. The requirements of this section shall not 
apply to concrete cast in structural steel 
pipes or tubes. 

2. A spiral- welded metal casing of a thickness 
not less than manufacturer's standard gage 
No. 14 gage (0.068 inch) is permitted to pro- 
vide concrete confinement in lieu of the 
closed ties or spirals. Where used as such, 
the metal casing shall be protected against 
possible deleterious action due to soil con- 
stituents, changing water levels or other fac- 
tors indicated by boring records of site 
conditions. 

1810.3.9.4.2 Seismic reinforcement in Seismic 
Design Categories D through F. For structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F in 
accordance with Section 1613, cast-in-place deep 
foundation elements shall be reinforced as specified 
in this section. Reinforcement shall be provided 
where required by analysis. 

A minimum of four longitudinal bars, with a mini- 
mum longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 0.005, shall 
be provided throughout the minimum reinforced 
length of the element as defined below starting at the 
top of the element. The minimum reinforced length of 
the element shall be taken as the greatest of the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . One-half of the element length; 

2. A distance of 10 feet (3048 mm); 

3. Three times the least element dimension; and 

4. The distance from the top of the element to the 
point where the design cracking moment deter- 
mined in accordance with Section 1810.3.9.1 
exceeds the required moment strength deter- 
mined using the load combinations of Section 
1605.2. 

Transverse reinforcement shall consist of closed 
ties or spirals no smaller than No. 3 bars for elements 
with a least dimension up to 20 inches (508 nun), and 
No. 4 bars for larger elements. Throughout the 
remainder of the reinforced length outside the regions 
with transverse confinement reinforcement, as speci- 
fied in Section 1810.3.9.4.2.1 or 1810.3.9.4.2.2, the 
spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not exceed 
the least of the following: 

1. 12 longitudinal bar diameters; 

2. One-half the least dimension of the element; 
and 



3. 12 inches (305 mm). 
Exceptions: 

1. The requirements of this section shall not 
apply to concrete cast in structural steel 
pipes or tubes. 

2. A spiral-welded metal casing of a thickness 
not less than manufacturer's standard gage 
No. 14 gage (0.068 inch) is permitted to pro- 
vide concrete confinement in lieu of the 
closed ties or spirals. Where used as such, 
the metal casing shall be protected against 
possible deleterious action due to soil con- 
stituents, changing water levels or other fac- 
tors indicated by boring records of site 
conditions. 

1810.3.9.4.2.1 Site Classes A through D. For Site 
Class A, B, C or D sites, transverse confinement 
reinforcement shall be provided in the element in 
accordance with Sections 21.6.4.2, 21.6.4.3 and 
21.6.4.4 of ACI 318 within three times the least 
element dimension of the bottom of the pile cap. A 
transverse spiral reinforcement ratio of not less 
than one-half of that required in Section 
21. 6.4.4(a) of ACI 318 shall be permitted. 

1810.3.9.4.2.2 Site Classes E and F. For Site 
Class E or F sites, transverse confinement rein- 
forcement shall be provided in the element in 
accordance with Sections 21.6.4.2, 21.6.4.3 and 
21.6.4.4 of ACI 318 within seven times the least 
element dimension of thfe pile cap and within seven 
times the least element dimension of the interfaces 
of strata that are hard or stiff and strata that are 
liquefiable or are composed of soft- to medium- 
stiff clay. 

1810.3.9.5 Belled drilled shafts. Where drilled shafts 
are belied at the bottom, the edge thickness of the bell 
shall not be less than that required for the edge of foot- 
ings. Where the sides of the bell slope at an angle less 
than 60 degrees (1 rad) from the horizontal, the effects of 
vertical shear shall be considered. 

1810.3.9.6 Socketed drilled shafts. Socketed drilled 
shafts shall have a permanent pipe or tube casing that 
extends down to bedrock and an uncased socket drilled 
into the bedrock, both filled with concrete. Socketed 
drilled shafts shall have reinforcement or a structural 
steel core for the length as indicated by an approved 
method of analysis. 

The depth of the rock socket shall be sufficient to 
develop the full load-bearing capacity of the element 
with a minimum safety factor of two, but the depth shall 
not be less than the outside diameter of the pipe or tube 
casing. The design of the rock socket is permitted to be 
predicated on the sum of the allowable load-bearing 
pressure on the bottom of the socket plus bond along the 
sides of the socket. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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Where a structural steel core is used, the gross 
cross-sectional area of the core shall not exceed 25 per- 
cent of the gross area of the drilled shaft. 

1810.3.10 Micropiles. Micropiles shall be designed and 
detailed in accordance with Sections 1810.3.10.1 through 
1810.3.10.4. 

1810.3.10.1 Construction. Micropiles shall develop 
their load-carrying capacity by means of a bond zone in 
soil, bedrock or a combination of soil and bedrock. 
Micropiles shall be grouted and have either a steel pipe or 
tube or steel reinforcement at every section along the 
length. It shall be permitted to transition from deformed 
reinforcing bars to steel pipe or tube reinforcement by 
extending the bars into the pipe or tube section by at least 
their development length in tension in accordance with 
ACI318. 

1810.3.10.2 Materials. Reinforcement shall consist of 
deformed reinforcing bars in accordance with ASTM A 
615 Grade 60 or 75 or ASTM A 722 Grade 150. 

The steel pipe or tube shall have a minimum wall 
thickness of Vj^ inch (4.8 mm). Splices shall comply with 
Section 1 8 10.3.6. The steel pipe or tube shall have a min- 
imum yield strength of 45,000 psi (310 MPa) and a mini- 
mum elongation of 15 percent as shown by mill 
certifications or two coupon test samples per 40,000 
pounds (18 160 kg) of pipe or tube. 

1810.3.10.3 Reinforcement. For micropiles or portions 
thereof grouted inside a temporary or permanent casing 
or inside a hole drilled into bedrock or a hole drilled with 
grout, the steel pipe or tube or steel reinforcement shall 
be designed to carry at least 40 percent of the design 
compression load. Micropiles or portions thereof 
grouted in an open hole in soil without temporary or per- 
manent casing and without suitable means of verifying 
the hole diameter during grouting shall be designed to 
carry the entire compression load in the reinforcing steel. 
Where a steel pipe or tube is used for reinforcement, the 
portion of the grout enclosed within the pipe is permitted 
to be included in the determination of the allowable 
stress in the grout. 

1810.3.10.4 Seismic reinforcement. For structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C, a permanent 
steel casing shall be provided from the top of the 
micropile down to the point of zero curvature. For struc- 
tures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F, the 
micropile shall be considered as an alternative system in 
accordance with Section 1810.8.4.1, Chapter 1, Division 
II. The alternative system design, supporting documen- 
tation and test data shall be submitted to the building offi- 
cial for review and approval. 

1810.3J0.4J Seismic requirements. [OSHPD 2] 

For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category 
D,EorF, a permanent steel casing having a minimum 
thickness o/Vg-inch shall be provided from the top of 
the micropile down to a minimum of 1 20 percent of the 
point of zero curvature. Capacity of micropiles shall 
be determined in accordance with Section 1810.3.3 



by at least two project specific pre-production tests 
for each soil profile, size and depth of micropile. At 
least two percent of all production piles shall be proof 
tested to design ultimate strength determined by using 
load combinations in Section 1605.2.1. 

Steel casing length in soil shall be considered as 
unbonded and shall not be considered as contributing 
to friction. Casing shall provide confinement at least 
equivalent to hoop reinforcing required by ACI 318 
Section 21.12.4. 

Reinforcement shall have Class 1 corrosion protec- 
tion in accordance with PTI Recommendations for 
P res tressed Rock and Soil Anchors. Steel casing 
design shall include at least V/^" corrosion allow- 
ance. 

Micropiles shall not be considered as carrying any 
horizontal loads. 

1810.3.11 Pile caps. Pile caps shall be of reinforced con- 
crete, and shall include all elements to which vertical deep 
foundation elements are connected, including grade beams 
and mats. The soil immediately below the pile cap shall not 
be considered as carrying any vertical load. The tops of ver- 
tical deep foundation elements shall be embedded not less 
than 3 inches (76 mm) into pile caps and the caps shall 
extend at least 4 inches (102 mm) beyond the edges of the 
elements. The tops of elements shall be cut or chipped back 
to sound material before capping. 

1810.3.11.1 Seismic Design Categories C through F. 

For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, 
E or F in accordance with Section 1613, concrete deep 
foundation elements shall be connected to the pile cap by 
embedding the element reinforcement or field-placed 
dowels anchored in the element into the pile cap for a dis- 
tance equal to their development length in accordance 
with ACI 318. It shall be permitted to connect precast 
prestressed piles to the pile cap by developing the ele- 
ment prestressing strands into the pile cap provided the 
connection is ductile. For deformed bars, the develop- 
ment length is the full development length for compres- 
sion, or tension in the case of uplift, without reduction for 
excess reinforcement in accordance with Section 12.2.5 
of ACI 318. Alternative measures for laterally confining 
concrete and maintaining toughness and ductile-like 
behavior at the top of the element shall be permitted pro- 
vided the design is such that any hinging occurs in the 
confined region. 

The minimum transverse steel ratio for confinement 
shall not be less than one-half of that required for col- 
unms. 

For resistance to uplift forces, anchorage of steel 
pipes, tubes or H-piles to the pile cap shall be made by 
means other than concrete bond to the bare steel section. 
Concrete-filled steel pipes or tubes shall have reinforce- 
ment of not less than 0.01 times the cross-sectional area 
of the concrete fill developed into the cap and extending 
into the fill a length equal to two times the required cap 
embedment, but not less than the development length in 
tension of the reinforcement. 



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1810.3.11.2 Seismic Design Categories D tlirough F. 

For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E 
or F in accordance with Section 1613, deep foundation 
element resistance to uplift forces or rotational restraint 
shall be provided by anchorage into the pile cap, 
designed considering the combined effect of axial forces 
due to uplift and bending moments due to fixity to the 
pile cap. Anchorage shall develop a minimum of 25 per- 
cent of the strength of the element in tension. Anchorage 
into the pile cap shall be capable of developing the fol- 
lowing: 

1. In the case of uplift, the least of the following: 
nominal tensile strength of the longitudinal rein- 
forcement in a concrete element; the nominal ten- 
sile strength of a steel element; the frictional force 
developed between the element and the soil multi- 
plied by 1.3; and the axial tension force resulting 
from the load combinations with overstrength fac- 
tor in Section 12.4.3.2 of ASCE 7. 

2. In the case of rotational restraint, the lesser of the 
following: the axial force, shear forces and bend- 
ing moments resulting from the load combinations 
with overstrength factor in Section 12.4.3.2 of 
ASCE 7 or development of the full axial, bending 
and shear nominal strength of the element. 

Where the vertical lateral- force-resisting elements are 
columns, the pile cap flexural strengths shall exceed the 
column flexural strength. The connection between batter 
piles and pile caps shall be designed to resist the nominal 
strength of the pile acting as a short column. Batter piles 
and their connection shall be capable of resisting forces 
and moments from the load combinations with 
overstrength factor in Section 12.4.3.2 of ASCE 7. 

1810.3.12 Grade beams. For structures assigned to Seismic 
Design Category D, E or F in accordance with Section 1613, 
grade beams shall comply with the provisions in Section 
2 1 . 1 2.3 of ACI 3 1 8 for grade beams, except where they have 
the capacity to resist the forces from the load combinations 
with overstrength factor in Section 12.4.3.2 of ASCE 7. 

1810.3.13 Seismic ties. For structures assigned to Seismic 
Design Category C, D, E or F in accordance with Section 
1613, individual deep foundations shall be interconnected 
by ties. Unless it can be demonstrated that equivalent 
restraint is provided by reinforced concrete beams within 
slabs on grade or reinforced concrete slabs on grade or con- 
finement by competent rock, hard cohesive soils or very 
dense granular soils, ties shall be capable of carrying, in ten- 
sion or compression, a force equal to the lesser of the prod- 
uct of the larger pile cap or column design gravity load times 
the seismic coefficient, S^s^ divided by 10, and 25 percent of 
the smaller pile or column design gravity load. 

Exception: In Group R-3 and U occupancies of 
light-frame construction, deep foundation elements sup- 
porting foundation walls, isolated interior posts detailed 
so the element is not subject to lateral loads or exterior 
decks and patios are not subject to interconnection where 
the soils are of adequate stiffness, subject to the approval 
of the building official. 



1810.4 Installation. Deep foundations shall be installed in 
accordance with Section 1810.4. Where a single deep founda- 
tion element comprises two or more sections of different mate- 
rials or different types spliced together, each section shall 
satisfy the applicable conditions of installation. 

1810.4.1 Structural integrity. Deep foundation elements 
shall be installed in such a manner and sequence as to pre- 
vent distortion or damage that may adversely affect the 
structural integrity of adjacent structures or of foundation 
elements being installed or already in place and as to avoid 
compacting the surrounding soil to the extent that other 
foundation elements cannot be installed properly. 

1810.4.1.1 Compressive strength of precast concrete 
piles. A precast concrete pile shall not be driven before the 
concrete has attained a compressive strength of at least 75 
percent of the specified compressive strength (f\), but not 
less than the strength sufficient to withstand handling and 
driving forces. 

1810.4.1.2 Casing. Where cast-in-place deep founda- 
tion elements are formed through unstable soils and con- 
crete is placed in an open-drilled hole, a casing shall be 
inserted in the hole prior to placing the concrete. Where 
the casing is withdrawn during concreting, the level of 
concrete shall be maintained above the bottom of the cas- 
ing at a sufficient height to offset any hydrostatic or lat- 
eral soil pressure. Driven casings shall be mandrel driven 
their full length in contact with the surrounding soil. 

1810.4.1.3 Driving near uncased concrete. Deep foun- 
dation elements shall not be driven within six element 
diameters center to center in granular soils or within 
one-half the element length in cohesive soils of an 
uncased element filled with concrete less than 48 hours 
old unless approved by the building official. If the con- 
crete surface in any completed element rises or drops, the 
element shall be replaced. Driven uncased deep founda- 
tion elements shall not be installed in soils that could 
cause heave. 

1810.4.1.4 Driving near cased concrete. Deep founda- 
tion elements shall not be driven within four and one-half 
average diameters of a cased element filled with concrete 
less than 24 hours old unless approved by the building 
official. Concrete shall not be placed in casings within 
heave range of driving. 

1810.4.1.5 Defective timber piles. Any substantial sud- 
den increase in rate of penetration of a timber pile shall 
be investigated for possible damage. If the sudden 
increase in rate of penetration cannot be correlated to soil 
strata, the pile shall be removed for inspection or 
rejected. 

1810.4.2 Identification. Deep foundation materials shall be 
identified for conformity to the specified grade with this 
identity maintained continuously from the point of manu- 
facture to the point of installation or shall be tested by an 
approved agency to determine conformity to the specified 
grade. The approved agency shall furnish an affidavit of 
compHance to the building official 



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1810.4.3 Location plan. A plan showing the location and 
designation of deep foundation elements by an identifica- 
tion system shall be filed with the building official prior to 
installation of such elements. Detailed records for elements 
shall bear an identification corresponding to that shown on 
the plan. 

1810.4.4 Preexcavation. The use of jetting, augering or 
other methods of preexcavation shall be subject to the 
approval of the building official. Where permitted, 
preexcavation shall be carried out in the same manner as 
used for deep foundation elements subject to load tests and 
in such a manner that will not impair the carrying capacity of 
the elements already in place or damage adjacent structures. 
Element tips shall be driven below the preexcavated depth 
until the required resistance or penetration is obtained. 

1810.4.5 Vibratory driving. Vibratory drivers shall only be 
used to install deep foundation elements where the element 
load capacity is verified by load tests in accordance with 
Section 1810.3.3.1.2. The installation of production ele- 
ments shall be controlled according to power consumption, 
rate of penetration or other approved means that ensure ele- 
ment capacities equal or exceed those of the test elements. 

1810.4.6 Heaved elements. Deep foundation elements that 
have heaved during the driving of adjacent elements shall be 
redriven as necessary to develop the required capacity and 
penetration, or the capacity of the element shall be verified 
by load tests in accordance with Section 1810.3.3.1.2. 

1810.4.7 Enlarged base cast-in-place elements. Enlarged 
bases for cast-in-place deep foundation elements formed by 
compacting concrete or by driving a precast base shall be 
formed in or driven into granular soils. Such elements shall 
be constructed in the same manner as successful prototype 
test elements driven for the project. Shafts extending 
through peat or other organic soil shall be encased in a per- 
manent steel casing. Where a cased shaft is used, the shaft 
shall be adequately reinforced to resist column action or the 
annular space around the shaft shall be filled sufficiently to 
reestablish lateral support by the soil. Where heave occurs, 
the element shall be replaced unless it is demonstrated that 
the element is undamaged and capable of carrying twice its 
design load. 

1810.4.8 Hollow-stem angered, cast-in-place elements. 

Where concrete or grout is placed by pumping through a 
hollow-stem auger, the auger shall be permitted to rotate in a 
clockwise direction during withdrawal. As the auger is 
withdrawn at a steady rate or in increments not to exceed 1 
foot (305 mm), concreting or grouting pumping pressures 
shall be measured and maintained high enough at all times 
to offset hydrostatic and lateral earth pressures. Concrete or 
grout volumes shall be measured to ensure that the volume 
of concrete or grout placed in each element is equal to or 
greater than the theoretical volume of the hole created by the 
auger. Where the installation process of any element is inter- 
rupted or a loss of concreting or grouting pressure occurs, 
the element shall be redrilled to 5 feet (1524 mm) below the 
elevation of the tip of the auger when the installation was 
interrupted or concrete or grout pressure was lost and 
reformed. Augered cast-in-place elements shall not be 



installed within six diameters center to center of an element 
filled with concrete or grout less than 12 hours old, unless 
approved by the building official. If the concrete or grout 
level in any completed element drops due to installation of 
an adjacent element, the element shall be replaced. 

1810.4.9 Socketed drilled shafts. The rock socket and pipe 
or tube casing of socketed drilled shafts shall be thoroughly 
cleaned of foreign materials before filling with concrete. 
Steel cores shall be bedded in cement grout at the base of the 
rock socket. 

1810.4.10 Micropiles. Micropile deep foundation elements 
shall be permitted to be formed in holes advanced by rotary 
or percussive drilling methods, with or without casing. The 
elements shall be grouted with a fluid cement grout. The 
grout shall be pumped through a tremie pipe extending to 
the bottom of the element until grout of suitable quality 
returns at the top of the element. The following require- 
ments apply to specific installation methods: 

1 . For micropiles grouted inside a temporary casing, the 
reinforcing bars shall be inserted prior to withdrawal 
of the casing. The casing shall be withdrawn in a con- 
trolled manner with the grout level maintained at the 
top of the element to ensure that the grout completely 
fills the drill hole. During withdrawal of the casing, 
the grout level inside the casing shall be monitored to 
verify that the flow of grout inside the casing is not 
obstructed. 

2. For a micropile or portion thereof grouted in an open 
drill hole in soil without temporary casing, the mini- 
mum design diameter of the drill hole shall be verified 
by a suitable device during grouting. 

3. For micropiles designed for end bearing, a suitable 
means shall be employed to verify that the bearing 
surface is properly cleaned prior to grouting. 

4. Subsequent micropiles shall not be drilled near ele- 
ments that have been grouted until the grout has had 
sufficient time to harden. 

5. Micropiles shall be grouted as soon as possible after 
drilling is completed. 

6. For micropiles designed with a full-length casing, the 
casing shdl be pulled back to the top of the bond zone 
and reinserted or some other suitable means 
employed to assure grout coverage outside the casing. 

1810.4.11 Helical piles. HeUcal piles shall be installed to 
specified embedment depth and torsional resistance criteria 
as determined by a registered design professional. The 
torque applied during installation shall not exceed the maxi- 
mum allowable installation torque of the helical pile. 

1810.4.12 Special inspection. Special inspections in accor- 
dance with Sections 1704.8 and 1704.9 shall be provided 
for driven and cast-in-place deep foundation elements, 
respectively. Special inspections in accordance with Section 
1704.10 shall be provided for helical piles. 



204 



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CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER MA - SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFWI 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


SS 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 














X 


X 


X 






X 


















Adopt entire ciiapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 










































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 










































Chapter/Section 





















































































2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



205 



206 201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 184 

SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 

This chapter has been revised in its entirety; there will be no marginal markings. 



SECTION 18014 
GENERAL 

1801A.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to 
building and foundation systems. 

Refer to Appendix J, Grading, for requirements governing 
grading, excavation and earthwork construction, including 
fills and embankments. 

1801 AJ,1 Application. The scope of application of Chap- 
ter 18A is as follows : 

1. Structures regulated by the Division of the State 
Architect — Structural Safety, which include those 
applications listed in Section 1.9.2.1 (DSA-SS), and 
L9.2.1 (DSA-SS/CC). These applications include 
public elementary and secondary schools, community 
colleges and state-owned or state-leased essential 
services buildings 

I I 2. Applications listed in Section 1.10.1 and 1.10.4 regu- 

lated by the Office of Statewide Health Planning and 
Development (OSHPD),These applications include 
hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, intermediate care 
facilities and correctional treatment centers. 

Exception: [OSHPD 21 Single-story Type V 
skilled nursing or intermediate care facilities uti- 
lizing wood-frame or light-steel-frame construc- 
tion as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 
129725, which shall comply with Chapter 18 and 
any applicable amendments therein. 



1801 A A, 2 Amendments in this chapter, DSA-SS 
DSA-SS/CC adopt this chapter and all amendments. 



and 



II 



Exception: Amendments adopted by only one agency 
appear in this chapter preceded with the appropriate 
acronym of the adopting agency, as follows: 

1. Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety: 

[DSA-SS] For applications listed in Section 
1.9.2.1. 

[DSA-SS/CC] For applications listed in Section 
1.9.2.1. 

2. Office of Statewide Health Planning and Develop- 
ment: 

[OSHPD 1] - For applications listed in Section 
1.10.1. 

[OSHPD 4] - For applications listed in Section 
1.10.4. 



1801A,L3 Reference to other chapters. 

I801A.L3.1 [DSA-SS/CC] Where reference within this 
chapter is made to sections in Chapters 16 A, 19 A, 21 A, 
22A and 34A, the provisions in Chapters 16, 19, 21, 22 
and 34 respectively shall apply instead. 

1801A. 2 Design basis. Allowable bearing pressures, allowable 
stresses and design formulas provided in this chapter shall be 
used with the allowable stress design load combinations speci- 
fied in Section 1605A.3. The quality and design of materials 
used structurally in excavations and foundations shall comply 
with the requirements specified in Chapters 16A, 19A, 21A, 
22A and 23 of this code. Excavations and fills shall also comply 
with Chapter 33. 



SECTION 18024 
DEFINITIONS 

1802A.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter, have the meanings shown herein. 

DEEP FOUNDATION. A deep foundation is a foundation 
element that does not satisfy the definition of a shallow founda- 
tion. 

DRILLED SHAFT. A drilled shaft is a cast-in-place deep 
foundation element constructed by drilhng a hole (with or 
without permanent casing) into soil or rock and filling it with 
fluid concrete. 

Socketed drilled shaft. A socketed drilled shaft is a drilled 
shaft with a permanent pipe or tube casing that extends 
down to bedrock and an uncased socket drilled into the bed- 
rock. 

HELICAL PILE. Manufactured steel deep foundation ele- 
ment consisting of a central shaft and one or more helical bear- 
ing plates. A helical pile is installed by rotating it into the 
ground. Each helical bearing plate is formed into a screw thread 
with a uniform defined pitch. 

MICROPILE. A micropile is a bored, grouted-in-place deep 
foundation element that develops its load-carrying capacity by 
means of a bond zone in soil, bedrock or a combination of soil 
and bedrock. 

SHALLOW FOUNDATION. A shallow foundation is an 
individual or strip footing, a mat foundation, a slab-on-grade 
foundation or a similar foundation element. 



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SECTION 18034 
GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS 

1803A.1 General. Geotechnical investigations shall be con- 
ducted in accordance with Section 1803A.2 and reported in 
>l I accordance with Section 1S03A.7. The classification and 
investigation of the soil shall be made under the responsible 
charge of a California registered geotechnical engineer All 
recommendations contained in geotechnical and engineering 
geology reports shall be subject to the approval of the enforce- 

> ment agency . All reports shall be prepared and signed by a reg- 
istered geotechnical engineer and an engineering geologist 
where applicable. 

1803A.2 Investigations required. Geotechnical investiga- 
tions shall be conducted in accordance with Sections 1803A.3 
I I through 1803A.6. 

Exception: Geotechnical reports are not required for 
one-story, wood-frame and light- steel-frame buildings of 
Type II or Type V construction and 4,000 square feet (371 
m^) or less in floor area, not located within Earthquake 
Fault Zones or Seismic Hazard Zones as shown in the most 
recently published maps from the California Geological 
Survey (CGS). Allowable foundation and lateral soilpres- 
I I sure values may be determined from Table I806A,2. 

1803A.3 Basis of investigation. Soil classification shall be 
based on observation and any necessary tests of the materials 
disclosed by borings, test pits or other subsurface exploration 
made in appropriate locations. Additional studies shall be 
made as necessary to evaluate slope stability, soil strength, 
position and adequacy of load-bearing soils, the effect of mois- 
ture variation on soil-bearing capacity, compressibility, lique- 
faction and expansiveness. 

1803A.3.1 Scope of investigation. The scope of the 
geotechnical investigation including the number and types 
of borings or soundings, the equipment used to drill or sam- 
ple, the in- situ testing equipment and the laboratory testing 
program shall be determined by a registered design profes- 
sional. 

There shall not be less than one boring or exploration 
shaft for each 5,000 square feet (465 m^) of building area at 
the foundation level with a minimum oftwo provided for any 

> one building. A boring may be considered to reflect 
subsurface conditions relevant to more than one building, 
subject to the approval of the enforcement agency. 

Borings shall be of sufficient size to permit visual exami- 
nation of the soil in place or, in lieu thereof, cores shall be 
taken. 

Borings shall be of sufficient depth and size to adequately 
characterize subsurface conditions. 

1803A.4 Qualified representative. The investigation proce- 
dure and apparatus shall be in accordance with generally 
accepted engineering practice. The registered design profes- 
sional shall have a fully qualified representative on site during 
all boring or sampling operations. 

1803A.5 Investigated conditions. Geotechnical investiga- 
tions shall be conducted as indicated in Sections 1803A.5.1 
through 1803A.5.12, 



1803A.5,1 Classification. Soil materials shall be classified 
in accordance with ASTM D 2487. 

1803A.5.2 Questionable soil. Where the classification, 
strength or compressibility of the soil is in doubt or where a 
load-bearing value superior to that specified in this code is 
claimed, the building official shall be permitted to require 
that a geotechnical investigation be conducted. 

1803A.5.3 Expansive soil. In areas likely to have expansive 
soil, the building official shall require soil tests to determine 
where such soils do exist. 

Soils meeting all four of the following provisions shall be 
considered expansive, except that tests to show compliance 
with Items 1 , 2 and 3 shall not be required if the test pre- 
scribed in Item 4 is conducted: 

1. Plasticity index (PI) of 15 or greater, determined in 
accordance with ASTM D 4318. 

2. More than 10 percent of the soil particles pass a No. 
200 sieve (75 |im), determined in accordance with 
ASTM D 422. 

3. More than 10 percent of the soil particles are less than 
5 micrometers in size, determined in accordance with 
ASTM D 422. 

4. Expansion index greater than 20, determined in 
accordance with ASTM D 4829. 

1803A.5.4 Ground- water table. A subsurface soil investi- 
gation shall be performed to determine whether the existing 
ground- water table is above or within 5 feet (1524 mm) 
below the elevation of the lowest floor level where such 
floor is located below the finished ground level adjacent to 
the foundation. 

1803A.5.5 Deep foundations. Where deep foundations 
will be used, a geotechnical investigation shall be conducted 
and shall include all of the following, unless sufficient data 
upon which to base the design and installation is otherwise 
available: 

1. Reconomended deep foundation types and installed 
capacities. 

2. Recommended center-to-center spacing of deep 
foundation elements. 

3. Driving criteria. 

4. Installation procedures. 

5. Field inspection and reporting procedures (to include 
procedures for verification of the installed bearing 
capacity where required). 

6. Load test requirements. 

7. Suitability of deep foundation materials for the 
intended environment. 

8. Designation of bearing stratum or strata. 

9. Reductions for group action, where necessary. 

1803A.5.6 Rock strata. Where subsurface explorations at 
the project site indicate variations or doubtful characteris- 
tics in the structure of the rock upon which foundations are 
to be constructed, a sufficient number of borings shall be 



208 



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made to a depth of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) below the 
level of the foundations to provide assurance of the sound- 
ness of the foundation bed and its load-bearing capacity. 

1803A.5.7 Excavation near foundations. Where excava- 
tion will remove lateral support from any foundation, an 
investigation shall be conducted to assess the potential con- 
sequences and address mitigation measures. 

1803A.5.8 Compacted fill material. Where shallow foun- 
dations will bear on compacted fill material more than 12 
inches (305 mm) in depth, a geotechnical investigation shall 
be conducted and shall include all of the following: 

1. Specifications for the preparation of the site prior to 
placement of compacted fill material. 

2. Specifications for material to be used as compacted 
fill. 

3. Test methods to be used to determine the maximum 
dry density and optimum moisture content of the 
material to be used as compacted fill. 

4. Maximum allowable thickness of each lift of com- 
pacted fill material. 

5. Field test method for determining the in-place dry 
density of the compacted fill. 

6. Minimum acceptable in-place dry density expressed 
as a percentage of the maximum dry density deter- 
mined in accordance with Item 3. 

7 . Number and frequency of field tests required to deter- 
mine compliance with Item 6. 

1803A.5.9 Controlled low-strength material (CLSM). 

Where shallow foundations will bear on controlled 
low- strength material (CLSM), a geotechnical investigation 
shall be conducted and shall include all of the following: 

1. Specifications for the preparation of the site prior to 
placement of the CLSM. 

2. Specifications for the CLSM. 

3. Laboratory or field test method(s) to be used to deter- 
mine the compressive strength or bearing capacity of 
the CLSM. 

4. Test methods for determining the acceptance of the 
CLSM in the field. 

5 . Number and frequency of field tests required to deter- 
mine compliance with Item 4. 

1803A.5.10 Alternate setback and clearance. Where set- 
backs or clearances other than those required in Section 
1808A.7 are desired, the building official shall be permitted 
to require a geotechnical investigation by a registered 
design professional to demonstrate that the intent of Section 
1808A.7 would be satisfied. Such an investigation shall 
include consideration of material, height of slope, slope gra- 
dient, load intensity and erosion characteristics of slope 
material. 

1803A.5.11 Seismic Design Categories C through F. For 

structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F 
in accordance with Section 1 6 1 3A, a geotechnical investiga- 



tion shall be conducted, and shall include an evaluation of 
all of the following potential geologic and seismic hazards: 

1. Slope instability. 

2. Liquefaction. 

3. Differential settlement. 

4. Surface displacement due to faulting or lateral 
spreading. 

1803A.5.12 Seismic Design Categories D through E For 

structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F in 
accordance with Section 1613A, the geotechnical investiga- 
tion required by Section 1803 A. 5.11, shall also include: 

1. The determination of lateral pressures on foundation 
walls and retaining walls due to earthquake motions. 

2. The potential for liquefaction and soil strength loss 
evaluated for site peak ground accelerations, magni- 
tudes and source characteristics consistent with the 
design earthquake ground motions. Peak ground 
acceleration shall be permitted to be determined 
based on a site-specific study taking into account soil 
amplification effects, as specified in Chapter 21 of 
ASCE 7, or, in the absence of such a study, peak 
ground accelerations shall be assumed equal to 
Sjr)sl2,5, where S^^ is determined in accordance with 
Section 1613A.5.4. 

3. An assessment of potential consequences of liquefac- 
tion and soil strength loss, including estimation of dif- 
ferential settlement, lateral movement, lateral loads 
on foundations, reduction in foundation soil-bearing 
capacity, increases in lateral pressures on retaining 
walls and flotation of buried structures. 

4. Discussion of mitigation measures such as, but not 
limited to, ground stabilization, selection of appropri- 
ate foundation type and depths, selection of appropri- 
ate structural systems to acconunodate anticipated 
displacements and forces, or any combination of 
these measures and how they shall be considered in 
the design of the structure. 

1803A.6 Site data. 

1803 A.6 A Engineering geologic reports, 

1803A.6,1,1 Geologic and earthquake engineering 
reports shall be required for all proposed construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. Reports are not required for one- story, wood- 
frame and light-steel-frame buildings of Type II 
or Type V construction and 4,000 square feet 
(371 m^) or less in floor area, not located within 
Earthquake Fault Zones or Seismic Hazard 
Zones as shown in the most recently published 
maps from the California Geological Survey 
(CGS); nonstructural, associated structural or 
voluntary structural alterations and incidental I 
structural additions or alterations, and struc- 
tural repairs for other than earthquake dam- 
age. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



209 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



II 



II 



> 

II 



2. A previous report for a specific site may be 
resubmitted, provided that a reevaluation is 
made and the report is found to be currently 
appropriate. 

1803A.6J,2 The purpose of the engineering geologic 
report shall be to identify geologic and seismic condi- 
tions that may require project mitigations. The reports 
shall contain data which provide an assessment of the 
nature of the site and potential for earthquake damage 
based on appropriate investigations of the regional and 
site geology, project foundation conditions and the 
potential seismic shaking at the site. The report shall be 
prepared by a California- certified engineering geologist 
in consultation with a California-registered geotechni- 
cal engineer 

The preparation of the engineering geologic report 
shall consider the most recent CGS Note 48: Checklist 
for the Review of Engineering Geology and Seismology 
Reports for California Public School, Hospitals, and 
Essential Services Buildings. In addition, the most recent 
version of CGS Special Publication 42, Fault Rupture 
Hazard Zones in California, shall be considered for pro- 
ject sites proposed within an Alquist-Priolo Earthquake 
Fault Zone. The most recent version of CGS Special Pub- 
lication 117, Guidelines for Evaluating and Mitigating 
Seismic Hazards in California, shall be considered for 
project sites proposed within a Seismic Hazard Zone. All 
conclusions shall be supported by satisfactory data and 
analysis. 

In addition to requirements in Sections 1803 A. 5. 11 
and 1803A.5.12, the report shall include, but shall not be 
limited to, the following: 

1. Geologic investigation. 

2. Evaluation of the known active and potentially 
active faults, both regional and local. 

3. Ground-motion parameters, as required by Sec- 
tions 161 3 A and 161 5 A, andASCE 7. 

I803A,6,2 Supplemental ground-response report. If site- 
specific ground-motion procedures, as set forth in ASCE 7 
Chapter 21, or ground-motion response history analysis, as 
set forth in ASCE 7 Chapter 16, Section 17.3 or Section 
18.2.3, are used for design, then a supplemental ground- 
response report may be required. All conclusions and 
ground-motion parameters shall be supported by data and 
analysis. 

The three Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) relations 
used for the 2008 USGS seismic hazards maps for Western 
United States (WUS) shall be utilized to determine the 
site-specific ground motion. When supported by data and 
analysis, other NGA relations, that were not used for the 
2008 USGS maps, shall be permitted as additions or substi- 
tutions. No fewer than three NGA relations shall be utilized. 

Site-specific Probabilistic Site Hazard Analyses (PSHA) 
for structures that incorporate the NGA relations shall use 
the maximum rotated component of ground motion. 



Site-specific Deterministic Site Hazard Analyses (DSHA) 
for structures that incorporate the NGA relations shall use 
the 84th percentile of the maximum rotated component of 
ground motion. 

I803A.6.2,1 The ground-motion element shall be pre- 
pared by a registered geotechnical engineer or geophy si- 
cist (depending on the scope of the element), or 
engineering geologist licensed in the state of California, 
and having professional specialization in earthquake 
analyses. The ground-motion element shall present a 
detailed characterization of earthquake ground motions 
for the site, which incorporates data given in the 
geotechnical report. The level of ground motion consid- 
ered by the ground-motion element shall be as described 
in ASCE 7 Chapter 21. The characterization of ground 
motion in the ground-motion element shall be given, 
according to the requirements of the analysis, in terms 
of: 

L Elastic structural response spectra. 

2. Time-history plot of predicted ground motion at 
the site. 

3. Other analyses in conformance with accepted 
engineering and seismological practice. 

I803A.6.2,2 The advanced geotechnical element shall 
contain the results of dynamic geotechnical analyses 
specified by the approved geotechnical report. Where 
site response analysis, as set forth in ASCE 7 Section 
21.1, is required, the response model shall be fully 
explained. The input data and assumptions shall be fully 
documented, and the surface ground motions recom- 
mended for design shall be clearly identified. 

The supplemental ground-response report shall be 
submitted to the enforcement agency for review and 
approval. The review shall determine whether the 
ground-motion response evaluations of the site are ade- 
quately represented. The enforcement agency may 
require additional information, analysis or clarification 
of potential ground-response issues reported in the sup- 
plemental ground-response report for the proposed 
building site. 

1803 A, 7 Geotechnical reporting. Where geotechnical investi- I I \ 
gations are required, a written report of the investigations shall 
be submitted to the building official by the owner or authorized 
agent at the time of permit application. The geotechnical report 
shall provide completed evaluations of the foundation condi- 
tions of the site and the potential geologic/seismic hazards 
affecting the site. The geotechnical report shall include, but 
shall not be limited to, site-specific evaluations of design crite- 
ria related to the nature and extent of foundation materials, 
groundwater conditions, liquefaction potential, settlement 
potential and slope stability. The report shall contain the 
results of the analyses of problem areas identified in the engi- 
neering geologic report. The geotechnical report shall incor- 
porate estimates of the characteristics of site ground motion 
provided in the engineering geologic report. This geotechnical 



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report shall include, but need not he limited to, the following 
information: 

1 . A plot showing the location of the soil investigations. 

2. A complete record of the soil boring and penetration 
test logs and soil samples. 

3. A record of the soil profile. 

4. Elevation of the water table, if encountered. Historic 
high ground water elevations shall be addressed in the 
report to adequately evaluate liquefaction and settle- 
ment potential. 

5. Recommendations for foundation type and design cri- 
teria, including but not limited to: bearing capacity of 
natural or compacted soil; provisions to mitigate the 
effects of expansive soils; mitigation of the effects of 
liquefaction, differential settlement and varying soil 
strength; and the effects of adjacent loads. 

6. Expected total and differential settlement. 

7. Deep foundation information in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1803A.5.5. 

8. Special design and construction provisions for founda- 
tions of structures founded on expansive soils, as nec- 
essary. 

9. Compacted fill material properties and testing in accor- 
dance with Section 1803A.5.8. 

10. Controlled low-strength material properties and testing 
in accordance with Section 1803 A. 5. 9. 

1 1 . The report shall consider the effects of stepped footings 
I I addressed in Section 1809 A. 3. 

12. The report shall consider the effects of seismic hazards 
I I in accordance with Section 1803A.6. 



SECTION 18044 
EXCAVATION, GRADING AND FILL 

1804A.1 Excavation near foundations. Excavation for any 
purpose shall not remove lateral support from any foundation 
without first underpinning or protecting the foundation against 
settlement or lateral translation. 

1804A.2 Placement of backfill. The excavation outside the 
foundation shall be backfilled with soil that is fi'ee of organic 
material, construction debris, cobbles and boulders or with a 
controlled low-strength material (CLSM). The backfill shall be 
placed in lifts and compacted in a manner that does not damage 
the foundation or the waterproofing or dampproofing material. 

Exception: CLSM need not be compacted. 

1804A.3 Site grading. The ground immediately adjacent to the 
foundation shall be sloped away from the building at a slope of 
not less than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5 -percent 
slope) for a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) measured 
perpendicular to the face of the wall. If physical obstructions or 
lot lines prohibit 10 feet (3048 mm) of horizontal distance, a 
5 -percent slope shall be provided to an approved alternative 
method of diverting water away from the foundation. Swales 
used for this purpose shall be sloped a minimum of 2 percent 



where located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the building foun- 
dation. Impervious surfaces within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the 
building foundation shall be sloped a minimum of 2 percent 
away from the building. 

Exception: Where climatic or soil conditions warrant, the 
slope of the ground away from the building foundation shall 
be permitted to be reduced to not less than one unit vertical 
in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope). 

The procedure used to establish the final ground level adja- 
cent to the foundation shall account for additional settlement of 
the backfill. 

1804A.4 Grading and fill in flood hazard areas. In flood haz- 
ard areas established in Section 1612A.3, grading and/or fill 
shall not be approved: 

1 . Unless such fill is placed, compacted and sloped to mini- 
mize shifting, slumping and erosion during the rise and 
fall of flood water and, as applicable, wave action. 

2. In floodways, unless it has been demonstrated through 
hydrologic and hydraulic analyses performed by a regis- 
tered design professional in accordance with standard 
engineering practice that the proposed grading or fill, or 
both, will not result in any increase in flood levels during 
the occurrence of the design flood. 

3. In flood hazard areas subject to high- velocity wave 
action, unless such fill is conducted and/or placed to 
avoid diversion of water and waves toward any building 
or structure. 

4. Where design flood elevations are specified but 
floodways have not been designated, unless it has been 
demonstrated that the cumulative effect of the proposed 
flood hazard area encroachment, when combined with 
all other existing and anticipated flood hazard area 
encroachment, will not increase the design flood eleva- 
tion more than 1 foot (305 mm) at any point. 

1804A.5 Compacted fill material. Where shallow founda- 
tions will bear on compacted fill material, the compacted fill 
shall comply with the provisions of an approved geotechnical 
report, as set forth in Section 1 803A. 

Exception: Compacted fill material 12 inches (305 mm) in 
depth or less need not comply with an approved report, pro- 
vided the in-place dry density is not less than 90 percent of 
the maximum dry density at optimum moisture content 
determined in accordance with ASTM D 1557. The com- 
paction shall be verified by special inspection in accordance 
with Section 1704A.7. 

1804A.6 Controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Where 
shallow foundations will bear on controlled low-strength mate- 
rial (CLSM), the CLSM shall comply with the provisions of an 
approved geotechnical report, as set forth in Section 1803A. 



SECTION 1805A 
DAMPPROOFING AND WATERPROOFING 

1805A.1 General. Walls or portions thereof that retain earth 
and enclose interior spaces and floors below grade shall be 
waterproofed and dampproofed in accordance with this sec- 



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211 



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tion, with the exception of those spaces containing groups 
other than residential and institutional where such omission is 
not detrimental to the building or occupancy. 

Ventilation for crawl spaces shall comply with Section 1203.4. 

1805A.1.1 Story above grade plane. Where a basement is 
considered a story above grade plane and the finished 
ground level adjacent to the basement wall is below the 
basement floor elevation for 25 percent or more of the per- 
imeter, the floor and walls shall be dampproofed in accor- 
dance with Section 1 805A.2 and a foundation drain shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 1805A.4.2. The foun- 
dation drain shall be installed around the portion of the per- 
imeter where the basement floor is below ground level. The 
provisions of Sections 1803A.5.4, 1805A.3 and 1805A.4.1 
shall not apply in this case. 

1805A.1.2 Under-floor space. The finished ground level of 
an under-floor space such as a crawl space shall not be 
located below the bottom of the footings. Where there is evi- 
dence that the ground-water table rises to within 6 inches 
(152 nun) of the ground level at the outside building perime- 
ter, or that the surface water does not readily drain from the 
building site, the ground level of the under-floor space shall 
be as high as the outside finished ground level, unless an 
approved drainage system is provided. The provisions of 
Sections 1803A.5.4, 1805A.2, 1805A.3 and 1805A.4 shall not 
apply in this case. 

1805A. 1.2.1 Flood hazard areas. For buildings and 
structures in flood hazard areas as established in Section 
1612A.3, the finished ground level of an under-floor 
space such as a crawl space shall be equal to or higher 
than the outside finished ground level on at least one side. 

Exception: Under-floor spaces of Group R-3 build- 
ings that meet the requirements of FEMAMA-TB- 1 1 . 

1805A.1.3 Ground- water control. Where the ground- 
water table is lowered and maintained at an elevation not 
less than 6 inches (152 mm) below the bottom of the lowest 
floor, the floor and walls shall be dampproofed in accor- 
dance with Section 1805A.2. The design of the system to 
lower the ground-water table shall be based on accepted 
principles of engineering that shall consider, but not neces- 
sarily be limited to, permeability of the soil, rate at which 
water enters the drainage system, rated capacity of pumps, 
head against which pumps are to operate and the rated 
capacity of the disposal area of the system. 

1805A.2 DampprooOng. Where hydrostatic pressure will not 

> occur as determined by Section 1803 A. 5. 4, floors and walls 

> shall be dampproofed in accordance with this section. 

1805A.2.1 Floors. Dampproofing materials for floors shall 
be installed between the floor and the base course required 
by Section 1805A.4.1, except where a separate floor is pro- 
vided above a concrete slab. 

Where installed beneath the slab, dampproofing shall 
consist of not less than 6-mil (0.006 inch; 0.152 mm) poly- 
ethylene with joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm), 
or other approved methods or materials. Where permitted to 
be installed on top of the slab, dampproofing shall consist of 
mopped-on bitumen, not less than 4-mil (0.004 inch; 0.102 



mm) polyethylene, or other approved methods or materials. 
Joints in the membrane shall be lapped and sealed in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

1805A.2.2 Walls. Dampproofing materials for walls shall 
be installed on the exterior surface of the wall, and shall 
extend from the top of the footing to above ground level. 

Dampproofing shall consist of a bituminous material, 3 
pounds per square yard (16 N/m^) of acrylic modified 
cement, Vg inch (3.2 mm) coat of surface-bonding mortar 
complying with ASTM C 887, any of the materials permit- 
ted for waterproofing by Section 1805A.3.2 or other 
approved methods or materials. 

1805A. 2.2.1 Surface preparation of walls. Prior to 
application of dampproofing materials on concrete walls, 
holes and recesses resulting from the removal of form ties 
shall be sealed with a bituminous material or other 
approved methods or materials. Unit masonry walls shall 
be parged on the exterior surface below ground level with 
not less than Vg inch (9.5 mm) of portland cement mortar. 
The parging shall be coved at the footing. 

Exception: Parging of unit masonry walls is not 
required where a material is approved for direct appli- 
cation to the masonry. 

1805A.3 Waterproofing. Where the ground- water investiga- 
tion required by Section 1803A.5.4 indicates that a hydrostatic 
pressure condition exists, and the design does not include a 
ground-water control system as described in Section 
1805AA.1.3, walls and floors shall be waterproofed in accor- 
dance with this section. 

1805A.3.1 Floors. Floors required to be waterproofed shall 
be of concrete and designed and constructed to withstand 
the hydrostatic pressures to which the floors will be sub- 
jected. 

Waterproofing shall be accomplished by placing a mem- 
brane of rubberized asphalt, butyl rubber, fully adhered/fully 
bonded HDPE or polyolefin composite membrane or not less 
than 6-mil [0.006 inch (0.152 mm)] polyvinyl chloride with 
joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm) or other 
approved materials under the slab. Joints in the membrane 
shall be lapped and sealed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. 

1805A.3.2 Walls. Walls required to be waterproofed shall 
be of concrete or masonry and shall be designed and con- 
structed to withstand the hydrostatic pressures and other lat- 
eral loads to which the walls will be subjected. 

Waterproofing shall be applied from the bottom of the 
wall to not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the maxi- 
mum elevation of the ground- water table. The remainder of 
the wall shall be dampproofed in accordance with Section 
1805A.2.2. Waterproofing shall consist of two-ply 
hot-mopped felts, not less than 6-mil (0.006 inch; 0.152 
mm) polyvinyl chloride, 40-mil (0.040 inch; 1.02 mm) 
polymer-modified asphalt, 6-mil (0.006 inch; 0.152 mm) 
polyethylene or other approved methods or materials capa- 
ble of bridging nonstructural cracks. Joints in the membrane 
shall be lapped and sealed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. 



212 



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SOILS AND FOUNDATBONS 



1805A. 3.2.1 Surface preparation of walls. Prior to the 
application of waterproofing materials on concrete or 
masonry walls, the walls shall be prepared in accordance 
with Section 1805A. 2.2.1. 

1805A.3.3 Joints and penetrations. Joints in walls and 
floors, joints between the wall and floor and penetrations of 
the wall and floor shall be made water-tight utilizing 
approved methods and materials. 

1805A.4 Subsoil drainage system. Where a hydrostatic pres- 
sure condition does not exist, dampproofing shall be provided 
and a base shall be installed under the floor and a drain installed 
around the foundation perimeter. A subsoil drainage system 
designed and constructed in accordance with Section 
1805 A. 1.3 shall be deemed adequate for lowering the 
ground-water table. 

1805A.4.1 Floor base course. Floors of basements, except 
as provided for in Section 1 805A. 1.1, shall be placed over a 
floor base course not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in thick- 
ness that consists of gravel or crushed stone containing not 
more than 10 percent of material that passes through a No. 4 
(4.75 mm) sieve. 

Exception: Where a site is located in well-drained gravel 
or sand/gravel mixture soils, a floor base course is not 
required. 

1805A.4.2 Foundation drain. A drain shall be placed 
around the perimeter of a foundation that consists of gravel 
or crushed stone containing not more than 10-percent mate- 
rial that passes through a No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve. The drain 
shall extend a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) beyond the 
outside edge of the footing. The thickness shall be such that 
the bottom of the drain is not higher than the bottom of the 
base under the floor, and that the top of the drain is not less 
than 6 inches (152 mm) above the top of the footing. The top 
of the drain shall be covered with an approved filter mem- 
brane material. Where a drain tile or perforated pipe is used, 
the invert of the pipe or tile shall not be higher than the floor 
elevation. The top of joints or the top of perforations shall be 
protected with an approved filter membrane material. The 
pipe or tile shall be placed on not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
of gravel or crushed stone complying with Section 
1805A.4.1, and shall be covered with not less than 6 inches 
(152 mm) of the same material. 

1805A.4.3 Drainage discharge. The floor base and foun- 
dation perimeter drain shall discharge by gravity or 
mechanical means into an approved drainage system that 
compHes with the California Plumbing Code. 

Exception: Where a site is located in well-drained gravel 
or sand/gravel mixture soils, a dedicated drainage system 
is not required. 



SECTION 18064 
PRESUMPTIVE LOAD-BEARING VALUES OF SOILS 

1806A.1 Load combinations. The presumptive load-bearing 
values provided in Table 1806A.2 shall be used with the allow- 
able stress design load combinations specified in Section 
1605A.3. The values of vertical foundation pressure and lateral 



bearing pressure given in Table 1806A.2 shall be permitted to 
be increased by one-third where used with the alternative basic 
load combinations of Section 1605A.3.2 that include wind or 
earthquake loads. 

1806A.2 Presumptive load-bearing values. The load-bearing 
values used in design for supporting soils near the surface shall 
not exceed the values specified in Table 1 806A. 2 unless data to 
substantiate the use of higher values are submitted and 
approved. Where the building official has reason to doubt the 
classification, strength or compressibility of the soil, the 
requirements of Section 1803A.5.2 shall be satisfied. 

Presumptive load-bearing values shall apply to materials 
with similar physical characteristics and dispositions. Mud, 
organic silt, organic clays, peat or unprepared fill shall not be 
assumed to have a presumptive load-bearing capacity unless 
data to substantiate the use of such a value are submitted. 

Exception; A presumptive load-bearing capacity shall be 
permitted to be used where the building official deems the 
load-bearing capacity of mud, organic silt or unprepared fill 
is adequate for the support of lightweight or temporary 
structures. 

1806A.3 Lateral load resistance. Where the presumptive val- 
ues of Table 1 806A. 2 are used to determine resistance to lateral 
loads, the calculations shall be in accordance with Sections 
1806A.3.1 through 1806A.3.4. 

1806A.3.1 Combined resistance. The total resistance to 
lateral loads shall be permitted to be determined by combin- 
ing the values derived from the lateral bearing pressure and 
the lateral sliding resistance specified in Table 1806A.2. 

1806A.3.2 Lateral sliding resistance limit. For clay, sandy 
clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt and sandy silt, in no case shall 
the lateral sliding resistance exceed one-half the dead load. 

1806A.3.3 Increase for depth. The lateral bearing pres- 
sures specified in Table 1806A.2 shall be permitted to be 
increased by the tabular value for each additional foot (305 
nmi) of depth to a maximum of 1 5 times the tabular value. 

1806A.3.4 Increase for poles. Isolated poles for uses such 
as flagpoles or signs and poles used to support buildings that 
are not adversely affected by a V2 inch (12.7 mm) motion at 
the ground surface due to short-term lateral loads shall be 
permitted to be designed using lateral bearing pressures 
equal to two times the tabular values. 



SECTION 1807A 

FOUNDATION WALLS, RETAINING WALLS 

AND EMBEDDED POSTS AND POLES 

1807A.1 Foundation walls. Foundation walls shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 
1807A.1.1 through 1807A.1.6. Foundation walls shall be sup- 
ported by foundations designed in accordance with Section 
1808A. 

1807A. 1.1 Design lateral soil loads. Foundation walls shall 
be designed for the lateral soil loads determined by a 
geotechnical investigation in accordance with Section 
1803A. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



213 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE 1806A2 
PRESUMPTIVE LOAD-BEARING VALUES 



CLASS OF MATERIALS 


VERTICAL FOUNDATION 
PRESSURE (psf) 


LATERAL BEARING 

PRESSURE 

(psf/ft below natural grade) 


LATERAL SLIDING RESISTANCE 


Coefficient of friction^ 


Cohesion (psf)'' 


1. Crystalline bedrock 


12,000 


1,200 


0.70 


— 


2. Sedimentary and foli- 
ated rock 


4,000 

■ 


400 


0.35 


— 


3. Sandy gravel and/or 
gravel (GW and GP) 


3,000 


200 


0.35 


— 


4. Sand, silty sand, clayey 
sand, silty gravel and 
clayey gravel (SW, SP, 
SM, SC, GM and GC) 


2,000 


150 


0.25 


— 


5. Clay, sandy clay, silty 
clay, clayey silt, silt and 
sandy silt (CL, ML, 
MH and CH) 


1,500 


100 


— 


130 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0. 157 kPa/m. 

a. Coefficient to be multiplied by the dead load. 

b. Cohesion value to be muldplied by the contact area, as limited by Section 1806A.3.2. 



1807A. 1.2 Unbalanced backfill height. Unbalanced back- 
fill height is the difference in height between the exterior 
finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete 
footing that supports the foundation wall or the interior fin- 
ish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab on grade is 
provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the 
foundation wall, the unbalanced backfill height shall be per- 
mitted to be measured from the exterior finish ground level 
to the top of the interior concrete slab. 

1807A.1.3 Rubble stone foundation walls. Not permitted 
by DSA-SS or DSA-SS/CC & OSHPD. 

1807A. 1.4 Permanent wood foundation systems. Not per- 
mitted by DSA-SS or DSA-SS/CC Sl OSHPD. 

1807A. 1.5 Concrete and masonry foundation walls. Con- 
crete and masonry foundation walls shall be designed in 
accordance with Chapter 19A or 21A, as applicable. 

1807A.2 Retaining walls. Retaining walls shall be designed in 
accordance with Sections 1807A.2.1 through 1807A.2.3. Free- 
standing cantilever walls shall be designed in accordance with 
Section 1807A.2.4. 

1807A.2.1 General. Retaining walls shall be designed to 
ensure stability against overturning, sliding, excessive foun- 
dation pressure and water uplift. Where a keyway is 
extended below the wall base with the intent to engage pas- 
sive pressure and enhance sliding stability, lateral soil pres- 
sures on both sides of the keyway shall be considered in the 
sliding analysis. 

1807A.2.2 Design lateral soil loads. Retaining walls shall 
I I be designed for the lateral soil loads determined by a 



geotechnical investigation 
1803A. 



in accordance with Section 



1807A.2.3 Safety factor. Retaining walls shall be designed 
to resist the lateral action of soil to produce sliding and over- 
turning with a minimum safety factor of 1.5 in each case. 
The load combinations of Section 1605A shall not apply to 
this requirement. Instead, design shall be based on 0.7 times 
nominal earthquake loads, 1.0 times other nominal loads, 
and investigation with one or more of the variable loads set 
to zero. The safety factor against lateral sliding shall be 
taken as the available soil resistance at the base of the retain- 
ing wall foundation divided by the net lateral force applied 
to the retaining wall. 

Exception: Where earthquake loads are included, the 
minimum safety factor for retaining wall sliding and 
overturning shall be 1.1. 

1807A,2.4 Freestanding cantilever walls. A stability check 
against the possibility of overturning shall be performed for 
isolated spread footings which support freestanding canti- 
lever walls. The stability check shall be made by dividing Rp 
used for the wall by 2.0, The allowable soil pressure may be 
doubled for this evaluation. 

Exception: For overturning about the principal axis of 
rectangular footings with symmetrical vertical loading 
and the design lateral force applied, a triangular or trap- 
ezoidal soil pressure distribution which covers the full 
width of the footing will meet the stability requirement 

1807A.3 Embedded posts and poles. Designs to resist both 
axial and lateral loads employing posts or poles as columns 
embedded in earth or in concrete footings in earth shall be in 
accordance with Sections 1807A.3.1 through 1807A.3.3. 



214 



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1807A.3.1 Limitations. The design procedures outlined in 
this section are subject to the following limitations: 

1 . The frictional resistance for structural walls and slabs 
on silts and clays shall be limited to one-half of the 
normal force imposed on the soil by the weight of the 
footing or slab. 

2. Posts embedded in earth shall not be used to provide 
lateral support for structural or nonstructural materi- 
als such as plaster, masonry or concrete unless brac- 
ing is provided that develops the limited deflection 
required. 

Wood poles shall be treated in accordance with AWPA 
Ul for sawn timber posts (Commodity Specification A, Use 
Category 4B) and for round timber posts (Commodity 
Specification B, Use Category 4B). 

1807A.3.2 Design criteria. The depth to resist lateral loads 
shall be determined using the design criteria established in 
Sections 1807A.3.2.1 through 1807A.3.2.3, or by other 
methods approved by the building official. 

1807A.3.2.1 Nonconstrained. The following formula 
shall be used in determining the depth of embedment 
required to resist lateral loads where no lateral constraint 
is provided at the ground surface, such as by a rigid floor 
or rigid ground surface pavement, and where no lateral 
constraint is provided above the ground surface, such as 
by a structural diaphragm. 



d = . 


|4.25M^ 








(Equation 18.4 


i S,b 


where: 










M,: 


= Moment 
(kN-m). 


in the 


post 


at grade, 


, in foot-pounds 



d=0.5A{ 1 + [1 H^.36h/A)y^^} 



(Equation 18A-1) 



^3 = Allowable lateral soil-bearing pressure as set 
forth in Section 1806A.2 based on a depth equal 
to the depth of embedment in pounds per square 
foot (kPa). 

1807A. 3.2.3 Vertical load. The resistance to vertical 
loads shall be determined using the vertical foundation 
pressure set forth in Table 1806A.2. 

1807A.3.3 Backfill. The backfill in the annular space 
around columns not embedded in poured footings shall be 
by one of the following methods: 

1. Backfill shall be of concrete with a specified com- 
pressive strength of not less than 2,000 psi (13.8 
MPa). The hole shall not be less than 4 inches (102 
mm) larger than the diameter of the column at its bot- 
tom or 4 inches (102 mm) larger than the diagonal 
dimension of a square or rectangular column. 

2. Backfill shall be of clean sand. The sand shall be thor- 
oughly compacted by tamping in layers not more than 
8 inches (203 mm) in depth. 

3. Backfill shall be of controlled low-strength material 
(CLSM). 



where: 

A = 234P/S,b. 

b = Diameter of round post or footing or diagonal 
dimension of square post or footing, feet (m). 

d = Depth of embedment in earth in feet (m) but not 
over 12 feet (3658 mm) for purpose of comput- 
ing lateral pressure. 

h = Distance in feet (m) from ground surface to point 
of application of "P." 

P = Applied lateral force in pounds (kN). 

Si = Allowable lateral soil-bearing pressure as set 
forth in Section 1806A.2 based on a depth of 
one-third the depth of embedment in pounds per 
square foot (psf) (kPa). 

1807A.3.2.2 Constrained. The following formula shall 
be used to determine the depth of embedment required to 
resist lateral loads where lateral constraint is provided at 
the ground surface, such as by a rigid floor or pavement. 



425Ph 
S^b 



(Equation 18A-2) 



or alternatively 



SECTION 18084 
FOUNDATIONS 

1808A.1 General. Foundations shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 1808A.2 through 
1808A.9. Shallow foundations shall also satisfy the require- 
ments of Section 1809A. Deep foundations shall also satisfy 
the requirements of Section 1810A. 

1808A.2 Design for capacity and settlement. Foundations 
shall be so designed that the allowable bearing capacity of the 
soil is not exceeded, and that differential settlement is mini- 
mized. Foundations in areas with expansive soils shall be 
designed in accordance with the provisions of Section 
1808A.6. 

The enforcing agency may require an analysis of foundation I I 
elements to determine subgrade deformations in order to eval- 
uate their effect on the superstructure, including story drift, I I 

1808A.3 Design loads. Foundations shall be designed for the 
most unfavorable effects due to the combinations of loads spec- 
ified in Section 1605A.2 or 1605A.3. The dead load is permit- 
ted to include the weight of foundations and overlying fill. 
Reduced live loads, as specified in Sections 1607A.9 and 
1607A. 1 1 , shall be permitted to be used in the design of foun- 
dations. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



215 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



1808A.3.1 Seismic overturning. Where foundations are 
proportioned using the load combinations of Section 1605.2 
or 1605 A. 3.1, and the computation of seismic overturning 
effects is by equivalent lateral force analysis or modal anal- 
ysis, the proportioning shall be in accordance with Section 
12.13.4 of ASCE 7. 

1808A,4 Vibratory loads. Where machinery operations or 
other vibrations are transmitted through the foundation, con- 
sideration shall be given in the foundation design to prevent 
detrimental disturbances of the soil. 

1808A.5 Shifting or moving soils. Where it is known that the 
shallow subsoils are of a shifting or moving character, founda- 
tions shall be carried to a sufficient depth to ensure stability. 

1808A.6 Design for expansive soils. Foundations for build- 
ings and structures founded on expansive soils shall be 
designed in accordance with Section 1808A.6.1 or 1808A.6.2. 

Exception: Foundation design need not comply with Sec- 
tion 1808A.6.1 or 1808A.6,2 where one of the following 
conditions is satisfied: 

1. The soil is removed in accordance with Section 
1808A.6.3; or 

2. The building official approves stabilization of the soil 
in accordance with Section 1808A.6.4. 

1808A.6.1 Foundations. Foundations placed on or within 
the active zone of expansive soils shall be designed to resist 
differential volume changes and to prevent structural dam- 
age to the supported structure. Deflection and racking of the 
supported structure shall be limited to that which will not 
interfere with the usability and serviceability of the struc- 
ture. 

Foundations placed below where volume change occurs 
or below expansive soil shall comply with the following 
provisions: 

1 . Foundations extending into or penetrating expansive 
soils shall be designed to prevent uplift of the sup- 
ported structure. 

2. Foundations penetrating expansive soils shall be 
designed to resist forces exerted on the foundation 
due to soil volume changes or shall be isolated from 
the expansive soil. 

1808A.6.2 Slab-on-ground foundations. Moments, shears 
and deflections for use in designing slab-on-ground, mat or 
raft foundations on expansive soils shall be determined in 
accordance with WRI/CRSI Design of Slah-on-Ground 
Foundations or PTI Standard Requirements for Analysis of 
Shallow Concrete Foundations on Expansive Soils. Using 
the moments, shears and deflections determined above, 
nonprestressed slabs-on-ground, mat or raft foundations on 
expansive soils shall be designed in accordance with 
WRI/CRSI Design of Slab-on-Ground Foundations and 
post-tensioned slab-on-ground, mat or raft foundations on 
expansive soils shall be designed in accordance with PTI 
Standard Requirements for Design of Shallow Post- 
Tensioned Concrete Foundations on Expansive Soils. It 
shall be permitted to analyze and design such slabs by other 
methods that account for soil -structure interaction, the 



deformed shape of the soil support, the plate or stiffened 
plate action of the slab as well as both center lift and edge lift 
conditions. Such alternative methods shall be rational and 
the basis for all aspects and parameters of the method shall 
be available for peer review. 

1808A.6.3 Removal of expansive soil. Where expansive 
soil is removed in lieu of designing foundations in accor- 
dance with Section 1808A.6. 1 or 1808A.6.2, the soil shall be 
removed to a depth sufficient to ensure a constant moisture 
content in the remaining soil. Fill material shall not contain 
expansive soils and shall comply with Section 1804A.5 or 
1804A.6. 

Exception: Expansive soil need not be removed to the 
depth of constant moisture, provided the confining pres- 
sure in the expansive soil created by the fill and sup- 
ported structure exceeds the swell pressure. 

1808A.6.4 Stabilization. Where the active zone of expan- 
sive soils is stabilized in lieu of designing foundations in 
accordance with Section 1808A.6.1 or 1808A6.2, the soil 
shall be stabilized by chemical, dewatering, presaturation or 
equivalent techniques. 

1808A.7 Foundations on or adjacent to slopes. The place- 
ment of buildings and structures on or adjacent to slopes 
steeper than one unit vertical in three units horizontal 
(33.3-percent slope) shall comply with Sections 1808A.7.1 
through 1808A.7.5. 

1808A.7.1 Building clearance from ascending slopes. In 

general, buildings below slopes shall be set a sufficient dis- 
tance from the slope to provide protection from slope drain- 
age, erosion and shallow failures. Except as provided in 
Section 1808A.7.5 and Figure 1808A.7.1, the following cri- 
teria will be assumed to provide this protection. Where the 
existing slope is steeper than one unit vertical in one unit 
horizontal (100-percent slope), the toe of the slope shall be 
assumed to be at the intersection of a horizontal plane drawn 
from the top of the foundation and a plane drawn tangent to 
the slope at an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizon- 
tal. Where a retaining wall is constructed at the toe of the 
slope, the height of the slope shall be measured from the top 
of the wall to the top of the slope. 

1808A.7.2 Foundation setback from descending slope 
surface. Foundations on or adjacent to slope surfaces shall 
be founded in firm material with an embedment and set back 
from the slope surface sufficient to provide vertical and lat- 
eral support for the foundation without detrimental settle- 
ment. Except as provided for in Section 1808A.7.5 and 
Figure 1808A.7.1, the following setback is deemed ade- 
quate to meet the criteria. Where the slope is steeper than 1 
unit vertical in 1 unit horizontal (100-percent slope), the 
required setback shall be measured from an imaginary plane 
45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizontal, projected upward 
from the toe of the slope. 

1808A.7.3 Pools. The setback between pools regulated by 
this code and slopes shall be equal to one-half the building 
footing setback distance required by this section. That por- 
tion of the pool wall within a horizontal distance of 7 feet 



216 



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(2 1 34 mm) from the top of the slope shall be capable of sup- 
porting the water in the pool without soil support. 

1808A.7.4 Foundation elevation. On graded sites, the top 
of any exterior foundation shall extend above the elevation 
of the street gutter at point of discharge or the inlet of an 
approved drainage device a minimum of 12 inches (305 
nmi) plus 2 percent. Alternate elevations are permitted sub- 
ject to the approval of the building official, provided it can 
be demonstrated that required drainage to the point of dis- 
charge and away from the structure is provided at all loca- 
tions on the site. 

1808A.7.5 Alternate setback and clearance. Alternate 
setbacks and clearances are permitted, subject to the 
approval of the building official. The building official shall 
be permitted to require a geotechnical investigation as set 
forth in Section 1803A.5.10. 

1808A.8 Concrete foundations. The design, materials and 
construction of concrete foundations shall comply with Sec- 
tions 1808A.8.1 through 1808A.8.6 and the provisions of 
Chapter 19A. 

1808A.8.1 Concrete or grout strength and mix propor- 
tioning. Concrete or grout in foundations shall have a speci- 
fied compressive strength (f '^) not less than the largest 
applicable value indicated in Table 1808A.8.1. 

Where concrete is placed through a funnel hopper at the 
top of a deep foundation element, the concrete mix shall be 
designed and proportioned so as to produce a cohesive 
workable mix having a slump of not less than 4 inches (102 
mm) and not more than 8 inches (204 nmi). Where concrete 
or grout is to be pumped, the mix design including slump 
shall be adjusted to produce a pumpable mixture. 

1808A.8.2 Concrete cover. The concrete cover provided for 
prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement in foundations 
shall be no less than the largest applicable value specified in 
Table 1808A.8.2. Longitudinal bars spaced less than IV2 
inches (38 mm) clear distance apart shall be considered bun- 
dled bars for which the concrete cover provided shall also be 
no less than that required by Section 7.7.4 of ACI 318. Con- 
crete cover shall be measured from the concrete surface to the 
outermost surface of the steel to which the cover requirement 



applies. Where concrete is placed in a temporary or 
permanent casing or a mandrel, the inside face of the casing 
or mandrel shall be considered the concrete surface. 

1808A.8.3 Placement of concrete. Concrete shall be 
placed in such a manner as to ensure the exclusion of any 
foreign matter and to secure a full-size foundation. Concrete 
shall not be placed through water unless a tremie or other 
method approved by the building official is used. Where 
placed under or in the presence of water, the concrete shall 
be deposited by approved means to ensure minimum segre- 
gation of the mix and negligible turbulence of the water. 
Where depositing concrete from the top of a deep founda- 
tion element, the concrete shall be chuted directly into 
smooth-sided pipes or tubes or placed in a rapid and contin- 
uous operation through a funnel hopper centered at the top 
of the element. 

1808A.8.4 Protection of concrete. Concrete foundations 
shall be protected from freezing during depositing and for a 
period of not less than five days thereafter. Water shall not 
be allowed to flow through the deposited concrete. 

1808A.8.5 Forming of concrete. Concrete foundations are 
permitted to be cast against the earth where, in the opinion 
of the building official, soil conditions do not require 
formwork. Where formwork is required, it shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 6 of ACI 318. 

1808A.8.6 Seismic requirements. See Section 1908A for 
additional requirements for foundations of structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F. <C 

For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E 
or F, provisions of ACI 318, Sections 21.12.1 through 
21.12.4, shall apply where not in conflict with the provi- 
sions of Sections 1808A through 18 IDA 

1808A.9 Vertical masonry foundation elements. Vertical 
masonry foundation elements that are not foundation piers as 
defined in Section 2102.1 shall be designed as piers, walls or 
columns, as applicable, in accordance with TMS 402/ACI 
530/ASCE 5. 






FACE OF 

smucwRE 




For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



MLBABT THE SMALLER OFH/2mO 15 FEET 



FIGURE 1808A7.1 
FOUNDATION CLEARANCES FROM SLOPES 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



217 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE 18084.8.1 
MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH f^Of CONCRETE OR GROUT 



FOUNDATION ELEMENT OR CONDITION 


SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE 
STRENGTH, f'^ 


L Foundations for other structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F 


3,000 psi 


2. Precast nonprestressed driven piles 


4,000 psi 


5. Socketed drilled shafts 


4,000 psi 


4. Micropiles 


4,000 psi 


5. Precast prestressed driven piles 


5,000 psi 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa. 



TABLE 1808A8.2 
MINIMUM CONCRETE COVER 



FOUNDATION ELEMENT OR CONDITION 


MINIMUM COVER 


1. Shallow foundations 


In accordance with Section 7.7 of ACI 318 


2. Precast nonprestressed deep foundation elements 
Exposed to seawater 
Not manufactured under plant conditions 
Manufactured under plant control conditions 


3 inches 
2 inches 
In accordance with Section 7.7.3 of ACI 318 


3. Precast prestressed deep foundation elements 
Exposed to seawater 
Other 


2.5 inches 

In accordance with Section 7.7.3 of ACI 318 


4. Cast-in-place deep foundation elements not enclosed by a steel pipe, tube or permanent 
casing 


2.5 inches 


5. Cast-in-place deep foundation elements enclosed by a steel pipe, tube or permanent casing 


1 inch 


6. Structural steel core within a steel pipe, tube or permanent casing 


2 inches 


7. Cast-in-place drilled shafts enclosed by a stable rock socket 


1 .5 inches 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



SECTION 1809A 
SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS 

1809A.1 General. Shallow foundations shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with Sections 1809A.2 through 
1809A.13. 

1809A.2 Supporting soils. Shallow foundations shall be built 
on undisturbed soil, compacted fill material or controlled 
low-strength material (CLSM). Compacted fill material shall 
be placed in accordance with Section 1804A.5. CLSM shall be 
placed in accordance with Section 1804A.6. 

1809A.3 Stepped footings. The top surface of footings shall be 
level. The bottom surface of footings shall be permitted to have 
a slope not exceeding one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal 
(10-percent slope). Footings shall be stepped where it is neces- 
sary to change the elevation of the top surface of the footing or 



where the surface of the ground slopes more than one unit verti- 
cal in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope). 

Individual steps in continuous footings shall not exceed 18 
inches (457 mm) in height and the slope of a series of such steps 
shall not exceed 1 unit vertical to 2 units horizontal (50 percent 
slope) unless otherwise recommended by a geotechnical 
report. The steps shall be detailed on the drawings. The local 
effects due to the discontinuity of the steps shall be considered 
in the design of the foundation, 

1809A.4 Depth and width of footings. The minimum depth of 
footings below the undisturbed ground surface shall be 12 
inches (305 mm). Where applicable, the requirements of Sec- 
tion 1809A.5 shall also be satisfied. The minimum width of 
footings shall be 12 inches (305 mm). 

1809A.5 Frost protection. Except where otherwise protected 
from frost, foundations and other permanent supports of build- 



# 



218 



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SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



#1 



ings and structures shall be protected from frost by one or more 
of the following methods: 

1. Extending below the frost line of the locality; 

2. Constructing in accordance with ASCE 32; or 

3. Erecting on solid rock. 

Exception: Free-standing buildings meeting all of the fol- 
lowing conditions shall not be required to be protected: 

1. Assigned to Occupancy Category I, in accordance 
with Section 1604A.5; 

2. Area of 600 square feet (56 m^) or less for light-frame 
construction or 400 square feet (37 m^) or less for 
other than light-frame construction; and 

3. Eave height of 10 feet (3048 mm) or less. 

Shallow foundations shall not bear on frozen soil unless such 
frozen condition is of a permanent character. 

1809A.6 Location of footings. Footings on granular soil shall 
be so located that the line drawn between the lower edges of 
adjoining footings shall not have a slope steeper than 30 
degrees (0.52 rad) with the horizontal, unless the material sup- 
porting the higher footing is braced or retained or otherwise lat- 
erally supported in an approved manner or a greater slope has 
been properly established by engineering analysis. 

1809A.7 Prescriptive footings for light-frame construction. 

Not permitted by DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC or OSHPD, 

1809A.8 Plain concrete footings. Not permitted by DSA-SS, 
DSA-SS/CC or OSHPD. 

1809A.9 Masonry-unit footings. Not permitted by DSA-SS, 
DSA-SS/CC or OSHPD. 

1809A.10 Reserved. 

1809A.11 Steel grillage footings. Grillage footings of struc- 
tural steel shapes shall be separated with approved steel spacers 
and be entirely encased in concrete with at least 6 inches (152 
mm) on the bottom and at least 4 inches (102 mm) at all other 
points. The spaces between the shapes shall be completely 
filled with concrete or cement grout. 



1809A.12 Timber footings. 

DSA-SS/CC or OSHPD. 



Not permitted by DSA-SS, 



1809A.13 Footing seismic ties. Where a structure is assigned 
to Seismic Design Category D, E or F in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1613A, individual spread footings founded on soil defined 
in Section 1613A.5.2 as Site Class E or F shall be intercon- 
nected by ties. Unless it is demonstrated that equivalent 
restraint is provided by reinforced concrete beams within slabs 
on grade or reinforced concrete slabs on grade, ties shall be 
capable of carrying, in tension or compression, a force equal to 
the lesser of the product of the larger footing design gravity 
load times the seismic coefficient, S^s^ divided by 10 and 25 
percent of the smaller footing design gravity load. 

1809 A, 14 Pipes and trenches. Unless otherwise recommended 
by the soils report, open or backfilled trenches parallel with a 
footing shall not be below a plane having a downward slope of 
1 unit vertical to 2 units horizontal (50 percent slope) from a 
line 9 inches (229 mm) above the bottom edge of the footing, 



and not closer than 18 inches (457 mm) from the face of such 
footing. 

Where pipes cross under footings, the footings shall be spe- 
cially designed. Pipe sleeves shall be provided where pipes 
cross through footings or footing walls and sleeve clearances 
shall provide for possible footing settlement, but not less than 1 
inch (25 mm) all around pipe. 

Exception: Alternate trench locations and pipe clearances 
are permitted when accepted by the registered design pro- 
fessional in responsible charge and the enforcement agent. 



SECTION 18104 
DEEP FOUNDATIONS 

1810A.1 General. Deep foundations shall be analyzed, 
designed, detailed and installed in accordance with Sections 
1810A.1 through 1810A.4. 

1810A.1.1 Geotechnical investigation. Deep foundations 
shall be designed and installed on the basis of a geotechnical 
investigation as set forth in Section 1 803A. 

1810A.1.2 Use of existing deep foundation elements. 

Deep foundation elements left in place where a structure has 
been demolished shall not be used for the support of new 
construction unless satisfactory evidence is submitted to the 
building official, which indicates that the elements are 
sound and meet the requirements of this code. Such ele- 
ments shall be load tested or redriven to verify their capaci- 
ties. The design load applied to such elements shall be the 
lowest allowable load as determined by tests or redriving 
data. 

1810A.1.3 Deep foundation elements classified as col- 
umns. Deep foundation elements standing unbraced in air, 
water or fluid soils shall be classified as columns and 
designed as such in accordance with the provisions of this 
code from their top down to the point where adequate lateral 
support is provided in accordance with Section 1 8 1 OA. 2. 1 . 

Exception: Where the unsupported height to least hori- 
zontal dimension of a cast-in-place deep foundation ele- 
ment does not exceed three, it shall be permitted to 
design and construct such an element as a pedestal in 
accordance with ACI 318. 

1810A.1.4 Special types of deep foundations. The use of 

types of deep foundation elements not specifically men- 
tioned herein is permitted, subject to the approval of the 
building official, upon the submission of acceptable test 
data, calculations and other information relating to the 
structural properties and load capacity of such elements. 
The allowable stresses for materials shall not in any case 
exceed the limitations specified herein. 

1810A.2 Analysis. The analysis of deep foundations for design 
shall be in accordance with Sections 1810A.2.1 through 
1810A.2.5. 

1810A.2.1 Lateral support. Any soil other than fluid soil 
shall be deemed to afford sufficient lateral support to pre- 
vent buckling of deep foundation elements and to permit the 



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SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



design of the elements in accordance with accepted engi- 
neering practice and the apphcable provisions of this code. 

Where deep foundation elements stand unbraced in air, 
water or fluid soils, it shall be permitted to consider them 
laterally supported at a point 5 feet (1524 mm) into stiff soil 
or 10 feet (3048 mm) into soft soil unless otherwise 
approved by the building official on the basis of a geotechni- 
cal investigation by a registered design professional. 

1810A.2.2 Stability. Deep foundation elements shall be 
braced to provide lateral stability in all directions. Three or 
more elements connected by a rigid cap shall be considered 
braced, provided that the elements are located in radial 
directions from the centroid of the group not less than 60 
degrees (1 rad) apart. A two-element group in a rigid cap 
shall be considered to be braced along the axis connecting 
the two elements. Methods used to brace deep foundation 
elements shall be subject to the approval of the building offi- 
cial. 

Deep foundation elements supporting walls shall be 
placed alternately in lines spaced at least 1 foot (305 mm) 
apart and located symmetrically under the center of gravity 
of the wall load carried, unless effective measures are taken 
to provide for eccentricity and lateral forces, or the founda- 
tion elements are adequately braced to provide for lateral 
stability. 

Exceptions: 

1. Isolated cast-in-place deep foundation elements 
without lateral bracing shall be permitted where 
the least horizontal dimension is no less than 2 feet 
(610 mm), adequate lateral support in accordance 
with Section 1810A.2.1 is provided for the entire 
height and the height does not exceed 12 times the 
least horizontal dimension. 

2. A single row of deep foundation elements without 
lateral bracing is permitted for one- and two-fam- 
ily dwellings and lightweight construction not 
exceeding two stories above grade plane or 35 feet 
(10 668 nam) in building height, provided the cen- 
ters of the elements are located within the width of 
the supported wall. 

1810A.2.3 Settlement. The settlement of a single deep 
foundation element or group thereof shall be estimated 
based on approved methods of analysis. The predicted set- 
tlement shall cause neither harmful distortion of, nor insta- 
bility in, the structure, nor cause any element to be loaded 
beyond its capacity. 

1810A.2.4 Lateral loads. The moments, shears and lateral 
deflections used for design of deep foundation elements 
shall be established considering the nonlinear interaction of 
the shaft and soil, as determined by a registered design pro- 
fessional. Where the ratio of the depth of embedment of the 
element to its least horizontal dimension is less than or equal 
to six, it shall be permitted to assume the element is rigid. 

1810A.2.4.1 Seismic Design Categories D through R 

For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E 
or F, deep foundation elements on Site Class E or F sites, 
as determined in Section 1613A.5.2, shall be designed 



and constructed to withstand maximum imposed curva- 
tures from earthquake ground motions and structure 
response. Curvatures shall include free-field soil strains 
modified for soil-foundation- structure interaction cou- 
pled with foundation element deformations associated 
with earthquake loads imparted to the foundation by the 
structure. 

Exception: Deep foundation elements that satisfy the 
following additional detailing requirements shall be 
deemed to comply with the curvature capacity 
requirements of this section. 

1. Precast prestressed concrete piles detailed in 
accordance with Section 1810^4.3.8.3.3. 

2. Cast-in-place deep foundation elements with a 
minimum longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 
0.005 extending the full length of the element 
and detailed in accordance with Sections 
21.6.4.2, 21.6.4.3 and 21.6.4.4 of ACI 318 as 
required by Section 1810A.3.9.4.2.2. 

1810A.2.5 Group effects. The analysis shall include group 
effects on lateral behavior where the center-to-center spac- 
ing of deep foundation elements in the direction of lateral 
force is less than eight times the least horizontal dimension 
of an element. The analysis shall include group effects on 
axial behavior where the center-to-center spacing of deep 
foundation elements is less than three times the least hori- 
zontal dimension of an element. 

1810A.3 Design and detailing. Deep foundations shall be 
designed and detailed in accordance with Sections 1810A.3.1 
through 1810A.3.12. 

1810A.3.1 Design conditions. Design of deep foundations 
shall include the design conditions specified in Sections 
1810A.3.1.1 through 1810A.3.1.6, as applicable. 

1810A.3.1.1 Design methods for concrete elements. 

Where concrete deep foundations are laterally supported 
in accordance with Section 1810A.2.1 for the entire 
height and applied forces cause bending moments no 
greater than those resulting from accidental eccentrici- 
ties, structural design of the element using the load com- 
binations of Section 1605 A. 3 and the allowable stresses 
specified in this chapter shall be permitted. Otherwise, 
the structural design of concrete deep foundation ele- 
ments shall use the load combinations of Section 
1605A.2 and approved strength design methods. 

1810A.3.1.2 Composite elements. Where a single deep 
foundation element comprises two or more sections of 
different materials or different types spliced together, 
each section of the composite assembly shall satisfy the 
applicable requirements of this code, and the maximum 
allowable load in each section shall be limited by the 
structural capacity of that section. 

1810A. 3.1.3 Mislocation. The foundation or superstruc- 
ture shall be designed to resist the effects of the 
mislocation of any deep foundation element by no less 
than 3 inches (76 mm). To resist the effects of 
mislocation, compressive overload of deep foundation 



220 



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SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



•I 



elements to 110 percent of the allowable design load 
shall be permitted. 

1810A.3.1.4 Driven piles. Driven piles shall be designed 
and manufactured in accordance with accepted engineer- 
ing practice to resist all stresses induced by handling, 
driving and service loads. 

1810A.3.1.5 Helical piles. Helical piles shall be 
designed and manufactured in accordance with accepted 
engineering practice to resist all stresses induced by 
installation into the ground and service loads. 

1810A3.1.5.1 Helical Piles Seismic Requirements. 

For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category 
D, E or F, capacities of helical piles shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with Section 1810A.3,3 by at 
least two project specific preproduction tests for each 
soil profile, size and depth of helical pile. At least two 
percent of all production piles shall be proof tested to 
the load determined in accordance with Section 
1615AL10, 

Helical piles shall satisfy corrosion resistance 
requirements oflCC-ESAC 358. In addition, all heli- 
cal pile materials that are subject to corrosion shall 
include at least V;^ inch corrosion allowance. 

Helical piles shall not be considered as carrying 
any horizontal loads. 

1810A.3.1.6 Casings. Temporary and permanent cas- 
ings shall be of steel and shall be sufficiently strong to 
resist collapse and sufficiently water tight to exclude any 
foreign materials during the placing of concrete. Where a 
permanent casing is considered reinforcing steel, the 
steel shall be protected under the conditions specified in 
Section 1810A.3.2.5. Horizontal joints in the casing shall 
be spUced in accordance with Section 1810A.3.6. 

1810A.3.2 Materials. The materials used in deep founda- 
tion elements shall satisfy the requirements of Sections 
1810A.3.2.1 through 1810A.3.2.8, as applicable. 

1810A.3.2.1 Concrete. Where concrete is cast in a steel 
pipe or where an enlarged base is formed by compacting 
concrete, the maximum size for coarse aggregate shall be 
V4 inch (19.1 mm). Concrete to be compacted shall have 
a zero slump. 

1810A.3.2.1.1 Seismic hooks. For structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F in 
accordance with Section 1613A, the ends of hoops, 
spirals and ties used in concrete deep foundation ele- 
ments shall be terminated with seismic hooks, as 
defined in ACl 318, and shall be turned into the con- 
fined concrete core. 

1810A.3.2.2 Prestressing steel. Prestressing steel shall 
conform to ASTM A 416. 

18 lOA. 3.2.3 Structural steel. Structural steel piles, steel 
pipe and fully welded steel piles fabricated from plates 
shall conform to ASTM A 36, ASTM A 252, ASTM A 
283, ASTM A 572, ASTM A 588, ASTM A 690, ASTM 
A 913 or ASTM A 992. 



1810A.3.2.4 Timber. Not permitted by DSA-SS, 
DSA~SS/CC or OSHPD. 

1810A. 3.2.5 Protection of materials. Where boring 
records or site conditions indicate possible deleterious 
action on the materials used in deep foundation elements 
because of soil constituents, changing water levels or 
other factors, the elements shall be adequately protected 
by materials, methods or processes approved by the 
building official. Protective materials shall be applied to 
the elements so as not to be rendered ineffective by 
installation. The effectiveness of such protective mea- 
sures for the particular purpose shall have been thor- 
oughly established by satisfactory service records or 
other evidence. 

1810A.3.2.6 Allowable stresses. The allowable stresses 
for materials used in deep foundation elements shall not 
exceed those specified in Table 1810A.3.2.6. 

1810A.3.2.7 Increased allowable compressive stress 
for cased cast-in-place elements. The allowable com- 
pressive stress in the concrete shall be permitted to be 
increased as specified in Table 1810A.3.2.6 for those 
portions of permanently cased cast-in-place elements 
that satisfy all of the following conditions: 

L The design shall not use the casing to resist any 
portion of the axial load imposed. 

2. The casing shall have a sealed tip and be mandrel 
driven. 

3. The thickness of the casing shall not be less than 
manufacturer's standard gage No. 14 (0.068 inch) 
(1.75 mm), 

4. The casing shall be seamless or provided with 
seams of strength equal to the basic material and be 
of a configuration that will provide confinement to 
the cast-in-place concrete. 

5. The ratio of steel yield strength {Fy) to specified 
compressive strength if'^ shall not be less, than 
six. 

6. The nominal diameter of the element shall not be 
greater than 16 inches (406 mm). 

1810A. 3.2.8 Justification of higher allowable stresses. 

Use of allowable stresses greater than those specified in 
Section 1810A.3.2.6 shall be permitted where supporting 
data justifying such higher stresses is filed with the build- 
ing official. Such substantiating data shall include: 

1. A geotechnical investigation in accordance with 
Section 1803 A; and 

2. Load tests in accordance with Section 
1810A.3.3.1.2, regardless of the load supported by 
the element. 

The design and installation of the deep foundation ele- 
ments shall be under the direct supervision of a regis- 
tered design professional knowledgeable in the field of 
soil mechanics and deep foundations who shall submit a 
report to the building official stating that the elements as 
installed satisfy the design criteria. 



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TABLE 1 81 0A3.2.6 
ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR MATERIALS USED IN DEEP FOUNDATION ELEMENTS 



MATERIAL TYPE AND CONDITION 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS ° 


1. Concrete or grout in compression'' 

Cast-in-place with a permanent casing in accordance with Section 1810A.3.2.7 
Cast-in-place in a pipe, tube, other permanent casing or rock 
Cast-in-place without a permanent casing 
Precast nonprestressed 
Precast prestressed 


0.4/', 
0.33/', 

0.3/', 

0.33/', 

0.33/', -0.27/,, 


2. Nonprestressed reinforcement in compression 


0.4/^ < 30,000 psi 


3. Structural steel in compression 

Cores within concrete-filled pipes or tubes 

Pipes, tubes or H-piles, where justified in accordance with Section 1810A.3.2.8 

Pipes or tubes for micropiles 

Other pipes, tubes or H-piles 

HeHcal piles 


0.5 F^< 32,000 psi 
0.5 Fy < 32,000 psi 
0.4 F^< 32,000 psi 
0.35 F,,< 16,000 psi 
0.6 Fy < 0.5 F„ 


4. Nonprestressed reinforcement in tension 
Within micropiles 
Other conditions 


0.6/, 
0.5/, < 24,000 psi 


5. Structural steel in tension 

Pipes, tubes or H-piles, where justified in accordance with Section 1810A.3.2.8 
Other pipes, tubes or H-piles 
HeUcal piles 


0.5 F,< 32,000 psi 

0.35 F,< 16,000 psi 

0.6 Fy < 0.5 F„ 


6. Timber 


In accordance with the AF&PA NDS 



a. f\ is the specified compressive strength of the concrete or grout;_^^ is the compressive stress on the gross concrete section due to effective prestress forces only ;/y is 
the specified yield strength of reinforcement; F^ is the specified minimum yield stress of structural steel; F^ is the specified minimum tensile stress of structural 
steel. 

b. The stresses specified apply to the gross cross-sectional area within the concrete surface. Where a temporary or permanent casing is used, the inside face of the cas- 
ing shall be considered the concrete surface. 



1810A,3.3 Determination of allowable loads. The allow- 
able axial and lateral loads on deep foundation elements 
shall be determined by an approved formula, load tests or 
method of analysis. 

1810A. 3.3.1 Allowable axial load. The allowable axial 
load on a deep foundation element shall be determined in 
accordance with Sections 1810A.3.3.1.1 through 
1810A.3.3.1.9. 

1810A.3.3.1.1 Driving criteria. The allowable com- 
pressive load on any driven deep foundation element 
where determined by the application of an approved 
driving formula shall not exceed 40 tons (356 kN). For 
allowable loads above 40 tons (356 kN), the wave 
equation method of analysis shall be used to estimate 
driveability for both driving stresses and net displace- 
ment per blow at the ultimate load. Allowable loads 
shall be verified by load tests in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1810A.3.3.1.2. The formula or wave equation load 
shall be determined for gravity-drop or power-actuated 
hammers and the hammer energy used shall be the 
maximum consistent with the size, strength and weight 
of the driven elements. The use of a follower is permit- 
ted only with the approval of the building official The 
introduction of fresh hammer cushion or pile cushion 
material just prior to final penetration is not permitted. 



1810A.3.3.1.2 Load tests. Where design compres- 
sive loads are greater than those determined using the 
allowable stresses specified in Section 1810A.3.2.6, 
where the design load for any deep foundation ele- 
ment is in doubt, or where cast-in-place deep founda- 
tion elements have an enlarged base formed either by 
compacting concrete or by driving a precast base, 
control test elements shall be tested in accordance 
with ASTM D 1 143 or ASTM D 4945. At least one 
element shall be load tested in each area of uniform 
subsoil conditions. Where required by the building 
official, additional elements shall be load tested where 
necessary to establish the safe design capacity. The 
resulting allowable loads shall not be more than 
one-half of the ultimate axial load capacity of the test 
element as assessed by one of the published methods 
listed in Section 1810A.3.3.1.3 with consideration for 
the test type, duration and subsoil. The ultimate axial 
load capacity shall be determined by a registered 
design professional with consideration given to toler- 
able total and differential settlements at design load in 
accordance with Section 1810A.2.3. In subsequent 
installation of the balance of deep foundation ele- 
ments, all elements shall be deemed to have a support- 
ing capacity equal to that of the control element where 
such elements are of the same type, size and relative 



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length as the test element; are installed using the same 
or comparable methods and equipment as the test ele- 
ment; are installed in similar subsoil conditions as the 
test element; and, for driven elements, where the rate 
of penetration (e.g., net displacement per blow) of 
such elements is equal to or less than that of the test 
element driven with the same hammer through a com- 
parable driving distance. 

1810A.3.3.1.3 Load test evaluation methods. It 

shall be permitted to evaluate load tests of deep foun- 
dation elements using any of the following me±ods: 

1. Davisson Offset Limit. 

2. Brinch-Hansen 90% Criterion. 

3. Butler-Hoy Criterion. 

4. Other methods approved by the building offi- 
cial. 

1810A.3.3.1.4 Allowable frictional resistance. The 

assumed frictional resistance developed by any 
uncased cast-in-place deep foundation element shall 
not exceed one-sixth of the bearing value of the soil 
material at minimum depth as set forth in Table 
1 806A. 2, up to a maximum of 500 psf (24 kPa), unless 
a greater value is allowed by the building official on 
the basis of a geotechnical investigation as specified 
in Section 1 803 A or a greater value is substantiated by 
a load test in accordance with Section 1810A.3.3.1.2. 
Frictional resistance and bearing resistance shall not 
be assumed to act simultaneously unless determined 
by a geotechnical investigation in accordance with 
Section 1803A. 

1810A.3.3.1.5 Uplift capacity of a single deep foun- 
dation element. Where required by the design, the 
uplift capacity of a single deep foundation element 
shall be determined by an approved method of analy- 
sis based on a minimum factor of safety of three or by 
load tests conducted in accordance with ASTM D 
3689. The maximum allowable uplift load shall not 
exceed the ultimate load capacity as determined in 
Section 1810A.3.3.L2, using the results of load tests 
conducted in accordance with ASTM D 3689, divided 
by a factor of safety of two. 

Exception: Where uplift is due to wind or seismic 
loading, the minimum factor of safety shall be two 
where capacity is determined by an analysis and 
one and one-half where capacity is detennined by 
load tests. 

1810A.3.3.1.6 Uplift capacity of grouped deep 
foundation elements. For grouped deep foundation 
elements subjected to uplift, the allowable working 
uplift load for the group shall be calculated by an 
approved method of analysis where the deep founda- 
tion elements in the group are placed at a cen- 
ter-to-center spacing of at least 2.5 times the least 
horizontal dimension of the largest single element, 
the allowable working uplift load for the group is per- 
mitted to be calculated as the lesser of: 



1. The proposed individual uplift working load 
times the number of elements in the group. 

2. Two-thirds of the effective weight of the group 
and the soil contained within a block defined by 
the perimeter of the group and the length of the 
element. 

1810A.3.3.1.7 Load-bearing capacity. Deep foun- 
dation elements shall develop ultimate load capacities 
of at least twice the design working loads in the desig- 
nated load-bearing layers. Analysis shall show that no 
soil layer underlying the designated load-bearing lay- 
ers causes the load-bearing capacity safety factor to 
be less than two. 

1810A. 3.3.1.8 Bent deep foundation elements. The 

load-bearing capacity of deep foundation elements 
discovered to have a sharp or sweeping bend shall be 
determined by an approved method of analysis or by 
load testing a representative element. 

1810A.3.3.1.9 Helical piles. The allowable axial 
design load, P^, of helical piles shall be determined as 
follows: 



where P„ is the least value of: 



(Equation 18A-4) 



1. Sum of the areas of the helical bearing plates 
times the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil or 
rock comprising the bearing stratum. 

2. Ultimate capacity determined from well-docu- 
mented correlations with installation torque. 

3. Ultimate capacity determined from load tests. 

4. Ultimate axial capacity of pile shaft. 

5 . Ultimate axial capacity of pile shaft couplings. 

6. Sum of the ultimate axial capacity of helical 
bearing plates affixed to pile. 

1810A.3.3.2 Allowable lateral load. Where required by 
the design, the lateral load capacity of a single deep foun- 
dation element or a group thereof shall be determined by 
an approved method of analysis or by lateral load tests to 
at least twice the proposed design working load. The 
resulting allowable load shall not be more than one-half 
of the load that produces a gross lateral movement of 1 
inch (25 mm) at the lower of the top of foundation ele- 
ment and the ground surface, unless it can be shown that 
the predicted lateral movement shall cause neither harm- 
ful distortion of, nor instability in, the structure, nor 
cause any element to be loaded beyond its capacity. 

1810A.3.4 Subsiding soils. Where deep foundation ele- 
ments are installed through subsiding fills or other subsid- 
ing strata and derive support from underlying firmer 
materials, consideration shall be given to the downward 
frictional forces that may be imposed on the elements by the 
subsiding upper strata. 

Where the influence of subsiding fills is considered as 
imposing loads on the element, the allowable stresses speci- 



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SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



fied in this chapter shall be permitted to be increased where 
satisfactory substantiating data are submitted. 

1810A.3.5 Dimensions of deep foundation elements. The 

dimensions of deep foundation elements shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 1810A.3.5.1 through 1810A.3.5.3, as 
applicable. 

1810A.3.5.1 Precast. The minimum lateral dimension of 
precast concrete deep foundation elements shall be 8 
inches (203 mm). Comers of square elements shall be 
chamfered. 

1810A.3.5.2 Cast-in-place or grouted-in-place. Cast- 
in-place and grouted-in-place deep foundation elements 
shall satisfy the requirements of this section. 

1810A.3.5.2.1 Cased. Cast-in-place deep foundation 
elements with a permanent casing shall have a nomi- 
nal outside diameter of not less than 8 inches (203 
mm). 

1810A. 3.5.2.2 Uncased. Cast-in-place deep founda- 
tion elements without a permanent casing shall have a 
diameter of not less than 12 inches (305 mm). The ele- 
ment length shall not exceed 30 times the average 
diameter. 

Exception: The length of the element is permitted 
to exceed 30 times the diameter, provided the design 
and installation of the deep foundations are under 
the direct supervision of a registered design profes- 
sional knowledgeable in the field of soil mechanics 
and deep foundations. The registered design profes- 
sional shall submit a report to the building official 
stating that the elements were installed in compli- 
ance with the approved construction documents. 

1810A. 3.5.2.3 Micropiles.-Micropiles shall have an 
outside diameter of 12 inches (305 mm) or less. The 
minimum diameter set forth elsewhere in Section 
1810A.3.5 shall not apply to micropiles. 

1810A. 3.5.3 Steel. Steel deep foundation elements shall 
satisfy the requirements of this section. 

1810A.3.5.3.1 H-piles. Sections of H-piles shall 
comply with the following: 

1 . The flange projections shall not exceed 14 times 
the minimum thickness of metal in either the 
flange or the web and the flange widths shall not 
be less than 80 percent of the depth of the sec- 
tion. 

2. The nominal depth in the direction of the web 
shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm). 

3. Flanges and web shall have a minimum nomi- 
nal thickness of Vg inch (9.5 mm). 

1810A. 3.5.3.2 Steel pipes and tubes. Steel pipes and 
tubes used as deep foundation elements shall have a 
nominal outside diameter of not less than 8 inches (203 
mm). Where steel pipes or tubes are driven open ended, 
they shall have a minimum of 0.34 square inch (219 
mm^) of steel in cross section to resist each 1,000 
foot-pounds (1356 Nm) of pile hammer energy, or 



shall have the equivalent strength for steels having a 
yield strength greater than 35,000 psi (241 MPa) or the 
wave equation analysis shall be permitted to be used to 
assess compression stresses induced by driving to eval- 
uate if the pile section is appropriate for the selected 
hammer. Where a pipe or tube with wall thickness less 
than 0.179 inch (4.6 mm) is driven open ended, a suit- 
able cutting shoe shall be provided. Concrete-filled 
steel pipes or tubes in structures assigned to Seismic 
Design Category C, D, E or F shall have a wall thick- 
ness of not less than Vi^ i^^ch (5 mm). The pipe or tube 
casing for socketed drilled shafts shall have a nominal 
outside diameter of not less than 1 8 inches (457 nmi), a 
wall thickness of not less than Vg inch (9.5 mm) and a 
suitable steel driving shoe welded to the bottom; the 
diameter of the rock socket shall be approximately 
equal to the inside diameter of the casing. 

Exceptions: 

1. There is no minimum diameter for steel 
pipes or tubes used in micropiles. 

2. For mandrel-driven pipes or tubes, the mini- 
mum wall thickness shall be Vjo inch (2.5 
mm). 

1810A.3.5,3.3 Helical piles. Dimensions of the 
central shaft and the number, size and thickness of 
helical bearing plates shall be sufficient to support the 
design loads. 

1810A.3.6 Splices. Splices shall be constructed so as to pro- 
vide and maintain true alignment and position of the compo- 
nent parts of the deep foundation element during installation 
and subsequent thereto and shall be designed to resist the 
axial and shear forces and moments occurring at the loca- 
tion of the splice during driving and for design load combi- 
nations. Where deep foundation elements of the same type 
are being sphced, sphces shall develop not less than 50 per- 
cent of the bending strength of the weaker section. Where 
deep foundation elements of different materials or different 
types are being spliced, splices shall develop the full com- 
pressive strength and not less than 50 percent of the tension 
and bending strength of the weaker section. Where struc- 
tural steel cores are to be spliced, the ends shall be milled or 
ground to provide full contact and shall be full-depth 
welded. 

Splices occurring in the upper 10 feet (3048 mm) of the 
embedded portion of an element shall be designed to resist 
at allowable stresses the moment and shear that would result 
from an assumed eccentricity of the axial load of 3 inches 
(76 vam), or the element shall be braced in accordance with 
Section 1810A.2.2 to other deep foundation elements that 
do not have splices in the upper 10 feet (3048 mm) of 
embedment. 

1810A.3.6.1 Seismic Design Categories C through E 

For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, 
E or F splices of deep foundation elements shall develop 
the lesser of the following: 

1 . The full strength of the deep foundation element; 
and 



224 



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SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



2. The axial and shear forces and moments from the 
load combinations with overstrength factor in Sec- 
tion 12.4.3.2 of ASCE 7. 

1810A.3.7 Top of element detailing at cutoffs. Where a 
minimum length for reinforcement or the extent of closely 
spaced confinement reinforcement is specified at the top of 
a deep foundation element, provisions shall be made so that 
those specified lengths or extents are maintained after cut- 
off. 

1810A.3.8 Precast concrete piles. Precast concrete piles 
shall be designed and detailed in accordance with Sections 
1810A.3.8.1 through 1810A.3.8.3. 

1810A.3.8.1 Reinforcement. Longitudinal steel shall be 
arranged in a symmetrical pattern and be laterally tied 
with steel ties or wire spiral spaced center to center as fol- 
lows: 

1 . At not more than 1 inch (25 mm) for the first five 
ties or spirals at each end; then 

2. At not more than 4 inches (102 mm), for the 
remainder of the first 2 feet (610 mm) from each 
end; and then 

3. At not more than 6 inches (152 mm) elsewhere. 
The size of ties and spirals shall be as follows: 

1 . For piles having a least horizontal dimension of 16 
inches (406 mm) or less, wire shall not be smaller 
than 0.22 inch (5.6 nmi) (No. 5 gage). 

2. For piles having a least horizontal dimension of 
more than 16 inches (406 mm) and less than 20 
inches (508 mm), wire shall not be smaller than 
0.238 inch (6 mm) (No. 4 gage). 

3. For piles having a least horizontal dimension of 20 
inches (508 mm) and larger, wire shall not be 
smaller than V4 inch (6.4 mm) round or 0.259 inch 
(6.6 mm) (No. 3 gage). 

1810A. 3.8.2 Precast nonprestressed piles. Precast 
nonprestressed concrete piles shall comply with the 
requirements of Sections 1 8 lOA. 3.8.2.1 through 
1810A.3.8.2.3. 

1810A, 3.8.2.1 Minimum reinforcement. Longitudi- 
nal reinforcement shall consist of at least four bars 
with a minimum longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 
0.008. 

1810A.3.8.2.2 Seismic reinforcement in Seismic 
Design Categories C through F. For structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F in 
accordance with Section 1613A, precast 
nonprestressed piles shall be reinforced as specified 
in this section. The minimum longitudinal reinforce- 
ment ratio shall be 0.01 throughout the length. Trans- 
verse reinforcement shall consist of closed ties or 
spirals with a minimum ^/g inch (9.5 mm) diameter. 
Spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not exceed 
the smaller of eight times the diameter of the smallest 



longitudinal bar or 6 inches (152 mm) within a dis- 
tance of three times the least pile dimension from the 
bottom of the pile cap. Spacing of transverse rein- 
forcement shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm) 
throughout the remainder of the pile. 

1810A. 3.8.2.3 Additional seismic reinforcement in 
Seismic Design Categories D through F. For struc- 
tures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F 
in accordance with Section 1613A, transverse rein- 
forcement shall be in accordance with Section 
1810A.3.9.4.2. 

1810A. 3.8.3 Precast prestressed piles. Precast pre- 
stressed concrete piles shall comply with the requirements 
of Sections 1810A.3.8.3.1 through 1810A.3.8.3.3. 

1810A.3.8.3.1 Effective prestress. The effective pre- 
stress in the pile shall not be less than 400 psi (2.76 
MPa) for piles up to 30 feet (9144 mm) in length, 550 
psi (3.79 MPa) for piles up to 50 feet (15 240 mm) in 
length and 700 psi (4.83 MPa) for piles greater than 
50 feet (15 240 mm) in length. 

Effective prestress shall be based on an assumed 
loss of 30,000 psi (207 MPa) in the prestressing steel. 
The tensile stress in the prestressing steel shall not 
exceed the values specified in ACI 318. 

1810A. 3.8.3.2 Seismic reinforcement in Seismic 
Design Category C. Not permitted by DSA-SS, 
DSA-SS/CC or OSHPD, 

18 lOA. 3.8.3.3 Seismic reinforcement in Seismic 
Design Categories D through F. For structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F in 
accordance with Section 1613A, precast prestressed 
piles shall have transverse reinforcement in accor- 
dance with the following: 

1 . Requirements in ACI 318, Chapter 2 1 , need not 
apply, unless specifically referenced. 

2. Where the total pile length in the soil is 35 feet 
(10 668 mm) or less, the lateral transverse rein- 
forcement in the ductile region shall occur 
through the length of the pile. Where the pile 
length exceeds 35 feet (10 668 mm), the ductile 
pile region shall be taken as the greater of 35 
feet (10 668 mm) or the distance from the 
underside of the pile cap to the point of zero cur- 
vature plus three times the least pile dimension. 

3. In the ductile region, the center- to-center spac- 
ing of the spirals or hoop reinforcement shall 
not exceed one-fifth of the least pile dimension, 
six times the diameter of the longitudinal strand 
or 8 inches (203 mm), whichever is smallest. 

4. Circular spiral reinforcement shall be spliced 
by lapping one full turn and bending the end of 
each spiral to a 90-degree hook or by use of a 
mechanical or welded splice complying with 
Section 12.14.3 of ACI 318. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



225 



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5. Where the transverse reinforcement consists of 
circular spirals, the volumetric ratio of spiral 
transverse reinforcement in the ductile region 
shall comply with the following: 



Ps =0.25(fV/..)(A,M,,- 
[0.5 + 1.4P/rcA,)] 

but not less than: 



1.0) 
(Equation ia4-6) 



p . = 0.\2(f\ Ify,) [0.5 + 1.4P/(/-', A,)] 

> 0A2f\/fy, (Equation 18A-7) 

and need not exceed: 



p, = 0.021 



where: 



(Equation ISA -8) 



Ag = Pile cross-sectional area, square inches 
(mm^). 

A^f, = Core area defined by spiral outside diam- 
eter, square inches (mm^). 

f\ = Specified compressive strength of con- 
crete, psi (MPa) 

fyh = Yield strength of spiral reinforcement 
< 85,000 psi (586 MPa). 

P = Axial load on pile, pounds (kN), as deter- 
mined from Equations 16A-5 and 16A-7. 

p^ = Volumetric ratio (vol. spiral/vol. core). 

6. Where transverse reinforcement consists of 
rectangular hoops and cross ties, the total 
cross-sectional area of lateral transverse rein- 
forcement in the ductile region with spacing, s, 
and perpendicular dimension, h^, shall conform 
to: 

As,=03sK(f'Jfy,){Ag/A,,-L0) 
[0,5 ^ I AP/ifc A,)] 

(Equation 18A-9) 

but not less than: 

A,, =0A2sKrc/fyH) [0.5 + lAP/ifcA,)] 

(Equation 18A-10) 



where: 



fyh 



= < 70,000 psi (483 MPa). 

= Cross-sectional dimension of pile core 
measured center to center of hoop rein- 
forcement, inch (nun). 

= Spacing of transverse reinforcement 
measured along length of pile, inch 
(mm). 

= Cross-sectional area of tranverse rein- 
forcement, square inches (mm^). 



f'c- specified compressive strength of con- 
crete, psi (MPa). 

The hoops and cross ties shall be equivalent to 
deformed bars not less than No. 3 in size. Rectangular 
hoop ends shall terminate at a comer with seismic 
hooks. 

Outside of the length of the pile requiring trans- 
verse confinement reinforcing, the spiral or hoop 
reinforcing with a volumetric ratio not less than 
one-half of that required for transverse confinement 
reinforcing shall be provided. 

1810A.3.9 Cast-in-place deep foundations. Cast-in- 
place deep foundation elements shall be designed and 
detailed in accordance with Sections 1810A.3.9.1 through 
1810A.3.9,6. 

1810A.3.9.1 Design cracking moment. The design 
cracking moment ((t)M„) for a cast-in-place deep founda- 
tion element not enclosed by a structural steel pipe or 
tube shall be determined using the following equation: 



<j>M^=34fX. 



(Equation 18A-11) 



where: 

/'c = 



Specified compressive strength of concrete or 
grout, psi (MPa) 

Elastic section modulus, neglecting reinforce- 
ment and casing, cubic inches (mm^) 

1810A. 3.9.2 Required reinforcement. Where subject 
to uplift or where the required moment strength deter- 
mined using the load combinations of Section 1605 A. 2 
exceeds the design cracking moment determined in 
accordance with Section 1 8 lOA. 3.9.1, cast-in-place deep 
foundations not enclosed by a structural steel pipe or 
tube shall be reinforced. 

1810A.3.9.3 Placement of reinforcement. Reinforce- 
ment where required shall be assembled and tied 
together and shall be placed in the deep foundation ele- 
ment as a unit before the reinforced portion of the ele- 
ment is filled with concrete. 

Exceptions: 

1. Steel dowels embedded 5 feet (1524 mm) or 
less shall be permitted to be placed after con- 
creting, while the concrete is still in a semifluid 
state. 

2. For deep foundation elements installed with a 
hollow-stem auger, tied reinforcement shall be 
placed after elements are concreted, while the 
concrete is still in a semifluid state. Longitudi- 
nal reinforcement without lateral ties shall be 
placed either through the hollow stem of the 
auger prior to concreting or after concreting, 
while the concrete is still in a semifluid state. 

3. For Group R-3 and U occupancies not exceed- 
ing two stories of light-frame construction, 
reinforcement is permitted to be placed after 
concreting, while the concrete is still in a semi- 



226 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



fluid state, and the concrete cover requirement 
is permitted to be reduced to 2 inches (5 1 nun), 
provided the construction method can be dem- 
onstrated to the satisfaction of the building offi- 
cial. 

1810A.3.9.4 Seismic reinforcement. Where a structure 
is assigned to Seismic Design Category C, reinforcement 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 
1810A.3.9.4.1. Where a structure is assigned to Seismic 
Design Category D, E or F, reinforcement shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 1810A.3.9.4,2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Isolated deep foundation elements supporting 
posts of Group R-3 and U occupancies not 
exceeding two stories of Hght- frame construc- 
tion shall be permitted to be reinforced as 
required by rational analysis but with not less 
than one No. 4 bar, without ties or spirals, 
where detailed so the element is not subject to 
lateral loads and the soil provides adequate lat- 
eral support in accordance with Section 
1810A.2.1. 

2. Isolated deep foundation elements supporting 
posts and bracing from decks and patios appur- 
tenant to Group R-3 and U occupancies not 
exceeding two stories of light-frame construc- 
tion shall be permitted to be reinforced as 
required by rational analysis but with not less 
than one No. 4 bar, without ties or spirals, 
where the lateral load, E, to the top of the ele- 
ment does not exceed 200 pounds (890 N) and 
the soil provides adequate lateral support in 
accordance with Section 1810A.2.1. 

3. Deep foundation elements supporting the con- 
crete foundation wall of Group R-3 and U occu- 
pancies not exceeding two stories of 
light-frame construction shall be permitted to 
be reinforced as required by rational analysis 
but with not less than two No. 4 bars, without 
ties or spirals, where the design cracking 
moment determined in accordance with Section 
1810A.3.9.1 exceeds the required moment 
strength determined using the load combina- 
tions with overstrength factor in Section 
12.4.3.2 of ASCE 7 and the soil provides ade- 
quate lateral support in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1810A2.1. 

4. Closed ties or spirals where required by Section 
1810A.3.9.4.2 shall be permitted to be limited 
to the top 3 feet (914 mm) of deep foundation 
elements 10 feet (3048 nmi) or less in depth 
supporting Group R-3 and U occupancies of 
Seismic Design Category D, not exceeding two 
stories of light-frame construction. 



1810A.3.9.4.1 Seismic reinforcement in Seismic 
Design Category C. For structures assigned to Seis- 
mic Design Category C in accordance with Section 
1613A, cast-in-place deep foundation elements shall 
be reinforced as specified in this section. Reinforce- 
ment shall be provided where required by analysis. 

A minimum of four longitudinal bars, with a mini- 
mum longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 0.0025, shall 
be provided for throughout the minimum reinforced 
length of the element as defined below starting at the 
top of the element. The minimum reinforced length of 
the element shall be taken as the greatest of the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . One-third of the element length; 

2. A distance of 10 feet (3048 mm); 

3. Three times the least element dimension; and 

4. The distance from the top of the element to the 
point where the design cracking moment deter- 
mined in accordance with Section 1810A.3.9,1 
exceeds the required moment strength deter- 
mined using the load combinations of Section 
1605A.2. 

Transverse reinforcement shall consist of closed 
ties or spirals with a minimum V^ inch (9.5 mm) diam- 
eter. Spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not 
exceed the smaller of 6 inches (152 mm) or 8-longitu- 
dinal-bar diameters, within a distance of three times 
the least element dimension from the bottom of the 
pile cap. Spacing of transverse reinforcement shall 
not exceed 16 longitudinal bar diameters throughout 
the remainder of the reinforced length. 

Exceptions: 

1. The requirements of this section shall not 
apply to concrete cast in structural steel 
pipes or tubes. 

2. A spiral- welded metal casing of a thickness 
not less than manufacturer's standard gage 
No. 14 gage (0.068 inch) is permitted to pro- 
vide concrete confinement in lieu of the 
closed ties or spirals. Where used as such, 
the metal casing shall be protected against 
possible deleterious action due to soil con- 
stituents, changing water levels or other fac- 
tors indicated by boring records of site 
conditions. 

1810A.3.9.4.2 Seismic reinforcement in Seismic 
Design Categories D through F. For structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F in 
accordance with Section 1613A, cast-in-place deep 
foundation elements shall be reinforced as specified 
in this section. Reinforcement shall be provided 
where required by analysis. 

A minimum of four longitudinal bars, with a mini- 
mum longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 0.005, shall 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



227 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



II 



be provided throughout the minimum reinforced 
length of the element as defined below starting at the 
top of the element. The minimum reinforced length of 
the element shall be taken as the greatest of the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . One-half of the element length; 

2. A distance of 10 feet (3048 mm); 

3. Three times the least element dimension; and 

4. The distance from the top of the element to the 
point where the design cracking moment deter- 
mined in accordance with Section 1810A.3.9.1 
exceeds the required moment strength deter- 
mined using the load combinations of Section 
1605A.2. 

Transverse reinforcement shall consist of closed 
ties or spirals no smaller than No. 3 bars for elements 
with a least dimension up to 20 inches (508 mm), and 
No. 4 bars for larger elements. Throughout the 
remainder of the reinforced length outside the regions 
with transverse confinement reinforcement, as speci- 
fied in Section 1810A.3.9.4.2.1 or 1810A.3.9.4.2.2, 
the spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not 
exceed the least of the following: 

1. 12 longitudinal bar diameters; 

2. One-half the least dimension of the element; 

and 

3. 12 inches (305 mm). 
Exceptions: 

1. The requirements of this section shall not 
apply to concrete cast in structural steel 
pipes or tubes. 

2. A spiral- welded metal casing of a thickness 
not less than manufacturer's standard gage 
No. 14 gage (0.068 inch) is permitted to pro- 
vide concrete confinement in lieu of the 
closed ties or spirals. Where used as such, 
the metal casing shall be protected against 
possible deleterious action due to soil con- 
stituents, changing water levels or other fac- 
tors indicated by boring records of site 
conditions. 

1810A. 3.9.4.2.1 Site Classes A through D. For 

Site Class A, B, C or D sites, transverse confine- 
ment reinforcement shall be provided in the ele- 
ment in accordance with Sections 21.6.4.2, 
21.6.4.3 and 21.6.4.4 of ACI 318 within three 
times the least element dimension of the bottom of 
the pile cap. A transverse spiral reinforcement 
ratio of not less than one-half of that required in 
Section 21.6.4.4(a) of ACI 318 shall be permitted 
for concrete deep foundation elements, 

1810A.3.9.4.2.2 Site Classes E and F. For Site 
Class E or F sites, transverse confinement rein- 
forcement shall be provided in the element in 
accordance with Sections 21.6.4.2, 21.6.4.3 and 



21.6.4.4 of ACI 318 within seven times the least 
element dimension of the pile cap and within seven 
times the least element dimension of the interfaces 
of strata that are hard or stiff and strata that are 
liquefiable or are composed of soft- to medium- 
stiff clay. 

1810A.3.9.5 Belled drilled shafts. Where drilled shafts 
are belled at the bottom, the edge thickness of the bell 
shall not be less than that required for the edge of foot- 
ings. Where the sides of the bell slope at an angle less 
than 60 degrees (1 rad) from the horizontal, the effects of 
vertical shear shall be considered. 

1810A.3.9.6 Socketed drilled shafts. Socketed drilled 
shafts shall have a permanent pipe or tube casing that 
extends down to bedrock and an uncased socket drilled 
into the bedrock, both filled with concrete. Socketed 
drilled shafts shall have reinforcement or a structural 
steel core for the length as indicated by an approved 
method of analysis. 

The depth of the rock socket shall be sufficient to 
develop the full load-bearing capacity of the element 
with a minimum safety factor of two, but the depth shall 
not be less than the outside diameter of the pipe or tube 
casing. The design of the rock socket is permitted to be 
predicated on the sum of the allowable load-bearing 
pressure on the bottom of the socket plus bond along the 
sides of the socket. 

Where a structural steel core is used, the gross 
cross-sectional area of the core shall not exceed 25 per- 
cent of the gross area of the drilled shaft. 

1810A.3.10 Micropiles. Micropiles shall be designed and 
detailed in accordance with Sections 1810A.3.10.1 through 
1810A.3.10.4. 

1810A.3.10.1 Construction. Micropiles shall develop 
their load-carrying capacity by means of a bond zone in 
soil, bedrock or a combination of soil and bedrock. 
Micropiles shall be grouted and have either a steel pipe or 
tube or steel reinforcement at every section along the 
length. It shall be permitted to transition from deformed 
reinforcing bars to steel pipe or tube reinforcement by 
extending the bars into the pipe or tube section by at least 
their development length in tension in accordance with 
ACI 318. 

1810A.3.10.2 Materials. Reinforcement shall consist of 
deformed reinforcing bars in accordance with ASTM A 
615 Grade 60 or 75 or ASTM A 722 Grade 150. 

The steel pipe or tube shall have a minimum wall 
thickness of Vjg inch (4.8 mm). Splices shall comply with 
Section 1810A.3.6. The steel pipe or tube shall have a 
minimum yield strength of 45,000 psi (310 MPa) and a 
minimum elongation of 15 percent as shown by mill cer- 
tifications or two coupon test samples per 40,000 pounds 
(18 160 kg) of pipe or tube. 

1810A.3.10.3 Reinforcement. For micropiles or por- 
tions thereof grouted inside a temporary or permanent 
casing or inside a hole drilled into bedrock or a hole 
drilled with grout, the steel pipe or tube or steel rein- 



228 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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forcement shall be designed to carry at least 40 percent of 
the design compression load. Micropiles or portions 
thereof grouted in an open hole in soil without temporary 
or permanent casing and without suitable means of veri- 
fying the hole diameter during grouting shall be designed 
to carry the entire compression load in the reinforcing 
steel. Where a steel pipe or tube is used for reinforce- 
ment, the portion of the grout enclosed within the pipe is 
permitted to be included in the determination of the 
allowable stress in the grout. 

1810A,3,10.4 Seismic requirements. For structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category D,EorF, a perma- 
nent steel casing having a minimum thickness of % inch 
(10 mm) shall be provided from the top of the micropile 
down to a minimum of 120 percent of the point of zero 
curvature. Capacity of micropiles shall be determined in 
accordance with Section 1810A33 by at least two pro- 
ject specific preproduction tests for each soil profile, size 
and depth of micropile. At least two percent of all produc- 
tion piles shall be proof tested to the load determined in 
accordance with Section 161 5 A, 1.10. 

Steel casing length in soil shall be considered as 
unbonded and shall not be considered as contributing to 
friction. Casing shall provide confinement at least equiv- 
alent to hoop reinforcing required by ACI 318 Section 

21.12.4. 

Reinforcement shall have Class 1 corrosion protection 
in accordance with PTI Recommendations for P re- 
stressed Rock and Soil Anchors. Steel casing design shall 
include at least Vy^ inch corrosion allowance. 

Micropiles shall not be considered as carrying any 
horizontal loads. 

1810A.3.11 Pile caps. Pile caps shall be of reinforced con- 
crete, and shall include all elements to which vertical deep 
foundation elements are connected, including grade beams 
and mats. The soil immediately below the pile cap shall not 
be considered as carrying any vertical load. The tops of ver- 
tical deep foundation elements shall be embedded not less 
than 3 inches (76 mm) into pile caps and the caps shall 
extend at least 4 inches (102 mm) beyond the edges of the 
elements. The tops of elements shall be cut or chipped back 
to sound material before capping. 

1810A.3.11.1 Seismic Design Categories C through F. 

For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, 
E or F in accordance with Section 1613A, concrete deep 
foundation elements shall be connected to the pile cap by 
embedding the element reinforcement or field-placed 
dowels anchored in the element into the pile cap for a dis- 
tance equal to their development length in accordance 
with ACI 318. It shall be permitted to connect precast 
prestressed piles to the pile cap by developing the ele- 
ment prestressing strands into the pile cap provided the 
connection is ductile. For deformed bars, the develop- 
ment length is the full development length for compres- 
sion, or tension in the case of uplift, without reduction for 
excess reinforcement in accordance with Section 12.2.5 
of ACI 318. Alternative measures for laterally confining 
concrete and maintaining toughness and ductile-like 



behavior at the top of the element shall be permitted pro- 
vided the design is such that any hinging occurs in the 
confined region. 

The minimum transverse steel ratio for confinement 
shall not be less than one-half of that required for col- 
umns. 

For resistance to uplift forces, anchorage of steel 
pipes, tubes or H-piles to the pile cap shall be made by 
means other than concrete bond to the bare steel section. 
Concrete-filled steel pipes or tubes shall have reinforce- 
ment of not less than 0.01 times the cross- sectional area 
of the concrete fill developed into the cap and extending 
into the fill a length equal to two times the required cap 
embedment, but not less than the development length in 
tension of the reinforcement. 

1810A.3.11.2 Seismic Design Categories D through F. 

For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E 
or F in accordance with Section 161 3A, deep foundation 
element resistance to uplift forces or rotational restraint 
shall be provided by anchorage into the pile cap, 
designed considering the combined effect of axial forces 
due to uplift and bending moments due to fixity to the 
pile cap. Anchorage shall develop a minimum of 25 per- 
cent of the strength of the element in tension. Anchorage 
into the pile cap shall be capable of developing the fol- 
lowing: 

1. In the case of uplift, the least of the following: 
nominal tensile strength of the longitudinal rein- 
forcement in a concrete element; the nominal ten- 
sile strength of a steel element; the frictional force 
developed between the element and the soil multi- 
plied by 1.3; and the axial tension force resulting 
from the load combinations with overstrength fac- 
tor in Section 12.4.3.2 of ASCE 7. 

2. In the case of rotational restraint, the lesser of the 
following: the axial force, shear forces and bend- 
ing moments resulting from the load combinations 
with overstrength factor in Section 12.4.3.2 of 
ASCE 7 or development of the full axial, bending 
and shear nominal strength of the element. 

Where the vertical lateral-force-resisting elements are 
columns, the pile cap flexural strengths shall exceed the 
column flexural strength. The connection between batter 
piles and pile caps shall be designed to resist the nominal 
strength of the pile acting as a short column. Batter piles 
and their connection shall be capable of resisting forces 
and moments from the load combinations with 
overstrength factor in Section 12.4.3.2 of ASCE 7. 

1810A.3.12 Grade beams. For structures assigned to 5^/^"- 
mic Design Category D, E or F in accordance with Section 
1613A, grade beams shall comply with the provisions in 
Section 21.12.3 of ACI 318 for grade beams, except where 
they have the capacity to resist the forces from the load com- 
binations with overstrength factor in Section 12.4.3.2 of 
ASCE 7. 

1810A.3.13 Seismic ties. For structures assigned to Seismic 
Design Category C, D, E or F in accordance with Section 



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229 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



1613A, individual deep foundations shall be interconnected 
by ties. Unless it can be demonstrated that equivalent 
restraint is provided by reinforced concrete beams within 
slabs on grade or reinforced concrete slabs on grade or con- 
finement by competent rock, hard cohesive soils or very 
dense granular soils, ties shall be capable of carrying, in ten- 
sion or compression, a force equal to the lesser of the prod- 
uct of the larger pile cap or column design gravity load times 
the seismic coefficient, Sj^s, divided by 10, and 25 percent of 
the smaller pile or colunrn design gravity load. 

Exception: In Group R-3 and U occupancies of 
light-frame construction, deep foundation elements sup- 
porting foundation walls, isolated interior posts detailed 
so the element is not subject to lateral loads or exterior 
decks and patios are not subject to interconnection where 
the soils are of adequate stiffness, subject to the approval 
of the building official. 

1810A.4 Installation. Deep foundations shall be installed in 
accordance with Section 1810A.4. Where a single deep foun- 
dation element comprises two or more sections of different 
materials or different types spliced together, each section shall 
satisfy the applicable conditions of installation. 

1810A.4.1 Structural integrity. Deep foundation elements 
shall be installed in such a manner and sequence as to pre- 
vent distortion or damage that may adversely affect the 
structural integrity of adjacent structures or of foundation 
elements being installed or akeady in place and as to avoid 
compacting the surrounding soil to the extent that other 
foundation elements cannot be installed properly. 

1810A.4.1.1 Compressive strength of precast con- 
crete piles. A precast concrete pile shall not be driven 
before the concrete has attained a compressive strength 
of at least 75 percent of the specified compressive 
strength (f\), but not less than the strength sufficient to 
withstand handling and driving forces. 

1810A.4.1.2 Casing. Where cast-in-place deep founda- 
tion elements are formed through unstable soils and con- 
crete is placed in an open-drilled hole, a casing shall be 
inserted in the hole prior to placing the concrete. Where 
the casing is withdrawn during concreting, the level of 
concrete shall be maintained above the bottom of the cas- 
ing at a sufficient height to offset any hydrostatic or lat- 
eral soil pressure. Driven casings shall be mandrel driven 
their full length in contact with the surrounding soil. 

1810A.4.1.3 Driving near uncased concrete. Deep 
foundation elements shall not be driven within six ele- 
ment diameters center to center in granular soils or 
within one-half the element length in cohesive soils of an 
uncased element filled with concrete less than 48 hours 
old unless approved by the building official. If the con- 
crete surface in any completed element rises or drops, the 
element shall be replaced. Driven uncased deep founda- 
tion elements shall not be installed in soils that could 
cause heave. 

1810A. 4.1.4 Driving near cased concrete. Deep foun- 
dation elements shall not be driven within four and 



one-half average diameters of a cased element filled with 
concrete less than 24 hours old unless approved by the 
building official. Concrete shall not be placed in casings 
within heave range of driving. 

1810A.4.1.5 Defective timber piles. Not permitted by 
DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC or OSHPD. 

1810A.4.2 Identification. Deep foundation materials shall 
be identified for conformity to the specified grade with this 
identity maintained continuously from the point of manu- 
facture to the point of installation or shall be tested by an 
approved agency to determine conformity to the specified 
grade. The approved agency shall furnish an affidavit of 
compliance to the building official. 

1810A.4.3 Location plan. A plan showing the location and 
designation of deep foundation elements by an identifica- 
tion system shall be filed with the building official prior to 
installation of such elements. Detailed records for elements 
shall bear an identification corresponding to that shown on 
the plan. 

1810A.4.4 Preexcavation. The use of jetting, angering or 
other methods of preexcavation shall be subject to the 
approval of the building official. Where permitted, 
preexcavation shall be carried out in the same manner as 
used for deep foundation elements subject to load tests and 
in such a manner that will not impair the carrying capacity of 
the elements already in place or damage adjacent structures. 
Element tips shall be driven below the preexcavated depth 
until the required resistance or penetration is obtained. 

1810A.4.5 Vibratory driving. Vibratory drivers shall only 
be used to install deep foundation elements where the ele- 
ment load capacity is verified by load tests in accordance 
with Section 1810A.3.3.1.2. The installation of production 
elements shall be controlled according to power consump- 
tion, rate of penetration or other approved means that ensure 
element capacities equal or exceed those of the test ele- 
ments. 

1810A.4.6 Heaved elements. Deep foundation elements 
that have heaved during the driving of adjacent elements 
shall be redriven as necessary to develop the required capac- 
ity and penetration, or the capacity of the element shall be 
verified by load tests in accordance with Section 
1810A.3.3.1.2. 

1810A.4.7 Enlarged base cast-in-place elements. 

Enlarged bases for cast-in-place deep foundation elements 
formed by compacting concrete or by driving a precast base 
shall be formed in or driven into granular soils. Such ele- 
ments shall be constructed in the same manner as successful 
prototype test elements driven for the project. Shafts 
extending through peat or other organic soil shall be 
encased in a permanent steel casing. Where a cased shaft is 
used, the shaft shall be adequately reinforced to resist col- 
umn action or the annular space around the shaft shall be 
filled sufficiently to reestablish lateral support by the soil. 
Where heave occurs, the element shall be replaced unless it 
is demonstrated that the element is undamaged and capable 
of carrying twice its design load. 



230 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



1810A.4.8 Hollow-stem augered, cast-in-place elements. 

Where concrete or grout is placed by pumping through a 
hollow-stem auger, the auger shall be permitted to rotate in a 
clockwise direction during withdrawal. As the auger is 
withdrawn at a steady rate or in increments not to exceed 1 
foot (305 mm), concreting or grouting pumping pressures 
shall be measured and maintained high enough at all times 
to offset hydrostatic and lateral earth pressures. Concrete or 
grout volumes shall be measured to ensure that the volume 
of concrete or grout placed in each element is equal to or 
greater than the theoretical volume of the hole created by the 
auger. Where the installation process of any element is inter- 
rupted or a loss of concreting or grouting pressure occurs, 
the element shall be redrilled to 5 feet (1524 mm) below the 
elevation of the tip of the auger when the installation was 
interrupted or concrete or grout pressure was lost and 
reformed. Angered cast-in-place elements shall not be 
installed within six diameters center to center of an element 
filled with concrete or grout less than 12 hours old, unless 
approved by the building officiaL If the concrete or grout 
level in any completed element drops due to installation of 
an adjacent element, the element shall be replaced. 

1810A.4.9 Socketed drilled shafts. The rock socket and 
pipe or tube casing of socketed drilled shafts shall be thor- 
oughly cleaned of foreign materials before filling with con- 
crete. Steel cores shall be bedded in cement grout at the base 
of the rock socket. 

1810A.4.10 Mieropiles. Micropile deep foundation ele- 
ments shall be permitted to be formed in holes advanced by 
rotary or percussive drilling methods, with or without cas- 
ing. The elements shall be grouted with a fluid cement 
grout. The grout shall be pumped through a tremie pipe 
extending to the bottom of the element until grout of suit- 
able quality returns at the top of the element. The following 
requirements apply to specific installation methods: 

1 . For mieropiles grouted inside a temporary casing, the 
reinforcing bars shall be inserted prior to withdrawal 
of the casing. The casing shall be withdrawn in a con- 
trolled manner with the grout level maintained at the 
top of the element to ensure that the grout completely 
fills the drill hole. During withdrawal of the casing, 
the grout level inside the casing shall be monitored to 
verify that the flow of grout inside the casing is not 
obstructed. 

2. For a micropile or portion thereof grouted in an open 
drill hole in soil without temporary casing, the mini- 
mum design diameter of the drill hole shall be verified 
by a suitable device during grouting. 

3. For mieropiles designed for end bearing, a suitable 
means shall be employed to verify that the bearing 
surface is properly cleaned prior to grouting. 

4. Subsequent mieropiles shall not be drilled near ele- 
ments that have been grouted until the grout has had 
sufficient time to harden. 

5. Mieropiles shall be grouted as soon as possible after 
drilling is completed. 



II 



6. For mieropiles designed with a full-length casing, the 
casing shall be pulled back to the top of the bond zone 
and reinserted or some other suitable means 
employed to assure grout coverage outside the casing. 

1810A.4.11 Helical piles. Hehcal piles shall be installed to 
specified embedment depth and torsional resistance criteria 
as determined by a registered design professional. The 
torque applied during installation shall not exceed the maxi- 
mum allowable installation torque of the helical pile. 

1810A.4.12 Special inspection. Special inspections in 
accordance with Sections 1704A.8 and 1704A.9 shall be 
provided for driven and cast-in-place deep foundation ele- 
ments, respectively. Special inspections in accordance with 
Section 1704A.10 shall be provided for helical piles. 



SECTION 1811 A I I 

PRESTRESSED ROCK AND 
SOIL FOUNDATION ANCHORS 

181 1 A, 1 General The requirements of this section address the 
use of vertical rock and soil anchors in resisting seismic or 
wind overturning forces resulting in tension on shallow foun- 
dations. 

1811A.2 Adoption, Except for the modifications as set forth in 
Sections 1811 A. 3 and 181 lAA, all Prestressed Rock and Soil 
Foundation Anchors shall be designed in accordance with PTl 
Recommendations for Prestressed Rock and Soil Anchors. 

1811A.3 Geotechnical Requirements. Geotechnical report for 
the Prestressed Rock and Soil Foundation Anchors shall 
address the following: 

1. Minimum diameter and minimum spacing for the 
anchors including consideration of group effects. 

2. Maximum unbonded length and minimum bonded 
length of the tendon. 

3. Maximum recommended anchor tension capacity 
based upon the soil or rock strength/grout bond and 
anchor depth/spacing. 

4. Allowable bond stress at the ground/grout interface 
and applicable factor of safety for ultimate bond stress. 

5. Anchor axial tension stiffness recommendations at the 
anticipated anchor axial tension displacements, when 
required for structural analysis. 

6. Minimum grout pressure for installation and 
post-grout pressure. 

7. Class I Corrosion Protection is required for all perma- 
nent anchors. Geotechnical report shall specify the 
corrosion protection recommendations for temporary 
anchors. 

8. Performance test shall be at a minimum of 1.6 times the 
design loads. There shall be a minimum of two 
preproduction test anchors. Preproduction test 
anchors shall be tested to ultimate load or 0.80 times 
the specified minimum tensile strength of the tendon. A 
Creep test is required for all prestressed anchors with 
greater than 10 kips of lock-off prestressing load. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



231 



SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 



9. Lock'OJf pre stressing load requirements. 

10, Acceptable drilling methods. 

11. Geotechnical observation and monitoring require- 
ments. 

1S11A.4 Structural requirements, 

1. Tendons shall be thread-bar anchors conforming to 
ASTMA 722. 

2. The anchors shall be placed vertical. 

3. Design Loads shall be based upon the load combinations 
in Section 1605A.3.1 and shall not exceed 60 percent of 
the specified minimum tensile strength of the tendons. 

I I 4. Ultimate Load shall be based upon Section 161 5 A. 1.10 
and shall not exceed 80 percent of the specified minimum 
tensile strength of the tendons. 

5. The anchor shall be designed to fail in grout bond to the 
soil or rock before pullout of the soil wedge by group 
effect. 

6. Foundation design shall incorporate the affect of lock- 
offloads. 

7. Design shall account for as-built locations of soil 
anchors considering all the acceptable construction tol- 
erances. 

8. Design shall account for both short and long term defor- 
mation. 

9. Enforcement agency may require consideration of 
anchor deformation in evaluating deformation compati- 
bility or building drift where it may be significant. 



232 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 19 - CONCRETE 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


SS 


SS/CC 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 






X 


X 














X 




















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 


X 














X 




X 






















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 










































Chapter/Section 










































1901.1.1 
















X 


























1901.1.2 
















X 


























1901.1.3 
















X 


























1901.1.4 
















X 


























1908.1.2 


X 








































1908.1.3 


X 








































1908.1.9.1 


X 








































1911.11.1 




















X 






















1912.1.1 




















X 






















1912.1.2 




















X 






















1912.2 & subsections 




















X 






















1916.1 
















X 


























1916.1.2 
















X 


























1916.1.3 
















X 


























1916.1.4 
















X 


























1916.1.5 
















X 


























1916.1.6 
















X 


























1916.1.7 
















X 


























1916.1.8 
















X 


























1916.1.9 
















X 


























1916.1.10 
















X 


























1916.1.11 
















X 


























1916.1.11.1 
















X 


























1916.1.11.2 
















X 


























1916.1.11.3 
















X 


























1916.1.11.4 
















X 


























1916.1.11.5 
















X 


























1916.2.1 
















X 


























1916.2.2 
















X 


























1916.3.1 
















X 


























1916.3.2.1 
















X 


























1916.3.2.2 
















X 


























1916.3.3.1 
















X 


























1916.3.3.2 
















X 


























1916.4.1 
















X 


























1916.4.2 
















X 



























(continued) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



233 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 19 - CONCRETE— continued 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


SS 


SS/CC 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 






X 


X 














X 




















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 


X 














X 




X 






















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 










































Chapter/Section 










































1916.4.3 
















X 


























1916.4.4 
















X 


























1916.4.5 
















X 


























1916.4.6 
















X 


























1916.4.7 
















X 


























1916.4.8 
















X 


























1916.4.9 
















X 


























1916.4.10 
















X 


























1916.5.1 
















X 


























1916.5.2 
















X 


























1916.5.3 
















X 


























1916.5.4 
















X 


























1916.5.5 
















X 


























1916.6 
















X 





































































234 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 19 

CONCRETE 



Italics are used for text within Sections 1903 through 1908 of this code to indicate provisions that differ from ACI 318. 



SECTION 1901 
GENERAL 

1901.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, quality control, design and construction of concrete 
used in structures. 

1901.1.1 Application. The scope of application of Chapter 
19 is as follows: 

Community college buildings regulated by the Division 
of the State Architect-Structural Safety/Community Col- 
leges (DSA-SS/CC), as listed in Section 1,9,2.2. 

1901.1.2 Amendments in this chapter. DSA-SS/CC adopts 
this chapter and all amendments. 

Exceptions: Amendments adopted by only one agency 
appear in this chapter preceded with the appropriate 
acronym of the adopting agency^ as follows: 

Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety/ 
Community Colleges: 

[DSA-SS/CC] For applications listed in Section 
1.9.2.2. 

1901.1.3 Reference to other chapters. [DSA-SS/CC] 
Where reference within this chapter is made to sections in 
Chapters 17 and 18, the provisions in Chapters 17 A, and 
ISA, respectively, shall apply instead. 

1901.1.4 Amendments. [DSA-SS/CC] See Section 1916 for 
additional requirements applicable to community colleges, 

1901.2 Plain and reinforced concrete. Structural concrete 
shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the 
requirements of this chapter and ACI 318 as amended in Sec- 
tion 1908 of this code. Except for the provisions of Sections 
1904 and 1910, the design and construction of slabs on grade 
shall not be governed by this chapter unless they transmit verti- 
cal loads or lateral forces from other parts of the structure to the 
soil. 

1901.3 Source and applicability. The format and subject mat- 
ter of Sections 1902 through 1907 of this chapter are patterned 
after, and in general conformity with, the provisions for struc- 
tural concrete in ACI 318. 

1901.4 Construction documents. The construction docu- 
ments for structural concrete construction shall include: 

1 . The specified compressive strength of concrete at the 
stated ages or stages of construction for which each 
concrete element is designed. 

2. The specified strength or grade of reinforcement. 



3. The size and location of structural elements, reinforce- 
ment and anchors. 

4. Provision for dimensional changes resulting from 
creep, shrinkage and temperature. 

5. The magnitude and location of prestressing forces. 

6. Anchorage length of reinforcement and location and 
length of lap splices. 

7. Type and location of mechanical and welded splices of 
reinforcement. 

8. Details and location of contraction or isolation joints 
specified for plain concrete. 

9. Minimum concrete compressive strength at time of 
posttensioning. 

10. Stressing sequence for posttensioning tendons. 

1 1 . For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, 
E or F, a statement if slab on grade is designed as a 
structural diaphragm (see Section 21. 12.3.4 of ACI 
318). 

1901.5 Special inspection. The special inspection of concrete 
elements of buildings and structures and concreting operations 
shall be as required by Chapter 17. 



SECTION 1902 
DEFINITIONS 

1902.1 General. The words and terms defined in ACI 318 
shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in 
this code for concrete construction, have the meanings shown 
in ACI 318 as modified by Section 1908.1.1. 



SECTION 1903 
SPECIFICATIONS FOR TESTS AND MATERIALS 

1903.1 General. Materials used to produce concrete, concrete 
itself and testing thereof shall comply with the applicable stan- 
dards listed in ACI 318. Where required, special inspections 
and tests shall be in accordance with Chapter 1 7, 

1903.2 Glass fiber reinforced concrete. Glass fiber rein- 
forced concrete (GFRC) and the materials used in such con- 
crete shall be in accordance with the PCIMNL 128 standard. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



235 



CONCRETE 



SECTION 1904 
DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS 

1904.1 Water-cementitious materials ratio. Where maximum 
water-cementitious materials ratios are specified in ACI 318, 
they shall be calculated in accordance with ACI 318, Section 4. 1 . 

1904.2 Exposure categories and classes. Concrete shall be 
assigned to exposure classes in accordance with ACI 318, Sec- 
tion 4.2, based on: 

1 . Exposure to freezing and thawing in a moist condition or 
deicer chemicals; 

2. Exposure to sulfates in water or soil; 

3. Exposure to water where the concrete is intended to have 
low permeability; and 

4. Exposure to chlorides from deicing chemicals, salt, 
saltwater, brackish water, seawater or spray from these 
sources, where the concrete has steel reinforcement. 

1904.3 Concrete properties. Concrete mixtures shall conform 
to the most restrictive maximum water-cementitious materials 
ratios and minimum specified concrete compressive strength 
requirements of ACI 318, Section 4.3, based on the exposure 
classes assigned in Section 1904.2. 

Exception: For occupancies and appurtenances thereto in 
Group R occupancies that are in buildings less than four 
stories above grade plane, normal-weight aggregate con- 
crete is permitted to comply with the requirements of Table 
1904.3 based on the weathering classification (freezing and 
thawing) determined from Figure 1904.3 in lieu of the 
requirements of ACI 31 8y Table 4.3.1. 

1904.4 Freezing and thawing exposures. Concrete that will 
be exposed to freezing and thawing, in the presence of mois- 
ture, with or without deicing chemicals being present, shall 
comply with Sections 1904.4.1 and 1904.4.2. 

1904.4.1 Air entrainment. Concrete exposed to freezing 
and thawing while moist shall be air entrained in accordance 
with ACI 318, Section 4.4.1. 



1904.4.2 Deicing chemicals. For concrete exposed to 
freezing and thawing in the presence of moisture and 
deicing chemicals, the maximum weight of fly ash, other 
pozzolans, silica fume or slag that is included in the con- 
crete shall not exceed the percentages of the total weight of 
cementitious materials permitted by ACI 318, Section 
4.4.2. 

1904.5 Alternative cementitious materials for sulfate expo- 
sure. Alternative combinations of cementitious materials for use 
in sulfate-resistant concrete to those listed in ACI 318, Table 
4.3.1 shall be permitted in accordance with ACI 318, Section 
4.5.1. 



SECTION 1905 
CONCRETE QUALITY, MIXING AND PLACING 

1905.1 General. The required strength and durability of con- 
crete shall be determined by compliance with the proportion- 
ing, testing, mixing and placing provisions of Sections 
1905.1.1 through 1905.13. 

1905.1.1 Strength. Concrete shall be proportioned to pro- 
vide an average compressive strength as prescribed in Sec- 
tion 1905.3 and shall satisfy the durability criteria of Section 
1904. Concrete shall be produced to minimize the frequency 
of strengths below/'^ as prescribed in Section 1905.6.3. For 
concrete designed and constructed in accordance with this 
chapter, f\ shall not be less than 2,500 psi (17.22 MPa). No 
maximum specified compressive strength shall apply unless 
restricted by a specific provision of this code or ACI 318. 

1905.2 Selection of concrete proportions. Concrete propor- 
tions shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of 
ACI 318, Section 5.2. 

1905.3 Proportioning on tlie basis of field experience 
and/or trial mixtures. Concrete proportioning determined on 
the basis of field experience and/or trial mixtures shall be done 
in accordance with ACI 318, Section 5.3. 



TABLE 1904.3 
MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (f ^ 



TYPE OR LOCATION OF CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (f '^at 28 days, psi) 


Negligible exposure 


Moderate exposure 


Severe exposure 


Basement walls'^ and foundations not exposed to the weather 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500^ 


Basement slabs and interior slabs on grade, except garage floor slabs 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500^ 


Basement walls^, foundation walls, exterior walls and other vertical 
concrete surfaces exposed to the weather 


2,500 


3,000*> 


3,000^ 


Driveways, curbs, walks, patios, porches, carport slabs, steps and 
other flatwork exposed to the weather, and garage floor slabs 


2,500 


3,000*''^ 


3,500'''^ 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa. 

a. Concrete in these locations that can be subjected to freezing and thawing during construction shall be of air-entrained concrete in accordance with Section 
1904.2.1. 

b. Concrete shall be air entrained in accordance with Section 1904.4.1, 

c. Structural plain concrete basement walls are exempt from the requirements for exposure conditions of Section 1904.3 (see Section 1909.6.1). 

d. For garage floor slabs where a steel trowel finish is used, the total air content required by Section 1904.4.1 is permitted to be reduced to not less than 3 percent, pro- 
vided the minimum specified compressive strength of the concrete is increased to 4,000 psi. 



236 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CONCRETE 




NEGLIGIBLE 



FIGURE 1904.3 
WEATHERING PROBABILITY MAP FOR CONCRETE^' ^' "" 

a. Lines defining areas are approximate only. Local areas can be more or less severe than indicated by the region classification. 

b. A "severe" classification is where weather conditions encourage or require the use of deicing chemicals or where there is potential for a continuous presence of 
moisture during frequent cycles of freezing and thawing. A "moderate" classification is where weather conditions occasionally expose concrete in the presence of 
moisture to freezing and thawing, but where deicing chemicals are not generally used. A "negligible" classification is where weather conditions rarely expose con- 
crete in the presence of moisture to freezing and thawing. 

c. Alaska and Hawaii are classified as severe and negligible, respectively. 



1905.4 Proportioning without field experience or trial mix- 
tures. Concrete proportioning determined without field expe- 
rience or trial mixtures shall be done in accordance with ACI 
318, Section 5.4. 

1905.5 Average strength reduction. As data become avail- 
able during construction, it is permissible to reduce the amount 
by which the average compressive strength (f'^) is required to 
exceed the specified value off\ in accordance with ACI 318, 
Section 5.5. 

1905.6 Evaluation and acceptance of concrete. The criteria 
for evaluation and acceptance of concrete shall be as specified 
in Sections 1905.6.2 through 1905.6.5. 

1905.6.1 Qualified technicians. Concrete shall be tested in 
accordance with the requirements in Sections 1905.6.2 
through 1905.6.5. Qualified field testing technicians shall 
perform tests on fresh concrete at the job site, prepare speci- 
mens required for curing under field conditions, prepare 
specimens required for testing in the laboratory and record 



the temperature of the fresh concrete when preparing speci- 
mens for strength tests. Qualified laboratory technicians 
shall perform all required laboratory tests. 

1905.6.2 Frequency of testing. The frequency of conduct- 
ing strength tests of concrete and the minimum number of 
tests shall be as specified in ACI 318, Section 5.6.2. 

Exception: When the total volume of a given class of 
concrete is less than 50 cubic yards (38 m^), strength tests 
are not required when evidence of satisfactory strength is 
submitted to and approved by the building official. 

1905.6.3 Strength test specimens. Specimens prepared for 
acceptance testing of concrete in accordance with Section 
1905.6.2 and strength test acceptance criteria shall comply 
with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 5.6.3. 

1905.6.4 Field-cured specimens. Where required by the 
building official to determine adequacy of curing and pro- 
tection of concrete in the structure, specimens shall be pre- 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



237 



CONCRETE 



pared, cured, tested and test results evaluated for acceptance 
in accordance with ACI 318, Section 5.6.4. 

1905.6.5 Low-strength test results. Where any strength 
test (see ACI 318, Section 5.6.2.4) falls below the specified 
value of/'c, the provisions of ACI 318, Section 5.6.5, shall 
apply. 

1905.7 Preparation of equipment and place of deposit. Prior 
to concrete being placed, the space to receive the concrete and 
the equipment used to deposit it shall comply with ACI 318, 
Section 5.7. 

1905.8 Mixing. Mixing of concrete shall be performed in 
accordance with ACI 318, Section 5.8. 

1905.9 Conveying. The method and equipment for conveying 
concrete to the place of deposit shall comply with ACI 318, 
Section 5.9. 

1905.10 Depositing. The depositing of concrete shall comply 
with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 5.10. 

1905.11 Curing. The length of time, temperature and moisture 
conditions for curing of concrete shall be in accordance with 
ACI 318, Section 5.11. 

1905.12 Cold weather requirements. Concrete to be placed 
during freezing or near-freezing weather shall comply with the 
requirements of ACI 318, Section 5.12. 

1905.13 Hot weather requirements. Concrete to be placed 
during hot weather shall comply with the requirements of ACI 
318, Section 5.13. 



SECTION 1906 

FORMWORK, EMBEDDED PIPES AND 

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS 

1906.1 Formwork. The design, fabrication and erection of 
forms shall comply with ACI 318, Section 6.1. 

1906.2 Removal of forms, shores and reshores. The removal 
of forms and shores, including from slabs and beams (except 
where cast on the ground), and the installation of reshores shall 
comply with ACI 318, Section 6,2. 

1906.3 Conduits and pipes embedded in concrete. Conduits, 
pipes and sleeves of any material not harmful to concrete and 
within the limitations of ACI 318, Section 6.3, are permitted to 
be embedded in concrete with approval of the registered design 
professional. 

1906.4 Construction joints. Construction joints, including 
their location, shall comply with the provisions of ACI 318, 
Section 6.4. 



SECTION 1907 
DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT 

1907.1 Hoolis. Standard hooks on reinforcing bars used in 
concrete construction shall comply with ACI 318, Section 7.1. 

1907.2 Minimum bend diameters. Minimum reinforcement 
bend diameters utilized in concrete construction shall comply 
with ACI 318, Section 7.2. 



1907.3 Bending. The bending of reinforcement shall comply 
with ACI 318, Section 7.3. 

1907.4 Surface conditions of reinforcement. The surface 
conditions of reinforcement shall comply with the provisions 
of ACI 318, Section 7.4. 

1907.5 Placing reinforcement. The placement of reinforce- 
ment, including tolerances on depth and cover, shall comply 
with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 7.5. Reinforcement 
shall be accurately placed and adequately supported before 
concrete is placed. 

1907.6 Spacing limits for reinforcement. The clear distance 
between reinforcing bars, bundled bars, tendons and ducts 
shall comply with ACI 318, Section 7.6. 

1907.7 Concrete protection for reinforcement. The mini- 
mum specified concrete cover for reinforcement shall comply 
with Sections 1907.7.1 through 1907.7.8. 

1907.7.1 Cast-in-place concrete (nonprestressed). Mini- 
mum specified concrete cover shall be provided for rein- 
forcement in nonprestressed, cast-in-place concrete 
construction in accordance with ACI 318, Section 7.7.1. 

1907.7.2 Cast-in-place concrete (prestressed). The mini- 
mum specified concrete cover for prestressed and 
nonprestressed reinforcement, ducts and end fittings in 
cast-in-place prestressed concrete shall comply with ACI 
318, Section 7.7.2. 

1907.7.3 Precast concrete (manufactured under plant 
control conditions). The minimum specified concrete 
cover for prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement, 
ducts and end fittings in precast concrete manufactured 
under plant control conditions shall comply with ACI 318, 
Section 7.7.3. 

1907.7.4 Bundled bars. The minimum specified concrete 
cover for bundled bars shall comply with ACI 318, Section 
7.7.4. 

1907.7.5 Headed shear stud reinforcement. For headed 
shear stud reinforcement, the minimum specified concrete 
cover shall comply with ACI 318, Section 7.7.5. 

1907.7.6 Corrosive environments. In corrosive environ- 
ments or other severe exposure conditions, prestressed and 
nonprestressed reinforcement shall be provided with addi- 
tional protection in accordance with ACI 318, Section 7.7.6. 

1907.7.7 Future extensions. Exposed reinforcement, 
inserts and plates intended for bonding with future exten- 
sions shall be protected from corrosion. 

1907.7.8 Fire protection. When this code requires a thick- 
ness of cover for fire protection greater than the minimum 
concrete cover in Section 1907.7, such greater thickness 
shall be specified. 

1907.8 Special reinforcement details for columns. Offset 
bent longitudinal bars in columns and load transfer in structural 
steel cores of composite compression members shall comply 
with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 7.8. 

1907.9 Connections. Connections between concrete framing 
members shall comply with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 
7.9. 



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1907.10 Lateral reinforcement for compression members. 

Lateral reinforcement for concrete compression members shall 
comply with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 7.10. 

1907.11 Lateral reinforcement for flexural members. Lat- 
eral reinforcement for compression reinforcement in concrete 
flexural members shall comply with the provisions of ACI 318, 
Section 7.11. 

1907.12 Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement. Rein- 
forcement for shrinkage and temperature stresses in concrete 
members shall comply with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 

7.12. 

1907.13 Requirements for structural integrity. The detail- 
ing of reinforcement and connections between concrete mem- 
bers shall comply with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 7.13, 
to improve structural integrity. 



SECTION 1908 
MODIFICATIONS TO ACI 318 

1908.1 General. The text of ACI 3 1 8 shall be modified as indi- 
cated in Sections 1908.1.1 through 1908.1.10. 

1908.1.1 ACI 318, Section 2.2. Modify existing definitions 
and add the following definitions to ACI 318, Section 2.2. 

DESIGN DISPLACEMENT. Total lateral displacement 
expected for the design-basis earthquake, as specified by 
Section 12.8,6 ofASCE 7. 

DETAILED PLAIN CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL 

A wall complying with the requirements of Chapter 22, 
including 22,6 J, 

ORDINARY PRECAST STRUCTURAL WALL, A precast 
wall complying with the requirements of Chapters 1 through 
18. 

ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUC- 
TURAL WALL. A cast-in-place wall complying with the 
requirements of Chapters 1 through 18. 

ORDINARY STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE 
WALL. A wall complying with the requirements of Chapter 
22, excluding 22.6.7. 

SPECIAL STRUCTURAL WALL. A cast-in place or 
precast wall complying with the requirements of 21.1.3 
through 21.1.7,21.9 and 2 1 . 1 0, as appUcable, in addition to 
the requirements for ordinary reinforced concrete structural 
walls or ordinary precast structural walls, as applicable. 
Where ASCE 7 refers to a ''special reinforced concrete 
structural wall/* it shall be deemed to mean a ''special 
structural wall." 

WALL PIER, A wall segment with a horizontal length- 
to-thickness ratio of at least 2.5, but not exceeding 6, whose 
clear height is at least two times its horizontal length. 

1908.1.2 ACI 318, Section 21.1.1. Modify ACI 318 Sec- 
tions 21.1.1.3 and 21.1.1.7 to read as follows: 

21.1.1.3 - Structures assigned to Seismic Design Cate- 
gory A shall satisfy requirements of Chapters 1 to 19 and 
22; Chapter 21 does not apply. Structures assigned to 
Seismic Design Category B, C, D, E or F also shall satisfy 



21.1.1.4 through 21.1.1.8, as applicable. Except for 
structural elements of plain concrete complying with 
Section 1908.1.8 of the California Building Code, struc- 
tural elements of plain concrete are prohibited in struc- 
tures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D,EorF. 

21.1.1.7 - Structural systems designated as part of the 
seismic-force-resisting system shall be restricted to 
those permitted by ASCE 7. Except for Seismic Design 
Category A, for which Chapter 2 1 does not apply, the fol- 
lowing provisions shall be satisfied for each structural 
system designated as part of the seismic-force-resisting 
system, regardless of the Seismic Design Category: 

(a) Ordinary moment frames shall satisfy 21.2. 

(b) Ordinary reinforced concrete structural walls 
and ordinary precast structural walls need not 
satisfy any provisions in Chapter 21. 

(c) Intermediate moment frames shall satisfy 21.3. 

(d) Intermediate precast structural walls shall satisfy 
21.4. 

(e) Special moment frames shall satisfy 21.5 
through 21.8. 

(f) Special structural walls shall satisfy 21.9. 

(g) Special structural walls constructed using pre- 
cast concrete shall satisfy 21.10. 

(h) [BSC] In Seismic Design Category D, E or F, 
concrete tilt-up wall panels which exceed the 
limitations of intermediate precast structural 
wall systems shall satisfy 21.9 in addition to 
21.4.2. and 21.4.3, 

All special moment frames and special structural 
walls shall also satisfy 21.1.3 through 21.1.7. 

1908.1.3 ACI 318, Section 21.4. Modify ACI 318, Section 
21.4, by renumbering Section 21.4.3 to become 21.4.4 and 
adding new Sections 21.4.3, 21.4.5, 21,4.6 and 21.4.7 to 
read as follows: 

21.4.3 - Connections that are designed to yield shall be 
capable of maintaining 80 percent of their design 
strength at the deformation induced by the design dis- 
placement or shall use Type 2 mechanical splices. 

2 1 .4.4 - Elements of the connection that are not designed 
to yield shall develop at least 1.5 Sy. 

21.4.5- [BSCl Wall piers in Seismic Design Category D, 
E or F shall comply with Section 1908.1.4 of this code. 

21.4.6 - Wall piers not designed as part of a moment 
frame in SDC C shall have transverse reinforcement 
designed to resist the shear forces determined from 
21.3.3. Spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not 
exceed 8 inches (203 mm). Transverse reinforcement 
shall be extended beyond the pier clear height for at least 
12 inches (305 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Wall piers that satisfy 21.13. 



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2. Wall piers along a wall line within a story 
where other shear wall segments provide lat- 
eral support to the wall piers and such seg- 
ments have a total stiffness of at least six times 
the sum of the stiffnesses of all the wall piers. 

2L4.7~ Wall segments with a horizontal length-to-thick- 
ness ratio less than 2.5 shall be designed as columns. 

1908.1.4 ACI 318, Section 21.9. Modify ACI 318, Section 
2L9, by adding new Section 21.9.10 to read as follows: 

21.9,10- Wall piers and wall segments. 

21.9.10.1 - Wall piers not designed as a part of a special 
moment frame shall have transverse reinforcement 
designed to satisfy the requirements in 21.9.10.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Wall piers that satisfy 21.13. 

2. Wall piers along a wall line within a story 
where other shear wall segments provide lat- 
eral support to the wall piers and such seg- 
ments have a total stiffness of at least six times 
the sum of the stiffnesses of all the wall piers. 

21,9.10.2- Transverse reinforcement with seismic hooks 
at both ends shall be designed to resist the shear forces 
determined from 21.6.5.1. Spacing of transverse rein- 
forcement shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Trans- 
verse reinforcement shall be extended beyond the pier 
clear height for at least 12 inches (305 mm), 

21.9.10.3 - Wall segments with a horizontal length-to- 
thickness ratio less than 2.5 shall be designed as col- 
umns. 

1908.1.5 ACI 318, Section 21.10. Modify ACI 318, Sec- 
tion 21.10.2, to read as follows: 

21 . 10.2 - Special structural walls constructed using pre- 
cast concrete shall satisfy all the requirements of 21 .9 for 
cast-in-place special structural walls in addition to Sec- 
tions 21.4.2 through 21.4.4. 

1908.1.6 ACI 318, Section 21.12.1.1. Modify ACI 318, 
Section 21.12.1.1, to read as follows: 

21.12.1.1 - Foundations resisting earthquake-induced 
forces or transferring earthquake-induced forces between 
a structure and ground shall comply with the requirements 
of Section 21.12 and other applicable provisions of ACI 
318 unless modified by Chapter 18 of the California 
Building Code. 

1908.1.7 ACI 318, Section 22.6. Modify ACI 318, Section 
22.6, by adding new Section 22.6.7 to read as follows: 

22.6. 7 - Detailed plain concrete structural walls. 

22.6.7.1 - Detailed plain concrete structural walls are 
walls conforming to the requirements of ordinary struc- 
tural plain concrete walls and 22.6. 7.2. 

22.6.7.2 - Reinforcement shall be provided as follows: 

(a) Vertical reinforcement of at least 0.20 square 
inch (129 mm^) in cross-sectional area shall be 
provided continuously from support to support 



at each corner, at each side of each opening and 
at the ends of walls. The continuous vertical bar 
required beside an opening is permitted to sub- 
stitute for one of the two No. 5 bars required by 
22.6.6.5. 

(b) Horizontal reinforcement at least 0.20 square 
inch (129 mm^) in cross-sectional area shall be 
provided: 

1. Continuously at structurally connected roof 
and floor levels and at the top of walls; 

2. At the bottom of load-bearing walls or in the 
top of foundations where doweled to the 
wall; and 

3. At a maximum spacing of 120 inches (3048 
mm). 

Reinforcement at the top and bottom of open- 
ings, where used in determining the maximum 
spacing specified in Item 3 above, shall be con- 
tinuous in the wall. 

1908.1.8 ACI 318, Section 22.10. Delete ACI 318, Section 
22.10, and replace with the following: 

22.10 ~ Plain concrete in structures assigned to Seismic 
Design Category C, D, E or F. 

22.10.1 - Structures assigned to Seismic Design Cate- 
gory C, D, E or F shall not have elements of structural 
plain concrete, except as follows: 

(a) Structural plain concrete basement, foundation 
or other walls below the base are permitted in 
detached one- and two-family dwellings three 
stories or less in height constructed with 
stud-bearing walls. In dwellings assigned to 
Seismic Design Category D or E, the height of 
the wall shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm), the 
thickness shall not be less than 7^2 inches (190 
mm), and the wall shall retain no more than 4 feet 
(1219 mm) of unbalanced fill Walls shall have 
reinforcement in accordance with 22.6.6.5. 

(b) Isolated footings of plain concrete supporting 
pedestals or columns are permitted, provided the 
projection of the footing beyond the face of the 
supported member does not exceed the footing 
thickness. 

Exception: In detached one- and two-family 
dwellings three stories or less in height, the 
projection of the footing beyond the face of the 
supported member is permitted to exceed the 
footing thickness. 

(c) Plain concrete footings supporting walls are per- 
mitted, provided the footings have at least two 
continuous longitudinal reinforcing bars. Bars 
shall not be smaller than No. 4 and shall have a 
total area of not less than 0.002 times the gross 
cross-sectional area of the footing. For footings 
that exceed 8 inches (203 mm) in thickness, a min- 
imum of one bar shall be provided at the top and 



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bottom of the footing. Continuity of reinforcement 
shall be provided at comers and intersections. 

Exceptions: 

1. In detached one- and two-family dwell- 
ings three stories or less in height and 
constructed with stud-bearing walls, 
plain concrete footings without longitu- 
dinal reinforcement supporting walls are 
permitted, 

2. For foundation systems consisting of a 
plain concrete footing and a plain con- 
crete stemwall, a minimum of one bar 
shall be provided at the top of the 
stemwall and at the bottom of the footing. 

3. Where a slab on ground is cast 
monolithically with the footing, one No. 5 
bar is permitted to be located at either the 
top of the slab or bottom of the footing, 

1908.1.9 ACI 318, Section D.3.3. Modify ACI 318, Sec- 
tions D.3.3.4 and D.3.3.5 to read as follows: 

D.3.3. 4 - Anchors shall be designed to be governed by 
the steel strength of a ductile steel element as determined 
in accordance with D.5.1 and D.6.1, unless either 
D.3.3.5 or D.3.3.6 is satisfied. 

Exceptions: 

1. Anchors in concrete designed to support non- 
structural components in accordance with 
ASCE 7 Section 13.4.2 need not satisfy Section 
D,3.3.4. 

2. Anchors designed to resist wall out-of-plane 
forces with design strengths equal to or greater 
than the force determined in accordance with 
ASCE 7 Equation 12.11-1 or 12.14-10 neednot 
satisfy Section D,3.3.4. 

D.3.3.5 - Instead of D.3.3.4, the attachment that the 
anchor is connecting to the structure shall be designed so 
that the attachment will undergo ductile yielding at a 
force level corresponding to anchor forces no greater 
than the design strength of anchors specified in D.3.3. 3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Anchors in concrete designed to support 
nonstructural components in accordance with 
ASCE 7 Section 13,4,2 need not satisfy Section 
D.3,3,5. 

2. Anchors designed to resist wall out-of-plane 
forces with design strengths equal to or greater 
than the force determined in accordance with 
ASCE 7 Equation 12.1 1-1 or 12.14-10 neednot 
satisfy Section D.3,3,5. 



1908.1.9.1 ACI 318, Section D3.3. [BSC] Modify ACI 
318, Section D3.3.1 and add Section D.3.3. 7 to read as 

follows: 

D3,3, 1 - The provisions of Appendix D do not apply to 
the design of anchors in plastic hinge zones of con- 
crete structures under earthquake forces or anchors 
defined in Section D3.3.7. 

D3,3.7-For anchors of wood sill plates with nominal 
diameters not exceeding V^ in. (15.9 mm) with 
embedment of 7 in. (1 78 mm) or greater, located a 
minimum of 2. 5d from edge of concrete and 15dfrom 
end of concrete, design strength in shear parallel to 
edge of concrete shall be permitted to be determined 
in accordance with Section 2305. 

1908.1.10 ACI 318, Section D.4.2.2. Delete ACI 318, Sec- 
tion D.A.l.l, and replace with the following: 

D.4,2.2 - The concrete breakout strength requirements for 
anchors in tension shall be considered satisfied by the 
design procedure of D, 5.2 provided Equation D-8 is not 
used for anchor embedments exceeding 25 inches. The con- 
crete breakout strength requirements for anchors in shear 
with diameters not exceeding 2 inches shall be considered 
satisfied by the design procedure of D, 6.2. For anchors in 
shear with diameters exceeding 2 inches, shear anchor rein- 
forcement shall be provided in accordance with the proce- 
dures of D. 6.2. 9. 



SECTION 1909 
STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE 

1909.1 Scope. The design and construction of structural plain 
concrete, both cast-in-place and precast, shall comply with the 
minimum requirements of Section 1909 and ACI 318, Chapter 
22, as modified in Section 1908. 

1909.1.1 Special structures. For special structures, such as 
arches, underground utility structures, gravity walls and 
shielding walls, the provisions of this section shall govern 
where applicable. 

1909.2 Limitations. The use of structural plain concrete shall 
be limited to: 

1. Members that are continuously supported by soil, such 
as walls and footings, or by other structural members 
capable of providing continuous vertical support. 

2. Members for which arch action provides compression 
under all conditions of loading. 

3. Walls and pedestals. 

The use of structural plain concrete columns and structural 
plain concrete footings on piles is not permitted. See Section 
1908. 1.8 for additional hmitations on the use of structural plain 
concrete. 



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1909.3 Joints. Contraction or isolation joints shall be provided 
to divide structural plain concrete members into flexurally dis- 
continuous elements in accordance with ACI 318, Section 22.3. 

1909.4 Design. Structural plain concrete walls, footings and 
pedestals shall be designed for adequate strength in accordance 
with ACI 318, Sections 22.4 through 22.8. 

Exception: For Group R-3 occupancies and buildings of 
other occupancies less than two stories above grade plane 
of light-frame construction, the required edge thickness of 
ACI 318 is permitted to be reduced to 6 inches (152 mm), 
provided that the footing does not extend more than 4 inches 
(102 mm) on either side of the supported wall. 

1909.5 Precast members. The design, fabrication, transporta- 
tion and erection of precast, structural plain concrete elements 
shall be in accordance with ACI 318, Section 22.9. 

1909.6 Walls. In addition to the requirements of this section, 
structural plain concrete walls shall comply with the applicable 
requirements of ACI 318, Chapter 22. 

1909.6.1 Basement walls. The thickness of exterior base- 
ment walls and foundation walls shall be not less than 7V2 
inches (191 mm). 

1909.6.2 Other walls. Except as provided for in Section 
1909.6.1, the thickness of bearing walls shall be not less 
than V24 the unsupported height or length, whichever is 
shorter, but not less than 5V2 inches (140 mm). 

1909.6.3 Openings in walls. Not less than one No. 5 bar 
shall be provided around window, door and similar sized 
openings. The bar shall be anchored to develop^ in tension 
at the corners of openings. 



SECTION 1910 
MINIMUM SLAB PROVISIONS 

1910.1 General. The thickness of concrete floor slabs supported 
directly on the ground shall not be less than 3 V2 inches (89 mm). 
A 6-mil (0.006 inch; 0.15 mm) polyethylene vapor retarder with 
joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm) shall be placed 
between the base course or subgrade and the concrete floor slab, 
or other approved equivalent methods or materials shall be used 
to retard vapor transmission through the floor slab. 

Exception: A vapor retarder is not required: 

1 . For detached structures accessory to occupancies in 
Group R-3, such as garages, utility buildings or other 
unheated facilities. 

2. For unheated storage rooms having an area of less 
than 70 square feet (6.5 m^) and carports attached to 
occupancies in Group R-3. 

3. For buildings of other occupancies where migration 
of moisture through the slab from below will not be 
detrimental to the intended occupancy of the building. 

4. For driveways, walks, patios and other flatwork 
which will not be enclosed at a later date. 

5. Where approved based on local site conditions. 



SECTION 1911 
ANCHORAGE TO CONCRETE- 
ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN 

1911.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall govern the 
allowable stress design of headed bolts and headed stud 
anchors cast in normal- weight concrete for purposes of trans- 
mitting structural loads from one connected element to the 
other. These provisions do not apply to anchors installed in 
hardened concrete or where load combinations include earth- 
quake loads or effects. The bearing area of headed anchors 
shall be not less than one and one-half times the shank area. 
Where strength design is used, or where load combinations 
include earthquake loads or effects, the design strength of 
anchors shall be determined in accordance with Section 1912. 
Bolts shall conform to ASTM A 307 or an approved equiva- 
lent. 

1911. LI Power actuated fasteners. [OSHPD 2] Power 
actuated fasteners qualified in accordance with ICC-ESAC 
70 shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of this sec- 
tion. 

Power actuated fasteners shall be permitted for seismic 
shear when they are specifically listed in ICC-ES Report 
(ICC-ESR)for such service and for interior nonshear wall 
partitions. Power actuated fastener shall not be used to 
anchor exterior cladding or curtain wall systems, 

1911.2 Allowable service load. The allowable service load for 
headed anchors in shear or tension shall be as indicated in Table 
191 1.2. Where anchors are subject to combined shear and ten- 
sion, the following relationship shall be satisfied: 



where: 



(Equation 19-1) 



P^ = Applied tension service load, pounds (N). 

P, = Allowable tension service load from Table 1911.2, 
pounds (N). 

1/ = Applied shear service load, pounds (N). 

V^ = Allowable shear service load from Table 1911.2, 
pounds (N). 

1911.3 Required edge distance and spacing. The allowable 
service loads in tension and shear specified in Table 191 1.2 are 
for the edge distance and spacing specified. The edge distance 
and spacing are permitted to be reduced to 50 percent of the val- 
ues specified with an equal reduction in allowable service load. 
Where edge distance and spacing are reduced less than 50 per- 
cent, the allowable service load shall be determined by linear 
interpolation. 

1911.4 Increase in allowable load. Increase of the values in 
Table 191 1 .2 by one- third is permitted where the provisions of 
Section 1605.3.2 permit an increase in allowable stress for 
wind loading. 

1911.5 Increase for special inspection. Where special inspec- 
tion is provided for the installation of anchors, a 100-percent 
increase in the allowable tension values of Table 191 1 .2 is per- 
mitted. No increase in shear value is permitted. 



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TABLE 1911.2 
ALLOWABLE SERVICE LOAD ON EMBEDDED BOLTS (pounds) 



BOLT 

DIAMETER 

(inches) 


MINIMUM 

EMBEDMENT 

(inches) 


EDGE 

DISTANCE 

(Inches) 


SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM CONCRETE STRENGTH (psi) 


f'c = 


2,500 


f', = 3,000 


f'c = 


4,000 


Tension 


Shear 


Tension 


Shear 


Tension 


Shear 


V4 


2% 


IV, 


3 


200 


500 


200 


500 


200 


500 


\ 


3 


2% 


4V, 


500 


1,100 


500 


1,100 


500 


1,100 


% 


4 
4 


3 
5 


6 
6 


950 

1,450 


1,250 
1,600 


950 
1,500 


1,250 
1,650 


950 
1,550 


1,250 
1,750 


\ 


4'/, 
4'/, 


3% 
6V4 


7V, 


1,500 

2,125 


2,750 
2,950 


1,500 
2,200 


2,750 
3,000 


1,500 
2,400 


2,750 
3,050 


'U 


5 
5 


1% 


9 
9 


2,250 
2,825 


3,250 
4,275 


2,250 
2,950 


3,560 
4,300 


2,250 
3,200 


3,560 

4,400 


\ 


6 


5% 


IOV2 


2,550 


3,700 


2,550 


4,050 


2,550 


4,050 


1 


7 


6 


12 


3,050 


4,125 


3,250 


4,500 


3,650 


5,300 


iVs 


8 


6V4 


I3V2 


3,400 


4,750 


3,400 


4,750 


3,400 


4,750 


1V4 


9 


7% 


15 


4,000 


5,800 


4,000 


5,800 


4,000 


5,800 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 pound = 4.45 N. 



SECTION 1912 
ANCHORAGE TO CONCRETE- 
STRENGTH DESIGN 

1912.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall govern the 
strength design of anchors installed in concrete for purposes 
of transmitting structural loads from one connected element 
to the other. Headed bolts, headed studs and hooked (J- or L-) 
bolts cast in concrete and expansion anchors and undercut 
anchors installed in hardened concrete shall be designed in 
accordance with Appendix D of ACI 3 1 8 as modified by Sec- 
tions 1908.1.9 and 1908.1.10, provided they are within the 
scope of Appendix D. 

The strength design of anchors that are not within the scope 
of Appendix D of ACI 318, and as amended in Sections 
1908.1.9 and 1908.1.10, shall be in accordance with an 
approved procedure. 

1912.1.1 Mechanical anchors and specialty inserts, 

[OSHPP 2] Mechanical anchors qualified in accordance 
with ICC-ES AC 193 shall be deemed to satisfy the require- 
ments of this section. 

Specialty inserts, including cast-in-place specialty 
inserts, tested in accordance with ICC-ES AC 193 shall be 
deemed to satisfy the requirements of this section. 

Exception: Anchors prequalified for seismic applica- 
tions need not be governed by the steel strength of a duc- 
tile steel element. 

1912.1.2 Post-installed adhesive anchors, [OSHPD 2] 

Adhesive anchors qualified in accordance with ICC-ES AC 
308 shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of this sec- 
tion. 



Exceptions: 

1. Adhesive anchors shall not be permitted in over- 
head applications or application with sustained 
(continuous) tension load that can lead to creep. 

2. Anchors prequalified for seismic applications 
need not be governed by the steel strength of a duc- 
tile steel element. 

1912.2 Tests for post-installed anchors in concrete. [OSHPD 

2] When post-installed anchors are used in lieu of cast-in place 
bolts, the installation verification test loads, frequency, and 
acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with this section. 

1912.2.1 General. Test loads or torques and acceptance cri- 
teria shall be shown on the construction documents. 

If any anchor fails testing, all anchors of the same type 
shall be tested, which are installed by the same trade, not 
previously tested until twenty (20) consecutive anchors 
pass, then resume the initial test frequency. 

1912.2.2 Test loads. Required test loads shall be determined 
by one of the following methods: 

1. Twice the maximum allowable tension load or one 
and a quarter (V/4) times the maximum design 
strength of anchors as provided in International Code 
Council - Evaluation Service Report (ICC-ESR) or 
determined in accordance with Appendix D of ACI 
318. 

Tension test load need not exceed 80 percent of the 
nominal yield strength of the anchor element (=0.8 

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2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



243 



CONCRETE 



2. The manufacturer' s recommended installation 
torque as approved in an ICC-ESR. 

1912.2.3 Test frequency. When post-installed anchors are 
used for sill plate bolting applications, 10 percent of the 
anchors shall be tested. 

I I When post-installed anchors are used for other structural 

> applications, all such anchors shall be tested, 

I I When post-installed anchors are used for nonstructural 

applications such as equipment anchorage, 50 percent or 
alternate bolts in a group, including at least one-half the 

> anchors in each group, shall be tested. 

>| I The testing of the post-installed anchors shall be done in 

the presence of the special inspector and a report of the test 

> results shall be submitted to the enforcement agency. 

Exceptions: 

1. Undercut anchors that allow visual confirmation 
of full set shall not require testing. 

2. Where the factored design tension on anchors is 
less than 100 lb and those anchors are clearly 
noted on the approved construction documents, 
only 10 percent of those anchors shall be tested, 

3. Where adhesive anchor systems are used to install 
reinforcing dowel bars in hardened concrete, only 
25 percent of the dowels shall be tested if all of the 
following conditions are met: 

a. The dowels are used exclusively to transmit 
shear forces across joints between existing 
and new concrete, 

b. The number of dowels in any one member 
equals or exceeds twelve (12). 

c. The dowels are uniformly distributed across 
seismic force resisting members (such as 
shear walls, collectors and diaphragms). 

Anchors to be tested shall be selected at ran- 
dom by the special inspector/inspector of 
record (lOR). 

4. Testing of shear dowels across cold joints in slabs 
on grade, where the slab is not part of the lateral 
force-resisting system shall not be required. 

5. Testing is not required for power actuated fasten- 
ers used to attach tracks of interior nonshear wall 
partitions for shear only, where there are at least 
three fasteners per segment of track. 

1912.2.4 Test acceptance criteria. Acceptance criteria for 
post-installed anchors shall be based on ICC-ESR or manu- 
facturers written instruction, acceptable to the enforcement 
agency. Field test shall satisfy following minimum require- 
ments. 

1. Hydraulic ram method: 

Anchors tested with a hydraulic jack or spring loaded 
devices shall maintain the test load for a minimum